Waveguide type dielectric resonators - Part 1-5: General information and test conditions - Measurement method of conductivity at interface between conductor layer and dielectric substrate at microwave frequency

IEC 61338-1-5:2015 describes a measurement method for resistance and effective conductivity at the interface between conductor layer and dielectric substrate, which are called interface resistance and interface conductivity. This first edition cancels and replaces IEC PAS 61338-1-5 published in 2010. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) description of technical content related to patents (Japanese patent numbers JP3634966, JP3735501) in the Introduction;
b) changes to normative references;
c)addition to bibliography.

Résonateurs diélectriques à modes guidés - Partie 1-5: Informations générales et conditions d'essais - Méthode de mesure de la conductivité au niveau de l'interface entre une couche conductrice et un substrat diélectrique fonctionnant aux hyperfréquences

L'IEC 61338-1-5:2015 décrit une méthode de mesure de la résistance et de la conductivité efficace au niveau de l'interface entre la couche conductrice et le substrat diélectrique, appelées résistance d'interface et conductivité d'interface. Cette première édition annule et remplace l'IEC PAS 61338-1-5 parue en 2010. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
a) description de contenu technique lié à des brevets (brevets japonais numéro JP3634966 et JP3735501) dans l'Introduction;
b) modifications de références normatives;
c) ajout bibliographique.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Jun-2015
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
25-Jun-2015
Completion Date
25-Jun-2015
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IEC 61338-1-5
Edition 1.0 2015-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Waveguide type dielectric resonators –
Part 1-5: General information and test conditions – Measurement method of
conductivity at interface between conductor layer and dielectric substrate at
microwave frequency
Résonateurs diélectriques à modes guidés –
Partie 1-5: Informations générales et conditions d'essais – Méthode de mesure
de la conductivité au niveau de l'interface entre une couche conductrice et un
substrat diélectrique fonctionnant aux hyperfréquences
IEC 61338-1-5:2015-06(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 61338-1-5
Edition 1.0 2015-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Waveguide type dielectric resonators –
Part 1-5: General information and test conditions – Measurement method of
conductivity at interface between conductor layer and dielectric substrate at
microwave frequency
Résonateurs diélectriques à modes guidés –
Partie 1-5: Informations générales et conditions d'essais – Méthode de mesure
de la conductivité au niveau de l'interface entre une couche conductrice et un
substrat diélectrique fonctionnant aux hyperfréquences
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.140 ISBN 978-2-8322-2721-3

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 61338-1-5:2015 © IEC 2015
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 6

2 Normative references..................................................................................................... 6

3 Measurement and related parameters ............................................................................ 6

4 Calculation equations for R and σ ................................................................................. 8

i i

5 Preparation of specimen .............................................................................................. 12

6 Measurement equipment and apparatus ....................................................................... 12

6.1 Measurement equipment ..................................................................................... 12

6.2 Measurement apparatus ...................................................................................... 12

7 Measurement procedure .............................................................................................. 13

7.1 Set-up of measurement equipment and apparatus ................................................ 13

7.2 Measurement of reference level ........................................................................... 13

7.3 Measurement procedure of Q ............................................................................. 13

7.4 Determination of σ and measurement uncertainty ................................................ 15

8 Example of measurement result ................................................................................... 15

Annex A (informative) Derivation of Equation (4) for R ........................................................ 17

Annex B (informative) Calculation uncertainty of parameters in Figure 3 ............................. 19

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 20

Figure 1 – Surface resistance R , surface conductivity σ , interface resistance R , and

s s i

interface conductivity σ . ........................................................................................................ 7

Figure 2 – TE mode dielectric rod resonator to measure σ . .............................................. 8

01δ i

Figure 3 – Parameters chart of f , g, P and P for reference sapphire rod ................... 10

0 rod sub

Figure 4 – Parameters chart of f , g, P and P for reference (Zr,Sn)TiO rod ............... 11

0 rod sub 4

Figure 5 – Schematic diagram of measurement equipments ................................................. 12

Figure 6 – Schematic diagram of measurement apparatus for σ . .......................................... 13

Figure 7 – Frequency response for reference sapphire rod with two dielectric

substrates as shown in Figure 2. ......................................................................................... 14

Figure 8 – Resonance frequency f , insertion attenuation IA and half-power band
0 0

width f ........................................................................................................................... 15

Table 1 – Specifications of reference rods ............................................................................. 9

Table 2 – ε’ and tanδ of reference rods measured by the method of IEC 61338-1-
rod rod
3 15
Table 3 – ε’ and tanδ of an LTCC test substrate measured by the method of
sub sub

IEC 62562 .......................................................................................................................... 16

Table 4 – Measurement results of σ and σ of a copper layer in LTCC substrate .................. 16

i ri

Table B 1 – Parameters obtained by FEM and rigorous analysis of IEC 61338-1-3 for

the TE mode resonator .................................................................................................. 19

011
Table B.2 – Calculated parameters f , g, P , P , R , σ and σ for the TE mode
0 rod sub i i ri 01δ

resonator ............................................................................................................................ 19

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 61338-1-5:2015 © IEC 2015 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
WAVEGUIDE TYPE DIELECTRIC RESONATORS –
Part 1-5: General information and test conditions –
Measurement method of conductivity at interface between
conductor layer and dielectric substrate at microwave frequency
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

International Standard IEC 61338-1-5 has been prepared by IEC technical committee

49: Piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic devices and associated materials for frequency

control, selection and detection.
This first edition cancels and replaces IEC PAS 61338-1-5 published in 2010.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) description of technical content related to patents (Japanese patent numbers JP3634966,

JP3735501) in the Introduction;
b) changes to normative references;
c) addition to bibliography.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 61338-1-5:2015 © IEC 2015
CDV Report on voting
49/1089/CDV 49/1103/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 61338 series, published under the general title Waveguide type

dielectric resonators, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 61338-1-5:2015 © IEC 2015 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

IEC 61338 consists of the following parts, under the general title Waveguide type dielectric

resonators:
– Part 1: Generic specification

– Part 1-3: General information and test conditions − Measurement method of complex

relative permittivity for dielectric resonator materials at microwave frequency

– Part 1-4: General information and test conditions − Measurement method of complex

relative permittivity for dielectric resonator materials at millimeter-wave frequency

– Part 2: Guidelines for oscillator and filter applications
– Part 4: Sectional specification
– Part 4-1: Blank detail specification

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) draws attention to the fact that it is

claimed that compliance with this document may involve the use of a patent concerning:

– The use of a TE mode dielectric rod resonator for the interface resistance and the

01δ
interface conductivity measurement, given in Clause 4;

– The use of a substrate/conductor/substrate layer structure, where a conductor is formed

between two dielectric substrates, for the interface resistance and interface conductivity

measurement, given in Clause 5.

IEC takes no position concerning the evidence, validity and scope of this patent right.

The holder of this patent right has assured the IEC that he/she is willing to negotiate licences

under reasonable and non-discriminatory terms and conditions with applicants throughout the

world. In this respect, the statement of the holder of this patent right is registered with IEC.

Information may be obtained from:
KYOCERA Corporation
6 Takeda Tobadono-cho, Fushimiku, Kyoto 612-8501, Japan

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this standard may be the

subject of patent rights other than those identified above. IEC shall not be held responsible for

identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO (www.iso.org/patents) and IEC (http://patents.iec.ch) maintain on-line data bases of

patents relevant to their standards. Users are encouraged to consult the data bases for the

most up to date information concerning patents.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 61338-1-5:2015 © IEC 2015
WAVEGUIDE TYPE DIELECTRIC RESONATORS –
Part 1-5: General information and test conditions –
Measurement method of conductivity at interface between
conductor layer and dielectric substrate at microwave frequency
1 Scope

Microwave circuits are popularly formed on multi-layered organic or non-organic substrates. In

the microwave circuits, the attenuation of planar transmission lines such as striplines,

microstrip lines, and coplanar lines are determined by their conductor loss, dielectric loss and

radiation loss. Among them, the conductor loss is a major factor in the attenuation of the

planar transmission lines. A new measurement method is standardized in this document to

evaluate the conductivity of transmission line on or in the substrates such as the organic,

ceramic and LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramics) substrates. This standard describes a

measurement method for resistance and effective conductivity at the interface between

conductor layer and dielectric substrate, which are called interface resistance and interface

conductivity.
This measurement method has the following characteristics:

– the interface resistance R is obtained by measuring the resonant frequency f and

i 0

unloaded quality factor Q of a TE mode dielectric rod resonator shown in Figure 2;

u 01δ
and the relative interface conductivity σ = σ / σ are calculated from
– the interface conductivity σ
i ri i 0

the measured R value, where σ = 5,8 × 10 S/m is the conductivity of standard copper;

i 0
– the measurement uncertainty of σ (Δσ ) is less than 5 %.
ri ri
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.

IEC 61338-1-3: Waveguide type dielectric resonators − Part 1-3: General information and test

conditions – Measurement method of complex relative permittivity for dielectric resonator

materials at microwave frequency

IEC 62562: Cavity resonator method to measure the complex permittivity of low-loss dielectric

plates
3 Measurement and related parameters

The IEC 61338-1-3 described the measurement method for the surface resistance R and

effective conductivity σ on the surface of the conductor. The term σ is designated as σ in this

standard, and is called surface conductivity (Figure 1). This standard describes a

measurement method for resistance and effective conductivity at the interface between

conductor layer and dielectric substrate designated as R and σ respectively, and are called

i i
interface resistance and interface conductivity.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 61338-1-5:2015 © IEC 2015 – 7 –
R and s (surface)
s s
Conductor layer
Dielectric substrate
R and s (interface)
i i
with ε′ and tan δ
sub sub
IEC
Figure 1 – Surface resistance R , surface conductivity σ ,
s s
interface resistance R , and interface conductivity σ .
i i

For the transmission line in the substrates, the electric current is concentrated at the interface

between conductor layer and dielectric substrate, because the skin depth δin the conductor is

the order of μm in thickness at the microwave frequencies. In microstrip lines, the current is

concentrated at the interface, rather than at the open face of the conductor. Furthermore, in

copper-clad organic substrates, the interface side of the copper foil has rugged structure to

hold the strong adhesive strength. In LTCC substrates, the interface between the conductor

and ceramics has a rough structure, depending on the co-firing process and the material

compositions. The conductor loss depends on the interface conditions. Therefore, the evaluation of

R and σ is important to design microwave circuit and to improve the conductor fabrication

i i
process.
The relationship between R and σ is given by
s s
πf µ
R = , s = s s (1)
s s rs 0
where
R is the surface resistance;
f is the resonance frequency;
μ is the permeability of the conductor;
σ is the surface conductivity;
σ is the relative surface conductivity.

Particularly, μ equals μ (μ = 4π × 10 H/m) for nonmagnetic conductors such as copper and

0 0
silver.
The relationship between R and σ is given by
i i
πf µ
R = , s = s s (2)
i i ri 0
where
R is the interface resistance;
σ is the interface conductivity;
σ is the relative interface conductivity.
The skin depth δ is given by
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 61338-1-5:2015 © IEC 2015
δ = (3)
πfµs
where
f is the frequency;
σ is the conductivity of the conductor.

To obtain high accuracy in this measurement method, the relative interface conductivity σ of

the conductor is preferable to be higher than 5%, and the thickness of conductor to be three

times greater than skin depth δ. The measurement frequencies are limited to be 5 GHz and 13

GHz because of the reference dielectric rods used in this standard.
4 Calculation equations for R and σ
i i

Figure 2 shows the structure of a TE mode dielectric rod resonator for the R measurement.

01δ i

The resonator consists of a dielectric rod and a pair of dielectric substrates with a conductor

layer at one side. The dielectric rod has diameter d, height h, relative permittivity ε’ , and

rod

loss tangent tanδ . The pair of dielectric substrates have the same values of diameter d’,

rod

thickness t, relative permittivity ε’ , and loss tangent tanδ . To suppress the radiation loss,

sub sub

the diameter d’ shall be three times greater than d. The conductor layers on each dielectric

substrate are supposed to have the same value of R .
d ′
d Dielectric rod
with ε′ and tan δ
rod rod
Dielectric substrate
with ε′ and tan δ
sub sub
Conductor layer
IEC
Figure 2 – TE mode dielectric rod resonator to measure σ .
01δ i

In this structure, the conductive loss of the TE mode resonator is caused by the interface

01δ

resistance R . The value of 1/Q is given by a sum of power losses due to R , tanδ and

i u i rod
tanδ :
sub
1 R
= + P tanδ + P tanδ , (4)
rod rod sub sub
Q g
where
g is the geometric factor of the resonator (Ω);
P is the partial electric energy filling factor of the dielectric rod;
rod
P is the partial electric energy filling factor of the dielectric substrate.
sub
The equation for R is derived from Equation (4):
 
 
R = g − P tanδ − P tanδ (5)
i rod rod sub sub
 
 
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 61338-1-5:2015 © IEC 2015 – 9 –
The value σ is calculated from this R value by Equation (2).
i i

The derivation of Equation (4) is given in Annex A, together with definitions of the parameters

g, P and P . These parameters for the TE mode resonator can be calculated by using

rod sub 01δ

the FEM or the mode matching method. However, the calculation requires complicated and

tedious works. To make the treatment simple and easy, this standard recommends to use the

graphical charts that are prepared for the parameters of reference dielectric rod resonators; a

sapphire single crystal and a (Zr,Sn)TiO ceramic (Table 1). The axis of sapphire rod should

be parallel to the c-axis within 0,3 degree. The (Zr,Sn)TiO ceramic rod is provided from the

Japan fine ceramics center. The parameters f , g, P and P for the reference rods were

0 rod sub

calculated by an FEM analyzed in cylindrical coordinate and are shown in Figures 3 and 4

graphically. The calculation uncertainty on the parameters is shown in Annex B.

To calculate the R in Equation (5), the complex permittivity values of the dielectric rod and the

substrate are necessary to be given in advance. IEC 61338-1-3 shall be used to measure the

values of ε’ and tanδ . IEC 62562 shall be used to measure the values of ε’ and tanδ .

rod rod sub sub
Table 1 – Specifications of reference rods
Reference rod f ε’ tanδ diameter d height h
0 rod rod
GHz mm mm
Sapphire single crystal 13
9,4 ± 0.1 13 × 10 10,00 ± 0,05 5,00 ± 0,05
(Zr,Sn)TiO ceramics 5
39 ± 1 <10 × 10 14,00 ± 0,05 6,46 ± 0,05

NOTE 1 The reference dielectric rod of (Zr,Sn)TiO is provided by JFCC (Japan fine ceramics center ) as ER-

ZST.
———————

Japan fine ceramics center is an example of a suitable commercial supplier. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by IEC of this supplier.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 61338-1-5:2015 © IEC 2015
13,8 0,004 6
t = 0,0 mm
t = 0,0 mm
13,6
0,004 4
0,1
13,4
0,1 0,004 2
0,2
13,2
0,3
0,004 0
0,2
13,0
0,4
12,8 0,003 8
0,5
0,3
0,6
12,6
0,003 6
0,4
12,4
0,003 4
0,5
12,2
0,6
0,003 2
12,0
11,8
0,003 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
ε′ ε′
sub sub
0,985 0,018
t = 0,0 mm
0,1
0,016
t = 0,6 mm
0,2
0,980
0,014
0,3
0,975 0,012
0,4
0,010
0,5
0,970
0,5 0,008
0,965 0,006
0,4
0,6
0,004
0,960
0,3
0,002
0,2
0,1
0,955 0,000
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
ε′ ε′
sub sub
IEC
The calculation conditions are the following:
ε’ = 9,4, d = 10,00 mm and h = 5,00 mm.
rod
Figure 3 – Parameters chart of f , g, P and P for reference sapphire rod
0 rod sub
P f (GHz)
rod 0
sub
1/g (1/Ω)
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 61338-1-5:2015 © IEC 2015 – 11 –
5,1 0,010 0
t = 0,0 mm
t = 0,0 mm
5,0
0,009 5
0,1
0,1
4,9 0,009 0
0,2
0,2
0,3
4,8 0,008 5
0,3
0,4
0,4
4,7 0,008 0
0,5
0,5
0,6
4,6 0,007 5
0,6
4,5 0,007 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
ε′ ε′
sub sub
0,997 5
0,002 0
t = 0,6 mm
t = 0,0 mm
0,997 0
0,1
0,001 6
0,2
0,996 5
0,3
0,001 2
0,996 0 0,5
0,4
0,995 5
0,000 8
0,5
0,4
0,995 0
0,000 4
0,3
0,994 5
0,2
0,1
0,994 0 0,000 0
0 2 4 6 8 10
0 2 4 6 8 10
ε′ ε′
sub sub
IEC
The calculation conditions are the following:
ε’ = 39, d = 14,00 mm and h = 6,46 mm.
rod
Figure 4 – Parameters chart of f , g, P and P for reference (Zr,Sn)TiO rod
0 rod sub 4
rod
f (GHz)
sub
1/g (1/Ω)
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 61338-1-5:2015 © IEC 2015
5 Preparation of specimen

Two test specimens of dielectric substrates with a conductor at one side are prepared for the

σ measurement. The thickness of the conductor t shall be three times greater than the skin

i c

depth δ. The values of δ is 0,9 µm for copper and 1,7 µm for tungsten at 5 GHz. The diameter

d’ of dielectric substrate shall be three times greater than the diameter d of the reference

dielectric rod. Dielectric substrates with any shape larger than the diameter 3×d is used in

practical measurement. Bending of specim
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