Equipment for general lighting purposes - EMC immunity requirements - Part 1: An objective light flickermeter and voltage fluctuation immunity test method

IEC TR 61547-1:2017(E) describes an objective light flickermeter, which can be applied for, amongst others, the following purposes:
- testing the intrinsic performance of all lighting equipment without voltage fluctuations;
- testing the immunity performance of lighting equipment against (unintentional) voltage fluctuation disturbance on the AC power port;
- testing the immunity performance of lighting equipment against intentional voltage fluctuation on the AC power port arising for example from ripple control systems.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2015. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a. the title of Part 1 has been changed to reflect the more general application of the objective flickermeter;
b. the specific voltage fluctuation immunity test method has been extended for lighting equipment rated for 120 V AC and 230 V AC, 50 Hz and 60 Hz.

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Published
Publication Date
18-Oct-2017
Technical Committee
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DELPUB - Deleted Publication
Completion Date
01-Jul-2020
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IEC TR 61547-1
Edition 2.0 2017-10
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Equipment for general lighting purposes – EMC immunity requirements–
Part 1: An objective light flickermeter and voltage fluctuation immunity test
method
IEC TR 61547-1:2017-10(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TR 61547-1
Edition 2.0 2017-10
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Equipment for general lighting purposes – EMC immunity requirements–
Part 1: An objective light flickermeter and voltage fluctuation immunity test
method
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 29.140.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-4904-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 61547-1:2017 © IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and symbols .......................................................... 8

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 8

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 9

3.3 Symbols .................................................................................................................. 9

4 General ......................................................................................................................... 10

5 Light flickermeter ........................................................................................................... 11

6 Voltage fluctuation disturbance signal ............................................................................ 11

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

6.2 Mains signal parameters ....................................................................................... 13

6.3 Disturbance signal parameters and test levels ...................................................... 13

7 Test setup and equipment ............................................................................................. 15

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 15

7.2 Test voltage .......................................................................................................... 15

7.3 Optical test environment ....................................................................................... 16

7.4 Light sensor and amplifier ..................................................................................... 16

7.5 Signals to be measured ........................................................................................ 16

7.6 Signal processing ................................................................................................. 17

7.6.1 Anti-aliasing filter ........................................................................................... 17

7.6.2 Sampling frequency ....................................................................................... 17

7.6.3 Signal resolution ............................................................................................ 18

8 Verification procedure .................................................................................................... 19

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 19

8.2 Light flickermeter .................................................................................................. 19

8.3 Mains voltage parameters without modulation ....................................................... 20

8.3.1 Nominal voltage level .................................................................................... 20

8.3.2 Mains frequency ............................................................................................ 20

8.4 Voltage fluctuation level ........................................................................................ 20

8.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 20

8.4.2 Option 1: measure the actual modulation frequencies and voltage levels ....... 20

8.4.3 Option 2: measure P -values using a flickermeter ........................................ 20

8.5 Light sensor and amplifier ..................................................................................... 21

8.6 Test environment .................................................................................................. 21

8.7 Light flicker noise .................................................................................................. 21

9 Test procedure .............................................................................................................. 21

10 Conditions during testing ............................................................................................... 22

11 Evaluation of the test result ........................................................................................... 22

12 Test report ..................................................................................................................... 23

Annex A (informative) Specification of the light flickermeter ................................................. 24

A.1 Voltage flickermeter .............................................................................................. 24

A.2 Specification of the light flickermeter ..................................................................... 25

A.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 25

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IEC TR 61547-1:2017 © IEC 2017 – 3 –

A.2.2 Block a: illuminance adapter .......................................................................... 25

A.2.3 Block b: weighting filters ................................................................................ 25

A.2.4 Block c: squaring multiplier, sliding mean filter and scaling ............................ 26

A.2.5 Block d: statistical analysis ............................................................................ 26

A.3 Verification of the light flickermeter ....................................................................... 27

A.4 Example of P implementation in MATLAB ...................................................... 27

Annex B (informative) Uncertainty considerations ................................................................ 28

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 28

B.2 General symbols ................................................................................................... 28

B.3 Measurand ............................................................................................................ 28

B.4 Influence quantities ............................................................................................... 28

B.5 Uncertainty budget ................................................................................................ 30

Annex C (informative) Examples of test results of lighting equipment ................................... 32

C.1 Test without voltage fluctuations ........................................................................... 32

C.2 Test with (intentional) voltage fluctuations ............................................................ 32

C.3 Test under dimming conditions.............................................................................. 36

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 38

Figure 1 – Full EMC approach for mains voltage fluctuations ................................................ 11

Figure 2 – Definition of the mains test signal including a rectangular modulated

voltage fluctuation (see Equation (1)) .................................................................................... 13

Figure 3 – Block diagram voltage-fluctuation immunity test ................................................... 15

Figure 4 – Example of a recorded mains voltage fluctuation and illuminance signal of a

60 W incandescent lamp ....................................................................................................... 19

Figure A.1 – Structure of the IEC 61000-4-15 flickermeter which uses voltage as input ......... 24

Figure A.2 – Structure of the light flickermeter ...................................................................... 24

Figure C.1 – Graphical P results for three EUTs with rectangular modulation at five

frequencies ( P = 1) ............................................................................................................. 33

Figure C.2 – EUT1: recorded signals (no mains voltage modulation) ..................................... 34

Figure C.3 – EUT1: recorded signals (with modulation) ......................................................... 35

Figure C.4 – EUT2: relative illuminance: mains voltage modulation d = 0,407 % at

13,5 Hz ( P = 1) ................................................................................................................... 36

Figure C.5 – EUT3: relative illuminance: mains voltage modulation d = 0,407 % at

13,5 Hz ( P = 1) ................................................................................................................... 36

Figure C.6 – Graphical P results for four EUTs under dimming conditions ........................ 37

Table 1 – Voltage fluctuations – Test specification of voltage fluctuations applied at

input AC power ports 120/230 V; 50/60 Hz ............................................................................ 14

Table A.1 – Test specification of illuminance fluctuations for lightmeter classifier ................ 27

Table B.1 – Influence quantities and their recommended tolerances ..................................... 29

Table B.2 – Uncertainty budget of the voltage fluctuation immunity test ................................ 31

Table C.1 – Numerical results calculations for three EUTs without voltage modulation ... 32

Table C.2 – Numerical results P calculations for three EUTs with voltage modulation ..... 32

Table C.3 – Numerical results P calculations for four EUTs under dimming conditions ...... 37

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– 4 – IEC TR 61547-1:2017 © IEC 2017
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
EQUIPMENT FOR GENERAL LIGHTING PURPOSES –
EMC IMMUNITY REQUIREMENTS–
Part 1: An objective light flickermeter and voltage fluctuation
immunity test method
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

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2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

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3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

technical committee may propose the publication of a Technical Report when it has collected

data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard, for

example "state of the art".

IEC TR 61547-1, which is a Technical Report, has been prepared by technical committee 34:

Lamps and related equipment.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2015. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC TR 61547-1:2017 © IEC 2017 – 5 –

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) the title of Part 1 has been changed to reflect the more general application of the objective

flickermeter;

b) the specific voltage fluctuation immunity test method has been extended for lighting

equipment rated for 120 V AC and 230 V AC, 50 Hz and 60 Hz.
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Draft TR Report on voting
34/387/DTR 34/398A/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for the approval of this Technical Report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 61547 series, published under the general title Equipment for

general lighting purposes – EMC immunity requirements, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC TR 61547-1:2017 © IEC 2017
INTRODUCTION

The fast rate at which solid state light (SSL) sources can change their intensity is one of the

main drivers behind the revolution in the lighting world and applications of lighting. Linked to

the fast rate of the intensity change is a direct transfer of the modulation of the driving

current, both intended and unintended, to a modulation of the luminous output. This light

modulation can give rise to changes in the perception of the environment. While in some very

specific entertainment, scientific or industrial applications, a change of perception due to light

modulation is desired, for most everyday applications and activities the change is detrimental

and undesired. The general term used for these changes in the perception of the environment

is “temporal light artefacts” (TLAs) and these can have a large influence on the judgment of

the light quality. Moreover, the visible modulation of light can lead to a decrease in

performance, increased fatigue as well as acute health problems like epileptic seizures and

migraine episodes [18][19] .

Different terms exist to describe the different types of TLAs that may be perceived by humans.

The term ‘flicker’ refers to light variation that may be directly perceived by an observer.

‘Stroboscopic effect’ is an effect which may become visible for an observer when a moving or

rotating object is illuminated (CIE TN 006:2016[22]).

Possible causes for light modulation of lighting equipment that may give rise to flicker or

stroboscopic effect are:
– AC supply combined with light source technology and its driver topology;

– dimming technology of externally applied dimmers or internal light level regulators;

– mains voltage fluctuations caused by electrical apparatus connected to the mains

(conducted electromagnetic disturbances) or intentionally applied for mains-signalling

purposes.

Lighting products that show unacceptable flicker or stroboscopic effect are considered as poor

quality lighting.

This document provides an objective light flickermeter and a method for testing the immunity

of lighting equipment against mains voltage fluctuations caused by electrical apparatus

connected to the mains at levels that are allowed through IEC 61000-3-3.

Flicker perception, as well as IEC 61000-3-3 and IEC 61000-4-15, the associated standards

for voltage fluctuations and flickermeter, are based on the 60 W incandescent lamp. As a

result of the phasing out of incandescent lamps and the widespread introduction of alternative

lighting equipment technologies, a new reference lamp was considered. It has been

demonstrated that new lighting technologies are in general less but sometimes also more

sensitive to supply voltage fluctuations than the current 60 W incandescent lamp. A CIGRE

working group has assessed the impact of new lighting technologies on the existing flicker

standards [17]. For the moment, the present flicker sensitivity curve of IEC 61000-3-3 remains

as the reference. However, because of the increased diversity of sensitivity of lighting

equipment to voltage fluctuations, there is a future need for a voltage-fluctuation immunity test

specifically for lighting equipment. In this way, the full EMC approach (Figure 1) is introduced

for flicker, i.e. with a view to limiting voltage fluctuations caused by equipment connected to

the grid, and in addition to establishing a minimum level of flicker immunity of lighting

equipment against these voltage fluctuations.

This document will allow the lighting industry to gain experience in flicker immunity test

methods. Results of actual tests will be reported in a separate IEC Technical Report. Based

on the experience gained on this immunity test method, the adoption of a similar test to be

applied for IEC 61547, the immunity standard for lighting equipment, will be considered.

___________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC TR 61547-1:2017 © IEC 2017 – 7 –
EQUIPMENT FOR GENERAL LIGHTING PURPOSES –
EMC IMMUNITY REQUIREMENTS –
Part 1: An objective light flickermeter and voltage fluctuation
immunity test method
1 Scope

This part of IEC 61547 describes an objective light flickermeter, which can be applied for,

amongst others, the following purposes:

– testing the intrinsic performance of all lighting equipment without voltage fluctuations;

– testing the immunity performance of lighting equipment against (unintentional) voltage

fluctuation disturbance on the AC power port;

– testing the immunity performance of lighting equipment against intentional voltage

fluctuation on the AC power port arising for example from ripple control systems.

The object of this document is to establish a common and objective reference for evaluating

the performance of lighting equipment in terms of illuminance flicker. Temporal changes in the

colour of light (chromatic flicker) are not considered in this test.

This method can be applied to lighting equipment which is within the scope of IEC technical

committee 34, such as lamps and luminaires, intended for connection to a low voltage

electricity supply. Independent auxiliaries such as drivers can also be tested by application of

a representative light source to that auxiliary.

The objective light flickermeter and voltage fluctuation immunity method described in this

document are based on the IEC 61000-3-3 standard for voltage fluctuation limits and the

flickermeter standard IEC 61000-4-15.

The objective light flickermeter described in this document can be applied to objectively

assess flicker of lighting equipment that is powered from any type of source, AC mains, DC

mains, battery fed or fed through an external dimmer. The specific voltage fluctuation

immunity test method described in this document applies to lighting equipment rated for 120 V

AC and 230 V AC, 50 Hz and 60 Hz.

NOTE The principle of the method can be applied for other nominal voltage and frequency ratings.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 61000-3-3:2013, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 3-3: Limits – Limitation of

voltage changes, voltage fluctuations and flicker in public low-voltage supply systems, for

equipment with rated current ≤ 16 A per phase and not subject to conditional connection

IEC 61000-4-15:2010, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-15: Testing and

measurement techniques – Flickermeter – Functional and design specifications
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC TR 61547-1:2017 © IEC 2017
3 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 61000-3-3 and

IEC 61000-4-15 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
flicker

impression of unsteadiness of visual sensation induced by a light stimulus whose luminance

or spectral distribution fluctuates with time
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-845:1987, 845-02-49]
3.1.2
flickermeter
instrument designed to measure any quantity representative of flicker
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-614:2016, 614-01-30]
3.1.3
voltage flickermeter

instrument as specified in IEC 61000-4-15 which is designed to measure any quantity

representative of flicker resulting from mains voltage fluctuations
3.1.4
illuminance

quotient of the luminous flux dΦ incident on an element of the surface containing the point,

by the area dA of that element

Equivalent definition. Integral, taken over the hemisphere visible from the given point, of the

expression L ·cos θ·dΩ where L is the luminance at the given point in the various directions

v v

of the incident elementary beams of solid angle dΩ, and θ is the angle between any of these

beams and the normal to the surface at the given point
E = = L ⋅cosθ ⋅ dΩ
v v
dA 2π sr
Note 1 to entry: Illuminance is expressed in lx or lm·m
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-845:1987, 845-01-38]
3.1.5
light flickermeter

instrument designed to measure flicker resulting from temporal changes in the intensity of the

light in an objective way and based on the IEC 61000-4-15 specifications
3.1.6
threshold of flicker irritability

maximum value of a fluctuation of luminance or of spectral distribution which gives rise to a

flicker tolerated without discomfort by a specified sample of the population
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC TR 61547-1:2017 © IEC 2017 – 9 –
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161:1990, 161-08-16]
3.1.7
short-term flicker indicator

measure of flicker evaluated over a specified time interval of a relatively short duration

Note 1 to entry: The duration is typically 10 min, in accordance with IEC 61000-4-15.

Note 2 to entry: The alternative term "short term flicker severity" is used in IEC 61000-3-3 and IEC 61000-4-15.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-161:1990, 161-08-18, modified — Note 2 has been added.]
3.2 Abbreviated terms
AC alternating current
AM amplitude modulation
CFL compact fluorescent lamp
CIE Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage
cpm changes per minute
DC direct current
EUT equipment under test
EMC electromagnetic compatibility
EMI electromagnetic interference
Hz hertz
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
kHz kilohertz
LED light emitting diode
LP low pass
...

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