Fuel cell technologies - Part 9-101: Evaluation methodology for the environmental performance of fuel cell power systems based on life cycle thinking - Streamlined life-cycle considered environmental performance characterization of stationary fuel cell combined heat and power systems for residential applications

IEC TS 62282-9-101:2020 provides a streamlined methodology to assess major environmental impacts of stationary fuel cell power systems for residential applications. The fuel cell power systems can be complemented with a supplementary heat generator and/or a thermal storage system such as a hot water tank. The analysis can include the import of electricity from the grid or the export to the grid. The analysed systems are intended to meet the electricity and heat demand of a given household.
This document provides a set of specific rules, requirements and guidelines based on life cycle thinking for the description of relevant environmental impacts of fuel cell power systems that can be complemented with a supplementary heat generator or a thermal storage system. This document also provides guidance on how to communicate these environmental impacts to consumers.

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Publication Date
26-Oct-2020
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Completion Date
27-Oct-2020
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IEC TS 62282-9-101:2020 - Fuel cell technologies - Part 9-101: Evaluation methodology for the environmental performance of fuel cell power systems based on life cycle thinking - Streamlined life-cycle considered environmental performance characterization of stationary fuel cell combined heat and power systems for residential applications
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IEC TS 62282-9-101
Edition 1.0 2020-10
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
Fuel cell technologies –
Part 9-101: Evaluation methodology for the environmental performance of fuel
cell power systems based on life cycle thinking – Streamlined life-cycle
considered environmental performance characterization of stationary fuel cell
combined heat and power systems for residential applications
IEC TS 62282-9-101:2020-10(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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IEC TS 62282-9-101
Edition 1.0 2020-10
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
Fuel cell technologies –
Part 9-101: Evaluation methodology for the environmental performance of fuel
cell power systems based on life cycle thinking – Streamlined life-cycle
considered environmental performance characterization of stationary fuel cell
combined heat and power systems for residential applications
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 27.070 ISBN 978-2-8322-8927-3

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TS 62282-9-101:2020 © IEC:2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Framework for evaluation process ................................................................................... 9

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 9

4.2 Life cycle stages ..................................................................................................... 9

4.3 Functional unit ........................................................................................................ 9

4.4 Product system ..................................................................................................... 10

4.5 Inputs, outputs and related environmental impact categories ................................ 10

4.6 Types and quality of data, and information sources ............................................... 11

5 Estimation methods ....................................................................................................... 11

5.1 General remarks on life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) ...................................... 11

5.2 Global warming in the use stage ........................................................................... 12

5.2.1 Required data ................................................................................................ 12

5.2.2 Input data ...................................................................................................... 12

5.2.3 Determination of necessary parameter values ............................................... 13

5.2.4 Calculation .................................................................................................... 14

5.3 Abiotic resource depletion potential (ADP) ............................................................ 15

5.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

5.3.2 Calculation of the total ADP ........................................................................... 16

6 Communication and verification ..................................................................................... 16

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 16

6.2 Communication ..................................................................................................... 16

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 16

6.2.2 Communication relating to a fuel cell power system alone ............................. 17

6.2.3 Communication relating to a fuel cell power system with a

supplementary heat generator and thermal storage ....................................... 18

6.2.4 Verification .................................................................................................... 19

Annex A (informative) Reference demands by region for electric power and heat ................. 20

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 21

Figure 1 – Life cycle stages (prioritized stages in solid-lined boxes) ....................................... 9

Figure 2 – Configuration of a fuel cell power system that can be complemented with a

supplementary heat generator or thermal storage system covered by this document ............. 10

Figure 3 – System boundaries, elementary flows and environmental impact categories

assessed in this document .................................................................................................... 11

Figure 4 – Communication relating to a fuel cell power system ............................................. 18

Figure 5 – Communication relating to a fuel cell power system with a supplementary

heat generator and thermal storage system .......................................................................... 19

Figure A.1 – Example of electricity demand and heat (hot water) demand,

distinguishing between electricity import from the grid and electricity export to the grid ........ 20

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IEC TS 62282-9-101:2020 © IEC:2020 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES –
Part 9-101: Evaluation methodology for the environmental performance of
fuel cell power systems based on life cycle thinking –
Streamlined life-cycle considered environmental performance
characterization of stationary fuel cell combined heat and power systems
for residential applications
FOREWORD

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The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. In exceptional

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• the required support cannot be obtained for the publication of an International Standard,

despite repeated efforts, or

• the subject is still under technical development or where, for any other reason, there is the

future but no immediate possibility of an agreement on an International Standard.

Technical Specifications are subject to review within three years of publication to decide

whether they can be transformed into International Standards.

IEC TS 62282-9-101, which is a Technical Specification, has been prepared by IEC technical

committee 105: Fuel cell technologies.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC TS 62282-9-101:2020 © IEC:2020
The text of this Technical Specification is based on the following documents:
Draft TS Report on voting
105/787/DTS 105/799A/RVDTS

Full information on the voting for the approval of this Technical Specification can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62282 series, published under the general title Fuel cell technologies,

can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.

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IEC TS 62282-9-101:2020 © IEC:2020 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

This part of IEC 62282 introduces a simplified evaluation method for assessing the life-cycle

considered environmental performance of stationary fuel cell power systems for residential

applications that can be complemented with a supplementary heat generator or a thermal

storage system.

As a response to the aggravation of global environmental issues in recent years, corporate

environmental management is increasingly required in order to enhance the environmental

performance of products and communicate this information to consumers. For that purpose,

when developing new or improved products, manufacturers should pursue environmentally

conscious designs and evaluate their efforts by taking a life cycle perspective.

Past life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of stationary fuel cell power systems for residential

applications have shown that two environmental aspects are important in their life cycle (so-

called hot spots). One is greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during operation and the other is

the consumption of metals, minerals and fossil fuels (so-called abiotic resources) contributing

to their depletion during manufacturing and operation.

This document provides guidance on how to perform a targeted life cycle considered evaluation

of these predominant environmental impacts, specific to the characteristics of stationary fuel

cell power systems for residential applications that can be complemented with a supplementary

heat generator or a thermal storage system.
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– 6 – IEC TS 62282-9-101:2020 © IEC:2020
FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES –
Part 9-101: Evaluation methodology for the environmental performance of
fuel cell power systems based on life cycle thinking –
Streamlined life-cycle considered environmental performance
characterization of stationary fuel cell combined heat and power systems
for residential applications
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62282 provides a streamlined methodology to assess major environmental

impacts of stationary fuel cell power systems for residential applications. The fuel cell power

systems can be complemented with a supplementary heat generator and/or a thermal storage

system such as a hot water tank. The analysis can include the import of electricity from the grid

or the export to the grid. The analysed systems are intended to meet the electricity and heat

demand of a given household.

NOTE This document intends to provide a streamlined life-cycle approach. A more comprehensive life cycle

assessment (LCA) for environmental product declaration (EPD) is described in IEC TS 62282-9-102 .

This document provides a set of specific rules, requirements and guidelines based on life cycle

thinking for the description of relevant environmental impacts of fuel cell power systems that

can be complemented with a supplementary heat generator or a thermal storage system. This

document also provides guidance on how to communicate these environmental impacts to

consumers.
This document covers the following two environmental aspects:
– greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the use stage; and
– utilization of abiotic resources.

This document focuses on residential applications, but can also be used to assess systems in

commercial applications such as small retailers or service shops.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 62282-3-201:2017, Fuel cell technologies – Part 3-201: Stationary fuel cell power systems

– Performance test methods for small fuel cell power systems

IEC 62282-3-400:2016, Fuel cell technologies – Part 3-400: Stationary fuel cell power systems

– Small stationary fuel cell power system with combined heat and power output
___________
Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication IEC APUB 62282-9-102:2020.
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IEC TS 62282-9-101:2020 © IEC:2020 – 7 –
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
life cycle

consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or

generation from natural resources to the final disposal
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.1]
3.2
life cycle assessment
LCA

compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a

product system throughout its life cycle
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.2]
3.3
life cycle thinking
LCT

consideration of all relevant environmental aspects of a product during its entire life cycle

[SOURCE: IEC 62430:2019, 3.2.3, modified – The second preferred term "life cycle
perspective" and the notes to entry have been deleted.]
3.4
foreground system
element of the life cycle of a product that is specific to it

Note 1 to entry: The foreground system notably comprises the manufacturing, use and end-of-life of the product

3.5
elementary flow

material or energy entering the system being studied that has been drawn from the environment

without previous human transformation, or material or energy leaving the system being studied

that is released into the environment without subsequent human transformation
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.12]
3.6
primary data

information determined by direct measurement, estimation or calculation of the foreground

system
3.7
secondary data
information obtained from sources other than primary data (3.6)

Note 1 to entry: Sources can include reports, websites, books, databases, journal articles, broadcasts, etc.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC TS 62282-9-101:2020 © IEC:2020

[SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2018, 3.2.4, modified – "data" replaced with "information", Note 1 to

entry replaced with a new note 1 to entry.]
3.8
global warming potential

measure of the globally-averaged radiative forcing arising from the emissions of a particular

greenhouse gas relative to that of CO2
3.9
abiotic resource depletion

extraction of ores, minerals, stones, rocks or fossil fuels (including peat) from the place of their

natural occurrence and subsequent use with the effect that they become scarcer
3.10
fuel cell power system

generator system that uses one or more fuel cell stack(s) to generate electric power and heat

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-485:2020, 485-09-01, modified – "module" replaced with "stack".]

3.11
supplementary heat generator
non-preferential heat source providing peak load
[SOURCE: IEC 62282-3-400:2016, 3.1.22]
3.12
electric efficiency

ratio of the average net electric power output produced by a fuel cell power system to the

average fuel power input supplied to the fuel cell power system

Note 1 to entry: The lower heating value (LHV) is assumed unless otherwise stated.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-485:2020, 485-10-02, modified – "average" added before "net electric

power output" and "total enthalpy flow" replaced with "average fuel power input".]

3.13
heat recovery efficiency

ratio of the average recovered thermal power output of a fuel cell power system to the average

total power input supplied to the fuel cell power system

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-485:2020, 485-10-04, modified – "recovered heat flow" replaced with

"the average recovered thermal power output"; "total enthalpy flow" replaced with "average total

power input" and Note 1 to entry deleted.]
3.14
overall energy efficiency

ratio of total usable power output (net electric power and recovered thermal power) to the

average total power input supplied to the fuel cell power system

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-485:2020, 485-10-05, modified – second preferred term "total thermal

efficiency" deleted; "energy flow" replaced with "power output"; in brackets, "heat flow" replaced

with "thermal power"; "total enthalpy flow" replaced with "average total power input" and Note

1 to entry deleted.]
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IEC TS 62282-9-101:2020 © IEC:2020 – 9 –
4 Framework for evaluation process
4.1 General

This document evaluates two environmental impacts of fuel cell power systems with or without

a supplementary heat generator: global warming and abiotic resource depletion. Global

warming due to GHG emissions is assessed for the use stage. The utilization of abiotic

resources is assessed for the stages "manufacturing" and "use".

NOTE The reason behind selecting environmental impact categories and life cycle stages is as follows: global

warming can be taken as a proxy for environmental performance during the use stage, while abiotic resource

depletion is used to characterize the environmental performance regarding raw material acquisition.

4.2 Life cycle stages

The life cycle stages considered in this document are manufacturing (acquisition and utilization

of abiotic resources, including for replaced components during the use stage) and use (GHG

emissions, and utilization and acquisition of abiotic resources) as shown in solid rectangles in

Figure 1.
Figure 1 – Life cycle stages (prioritized stages in solid-lined boxes)

NOTE Transportation is not depicted in Figure 1, but can be included in the assessment.

4.3 Functional unit

The functional unit is defined as the satisfaction of the demand of electricity and heat in a typical

household for a representative year including seasonal variations.

It shall be documented whether or not the analysed fuel cell power system is complemented

with a supplementary heat generator or a thermal storage system.

Ten years of operation shall be evaluated (target duration). The fuel cell power system that can

be complemented with a supplementary heat generator or a thermal storage system shall be

characterized in such a way that the technical characteristics of the first ten years of its

operation (notably efficiency degradation) are taken into account.

The demand shall be specific to the geographic region where the fuel cell power systems are

operated. The systems that can be complemented with a supplementary heat generator or a

thermal storage system are operated. Typical demands are shown in Annex A.

Any replacement of components, which are expected during the 10-year operation period, such

as fuel cell stacks or fuel processing systems, shall be taken into account. Such replacements

are considered as part of manufacturing as the primary concern of components resides in their

production.

If the component(s) (e.g. parts of the fuel cell power system, supplementary heat generator or

thermal storage system, if applicable) operates for longer than ten years, the elementary flows

and related environmental impacts that these component(s) represent shall be spread equally

over their lifetime. Only the first ten years shall be taken into account.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC TS 62282-9-101:2020 © IEC:2020
4.4 Product system

The evaluated fuel cell power system to provide the functional unit (4.3) shall be described. The

system analysed consists of a fuel cell power system that can be complemented with a

supplementary heat generator, a thermal storage system or electricity from the grid (Figure 2).

Figure 2 – Configuration of a fuel cell power system that can be complemented with a

supplementary heat generator or thermal storage system covered by this document
4.5 Inputs, outputs and related environmental impact categories

The relevant inputs, outputs and environmental impact categories to be assessed for the

prioritized life cycle stages (see 4.2) in accordance with this document are shown in Figure 3.

For the manufacturing and use stages, this document considers as inputs the raw materials

used in the fuel cell power system that can be complemented with a supplementary heat

generator and a thermal storage system. These are assessed in terms of abiotic resource

depletion (see 5.3).

For the use stage, the electricity from the grid and the fuel shall be taken as inputs, while surplus

electricity (i.e. beyond demand), waste heat and GHG emissions resulting from the operation

are included as outputs. GHG emissions associated with electricity and fuel supply shall be

taken into account. GHG emissions are assessed in terms of global warming (see 5.2).

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IEC TS 62282-9-101:2020 © IEC:2020 – 11 –

Figure 3 – System boundaries, elementary flows and environmental impact categories

assessed in this document
4.6 Types and quality of data, and information sources

For the manufacturing stage, primary data shall be used for the amounts of materials used for

manufacturing the fuel cell stacks and fuel processing system (including the supplementary

heat generator or thermal storage system, if any). Secondary data may be used for the

manufacturing stage of components other than the fuel cell stacks and fuel processing system

(including the supplementary heat generator or thermal storage system, if any).

For the use stage, primary data shall be used for the total amount of electricity from the grid

and the fuel used in the fuel cell power system and, if applicable, in the supplementary heat

generator. Secondary data may be used for electricity and fuel supply chains.
5 Estimation methods
5.1 General remarks on life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)

Databases within LCA software typically provide elementary flows (e.g. CO or CH emissions

2 4

or use of platinum or chromium) that have been classified (i.e. assigned to impact categories

such as climate change or abiotic resource depletion). LCIA methods exist for both impact

categories, providing so called characterization factors. Characterization factors allow all

elementary flows contributing to the same impact category to be expressed in the same unit.

The LCA practitioner shall be responsible for ensuring that the elementary flows are correctly

linked with corresponding characterization factors. This also applies to elementary flows that

have been added by the LCA practitioner during data collection.

If a characterization factor is missing for an elementary flow in the inventory and the elementary

flow is known to contribute to an impact category, its potential importance should be checked

by the LCA practitioner. If the contribution from the elementary flow is found to be potentially

significant, efforts should be made to estimate the missing characterization factor. If this is not

possible, this potentially relevant, but missing characterization factor shall be documented. The

potential influence of the missing factor shall be considered in the interpretation of the results

and documented as a limitation of the analysis.
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– 12 – IEC TS 62282-9-101:2020 © IEC:2020
5.2 Global warming in the use stage
5.2.1 Required data

When assessing GHG emissions during the use stage, the following parameters are required:

a) electric efficiency, averaged over the target d
...

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