Internet of Things (IoT) - Edge computing

ISO/IEC TR 30164:2020 describes the common concepts, terminologies, characteristics, use cases and technologies (including data management, coordination, processing, network functionality, heterogeneous computing, security, hardware/software optimization) of edge computing for IoT systems applications. This document is also meant to assist in the identification of potential areas for standardization in edge computing for IoT.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Apr-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
24-Apr-2020
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Technical report
ISO/IEC TR 30164:2020 - Internet of Things (IoT) - Edge computing
English language
45 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

ISO/IEC TR 30164
Edition 1.0 2020-04
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Internet of things (IoT) – Edge computing
ISO/IEC TR 30164:2020-04(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2020 ISO/IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester. If you have any questions about

ISO/IEC copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address

below or your local IEC member National Committee for further information.
IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé info@iec.ch
CH-1211 Geneva 20 www.iec.ch
Switzerland
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigendum or an amendment might have been published.

IEC publications search - webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform Electropedia - www.electropedia.org

The advanced search enables to find IEC publications by a The world's leading online dictionary on electrotechnology,

variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical containing more than 22 000 terminological entries in English

committee,…). It also gives information on projects, replaced and French, with equivalent terms in 16 additional languages.

and withdrawn publications. Also known as the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary

(IEV) online.
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished

Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published IEC Glossary - std.iec.ch/glossary

details all new publications released. Available online and 67 000 electrotechnical terminology entries in English and

once a month by email. French extracted from the Terms and Definitions clause of

IEC publications issued since 2002. Some entries have been

IEC Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/csc collected from earlier publications of IEC TC 37, 77, 86 and

If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or CISPR.
need further assistance, please contact the Customer Service
Centre: sales@iec.ch.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TR 30164
Edition 1.0 2020-04
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Internet of things (IoT) – Edge computing
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 35.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-8087-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – ISO/IEC TR 30164:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 5

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 5

4 Abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................... 6

5 Overview ......................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Common concepts .................................................................................................. 8

5.3 General concepts of edge computing ...................................................................... 9

5.4 Example characteristics of edge computing ........................................................... 12

5.5 Stakeholders ......................................................................................................... 12

6 Viewpoints ..................................................................................................................... 14

6.1 Conceptual viewpoint ............................................................................................ 14

6.2 Technology viewpoint............................................................................................ 15

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

6.2.2 Cloud computing ............................................................................................ 15

6.2.3 Centralized data centres ................................................................................ 16

6.2.4 Micro data centre ........................................................................................... 18

6.2.5 Real-time in edge computing ......................................................................... 18

6.2.6 Heterogeneous computing ............................................................................. 19

6.2.7 Software defined network (SDN) .................................................................... 20

6.2.8 Lightweight operating systems ....................................................................... 20

6.3 Functional viewpoint ............................................................................................. 20

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 20

6.3.2 Data interoperability ...................................................................................... 21

6.3.3 Networking .................................................................................................... 22

6.3.4 Security and privacy ...................................................................................... 22

6.4 Deployment viewpoint ........................................................................................... 26

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 26

6.4.2 Edge computing three-tier deployment model ................................................ 26

6.4.3 Edge computing four-tier deployment model .................................................. 27

7 Use cases ..................................................................................................................... 28

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 28

7.2 Smart elevator ...................................................................................................... 29

7.2.1 Description of the use case ........................................................................... 29

7.2.2 Diagram of the use case ................................................................................ 29

7.2.3 Technical details ............................................................................................ 30

7.3 Smart video monitoring ......................................................................................... 30

7.3.1 Description of the use case ........................................................................... 30

7.3.2 Diagram of the use case ................................................................................ 31

7.3.3 Technical details ............................................................................................ 31

7.4 Intelligent transportation systems .......................................................................... 32

7.4.1 Description of the use case ........................................................................... 32

7.4.2 Diagram of the use case ................................................................................ 33

7.4.3 Technical details ............................................................................................ 34

7.5 Process control in the smart factory ...................................................................... 34

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TR 30164:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 3 –

7.5.1 Description of the use case ........................................................................... 34

7.5.2 Diagram of the use case ................................................................................ 35

7.5.3 Technical details ............................................................................................ 36

7.6 Centralized monitoring of power plants (CMPP) .................................................... 36

7.6.1 Description of the use case ........................................................................... 36

7.6.2 Diagram of the use case ................................................................................ 37

7.6.3 Technical details ............................................................................................ 38

7.7 Automated crop monitoring and management system............................................ 38

7.7.1 Description of the use case ........................................................................... 38

7.7.2 Diagram of the use case ................................................................................ 40

7.7.3 Technical details ............................................................................................ 40

7.8 Smart lighting system ............................................................................................ 41

7.8.1 Description of the use case ........................................................................... 41

7.8.2 Diagram of the use case ................................................................................ 42

7.8.3 Technical details ............................................................................................ 43

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 45

Figure 1 – IoT edge computing conceptual model ................................................................. 14

Figure 2 – Container virtualization on a host system ............................................................. 17

Figure 3 – Lightweight OS architecture ................................................................................. 20

Figure 4 – Software defined network architecture .................................................................. 22

Figure 5 – Edge computing three-tier deployment model ....................................................... 27

Figure 6 – Edge computing four-tier deployment model ......................................................... 28

Figure 7 – Concept of a smart elevator ................................................................................. 30

Figure 8 – Concept of video monitoring with edge computing ................................................ 31

Figure 9 – Concept of intelligent transportation systems with edge computing ...................... 34

Figure 10 – Example concept of the smart factory using IIoT ................................................ 36

Figure 11 – Concept of centralized monitoring of power plants.............................................. 38

Figure 12 – Concept of automated crop monitoring and management system ....................... 40

Figure 13 – Logical model: connectivity between various components .................................. 42

Figure 14 – Deployment model: single IoT gateway controlling multiple smart lights ............. 43

Table 1 – Example networking table...................................................................................... 10

Table 2 – Capabilities of some IoT entities ............................................................................ 11

Table 3 – Technical details of the elements in the smart elevator use case ........................... 30

Table 4 – Technical details of the elements in the video monitoring use case ....................... 32

Table 5 – Technical details for the intelligent transportation use case ................................... 34

Table 6 – Technical details for the smart factory use case .................................................... 36

Table 7 – Technical details of the CMPP use case ................................................................ 38

Table 8 – Technical details of automated crop monitoring and management system ............. 40

Table 9 – Technical details of the smart lighting use case ..................................................... 44

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – ISO/IEC TR 30164:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) – EDGE COMPUTING
FOREWORD

1) ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical Commission)

form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of ISO or IEC

participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees established by the

respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees

collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in

liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have

established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC and ISO on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an

international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation

from all interested IEC National Committees and ISO member bodies.

3) IEC, ISO and ISO/IEC publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by

IEC National Committees and ISO member bodies in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure

that the technical content of IEC, ISO and ISO/IEC publications is accurate, IEC or ISO cannot be held

responsible for the way in which they are used or for any misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees and ISO member bodies undertake to

apply IEC, ISO and ISO/IEC publications transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and

regional publications. Any divergence between any ISO, IEC or ISO/IEC publication and the corresponding

national or regional publication should be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) ISO and IEC do not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. ISO or IEC are not responsible for

any services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or ISO or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts

and members of their technical committees and IEC National Committees or ISO member bodies for any personal

injury, property damage or other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including

legal fees) and expenses arising out of the publication of, use of, or reliance upon, this ISO/IEC publication or any

other IEC, ISO or ISO/IEC publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this ISO/IEC publication may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC and ISO technical committees is to prepare International Standards.

However, a technical committee may propose the publication of a Technical Report when it has

collected data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International

Standard, for example "state of the art".

ISO/IEC TR 30164, which is a Technical Report, has been prepared by subcommittee 41:

Internet of Things and related technologies, of ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1: Information

technology.
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
JTC1-SC41/110/DTR JTC1-SC41/120/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for the approval of this Technical Report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

IMPORTANT – The “colour inside” logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this publication using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TR 30164:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 5 –
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) – EDGE COMPUTING
1 Scope

This document describes the common concepts, terminologies, characteristics, use cases and

technologies (including data management, coordination, processing, network functionality,

heterogeneous computing, security, hardware/software optimization) of edge computing for IoT

systems applications. This document is also meant to assist in the identification of potential

areas for standardization in edge computing for IoT.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.
ISO/IEC 20924, Internet of Things (IoT) – Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 20924 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
edge

boundary between pertinent digital and physical entities, delineated by networked sensors and

actuators
3.2
edge computing

distributed computing that takes place at or near the edge, where the nearness is defined by

the system's requirements
3.3
software defined network
SDN

network designed, built and managed with separation of the control plane from the forwarding

plane and abstraction of the underlying infrastructure, enabling efficient network management

and utilization
3.4
personally identifiable information
PII

information that (a) can be used to establish a link between the information and the natural

person to whom such information relates, or (b) is or can be directly or indirectly linked to a

natural person
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – ISO/IEC TR 30164:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29100:2011 [1], 2.9, modified – In the definition, "to identify the PII

principal" has been replaced by "to establish a link between the information and the natural

person" and "a PII principal" has been replaced by "a natural person".]
3.5
edge computing entity
ECE

thing (physical or non-physical) having a distinct existence in an edge computing system, with

connection, storage and computation capabilities

Note 1 to entry: ISO/IEC TR 23188:2020 [2] uses the term "edge computing node" instead of "edge computing

entity".
3.6
distributed computing

model of computing in which processing and storage takes place on a set of entities, with

activities coordinated by means of digital messages passed between the entities
3.7
physical edge computing entity
edge computing entity that has material existence in the physical world
EXAMPLES: IoT gateway, sensor, actuator

Note 1 to entry: Refer to ISO/IEC 20924 [3] for the definitions of the terms "sensor", "actuator" and "IoT gateway".

3.8
IoT gateway

edge computing entity that connects one or more proximity networks and the edge devices on

those networks to each other and to one or more access networks
3.9
edge computing system
system that uses the structure and capabilities of edge computing
4 Abbreviated terms
4G the fourth generation of broadband cellular network technology
5G the fifth generation of broadband cellular network technology
AI artificial intelligence
AMQP advanced message queuing protocol
API application programming interface
APP applications
CAN controller area network
CPS cyber physical system
CPU central processing unit
CT communication technology
DDoS distributed denial-of-service
DDS data distribution service
DER distributed energy resource
DetNet deterministic networking
ECE edge computing entity
ERP enterprise resource planning
GEO geosynchronous orbit
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TR 30164:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 7 –
GPS global positioning system
GPU graphics processing unit
HSA heterogeneous system architecture
HTTPS hypertext transfer protocol secure
I/O input/output
ICT information and communication technology
IDS intrusion detection systems
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IIoT industrial IoT
IoT Internet of Things
IP internet protocol
IPS intrusion prevention systems
ISO International Organization for Standardization
IT information technology
JSON JavaScript Object Notation
JTC joint technical committee
LEO low earth orbit,
LAN local area network
LiDAR light detection and ranging
M2M machine to machine
MEO medium earth orbit
MES manufacturing execution system
MPLS multiprotocol label switching
O&M operation and management
OPC open platform communication
OPC-UA OPC unified architecture
OS operating system
OT operational technology
PII personally identifiable information
PLC programmable logic controller
PLM product lifecycle management
PO purchase order
PV photovoltaic
QoS quality of service
REST representational state transfer
SC subcommittee
SCADA supervisory control and data acquisition
SDN software defined networking
TCP transmission control protocol
TLS transport layer security
TR Technical Report
TSN time sensitive networking
UDP user datagram protocol
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – ISO/IEC TR 30164:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020
V2I vehicle to infrastructure
V2V vehicle to vehicle
VM virtual machine
VNF virtualized network function
VPN virtual private network
VPP virtual power plant
WAF web application firewall
XML extensible markup language
5 Overview
5.1 General

This document was jointly developed by the teams working on ISO/IEC TR 23188 [2] with cloud

computing perspectives and ISO/IEC TR 30164 with IoT computing perspectives. The separate

documents exist to expand on these particular perspectives starting from a common base of

edge computing concepts, which are stated below. ISO/IEC TR 23188 [2] provides more

information on how cloud computing relates to edge computing. ISO/IEC TR 30164 provides

more information on how IoT devices and IoT systems relate to edge computing.
5.2 Common concepts

Edge computing is a form of distributed computing in which processing and storage takes place

on a set of networked machines which are near the edge, where the nearness is defined by the

system's requirements. The edge is marked by the boundary between pertinent digital and

physical entities (i.e. between the digital system and the physical world) typically delineated by

IoT devices and end-user devices. Nearness is determined by the system requirements, which

can include physical distance, but can also include digital factors such as network latency and

bandwidth.

Pertinent digital entities here means that the digital entities which need to be considered can

vary depending on the system under consideration and the context in which those entities are

used.

Digital systems can observe and affect the physical world. Sensors, actuators and human user

interface devices are at the boundary between the physical world and digital systems (the edge).

Edge computing systems generally combine these devices with distributed computing resources

to provide the capabilities of the system. When actions need to occur within specific timeframes

and latency considerations affect system design, the edge computing systems help to achieve

timing requirements by means of appropriate placement of data processing and data storage.

The following are the main motivations for edge computing.

a) Latency: actions often need to occur within specific timeframes and latency considerations

affect system design and the choice of the placement of data processing and data storage

to achieve timing requirements.

b) Disconnected operations: for example, a car in a canyon. All essential functions need to

continue to work.

c) Paucity or high cost of the uplink: for example, an oil rig, a cruise ship or an airliner

connected via a satellite link. Need to minimize the volume of data transmitted upstream.

d) Data providence: for example, data represents trade secrets and should not leave a

geofence (factory space or corporate network).

Edge computing is characterized by networked systems in which significant data processing

and data storage takes place on entities at the edge, rather than in some centralized location.

Edge computing can be contrasted with centralized computing where the centralized entities

are remote from the edge. However, it is important to note that edge computing is

complementary to centralized forms of computing and that in any given system, edge computing

is often used in conjunction with centralized computing.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TR 30164:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 9 –

An example of the need to consider the context for the meaning of edge is the servers within a

cloud data centre. From the perspective of cloud service customers who build systems using

cloud services running on these servers, these entities are anything but at the edge – they are

highly centralized. However, from the perspective of the cloud service provider having to

manage the cloud data centre, it is highly likely that the servers are instrumented with a variety

of IoT sensors capable of reporting various physical properties of the servers, for example, their

temperature. In this case, those IoT sensors are at the edge and form part of an edge computing

system for managing the data centre.

Edge computing involves entities that are highly heterogeneous and which are commonly

arranged in tiers of compute and storage capabilities. The multiple edge computing tiers, each

containing varying types of entities, are connected by networks which can also vary in nature

depending on the tiers involved. In practice, the number of tiers and the type of entity in each

tier is variable, depending on the nature of the system involved.

1) The device tier is at the edge. It typically contains entities which contain sensors or

actuators or human user interface devices. Such devices often have limited compute and

storage capabilities. The networks used by this tier are often proximity networks, with limited

bandwidth and limited range.

2) The edge tier typically sits close to the device tier and its role is to provide direct support to

the entities in the device tier. One type of entity in the gateway tier is the gateway (an IoT

gateway is an example). The role of the gateway is to connect entities in the device tier to

the wider network – it is often the case that proximity networks are local and cannot be used

for communication over a wide area. The gateway also typically provides a means for

managing the entities in the device tier.

3) Another type of entity in the gateway tier is the control entity. The control entity receives

data from entities in the device tier – typically data from sensors or input from user interface

devices – and responds by issuing instructions to other entities in the device tier, based on

control software running in the control entity. Control entities are usually placed in the

gateway tier due to issues of latency and timing. The response of a control entity is often

time constrained (sometimes called real-time), such that the response needs to be given

before some deadline following the receipt of some data or an event.

4) The central tier represents a tier of entities provided in a centralized location, such as an

organizational data centre or as public cloud services. The entities in the central tier offer

the ability to provide very substantial compute power and data storage (sometimes termed

"unlimited"). The central tier is an excellent place to conduct analytics or other processing

that requir
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.