Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods - Part 2-3: Methods of measurement of disturbances and immunity - Radiated disturbance measurements

CISPR 16-2-3:2016 is available as CISPR 16-2-3:2016 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
CISPR 16-2-3:2016 specifies the methods of measurement of radiated disturbance phenomena in the frequency range of 9 kHz to 18 GHz. The aspects of measurement uncertainty are specified in CISPR 16-4-1 and CISPR 16-4-2. It has the status of a basic EMC publication in accordance with IEC Guide 107, "Electromagnetic compatibility - Guide to the drafting of electromagnetic compatibility publications". This fourth edition edition cancels and replaces the third edition published in 2010, its Amendment 1:2010 and its Amendment 2:2014. This edition constitutes a technical revision.

Spécifications des méthodes et des appareils de mesure des perturbations radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques - Partie 2-3: Méthodes de mesure des perturbations et de l'immunité - Mesurages des perturbations rayonnées

La CISPR 16-2-3:2016 spécifie les méthodes de mesure de phénomènes perturbateurs rayonnés, dans la plage de fréquences de 9 kHz à 18 GHz. Les aspects de l'incertitude de mesure sont spécifiés dans les normes CISPR 16-4-1 et CISPR 16-4-2. Elle a le statut de publication fondamentale en CEM conformément au Guide 107 de l'IEC, "Compatibilité électromagnétique - Guide pour la rédaction des publications sur la compatibilité électromagnétique". Cette quatrième édition annule et remplace la troisième édition parue en 2010, l'Amendement 1:2010 et l'Amendement 2:2014. Cette édition constitue une révision technique.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Sep-2016
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
15-Sep-2016
Completion Date
15-Sep-2016
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CISPR 16-2-3
Edition 4.0 2016-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
INTERNATIONAL SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON RADIO INTERFERENCE
COMITÉ INTERNATIONAL SPÉCIAL DES PERTURBATIONS RADIOÉLECTRIQUES
BASIC EMC PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE EN CEM
Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and
methods –
Part 2-3: Methods of measurement of disturbances and immunity – Radiated
disturbance measurements
Spécifications des méthodes et des appareils de mesure des perturbations
radioélectriques et de l’immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques –
Partie 2-3: Méthodes de mesure des perturbations et de l'immunité – Mesurages
des perturbations rayonnées
CISPR 16-2-3:2016-09(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
CISPR 16-2-3
Edition 4.0 2016-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
INTERNATIONAL SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON RADIO INTERFERENCE
COMITÉ INTERNATIONAL SPÉCIAL DES PERTURBATIONS RADIOÉLECTRIQUES
BASIC EMC PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE EN CEM
Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and
methods –
Part 2-3: Methods of measurement of disturbances and immunity – Radiated
disturbance measurements
Spécifications des méthodes et des appareils de mesure des perturbations
radioélectriques et de l’immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques –
Partie 2-3: Méthodes de mesure des perturbations et de l'immunité – Mesurages
des perturbations rayonnées
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 33.100.10; 33.100.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-3590-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – CISPR 16-2-3:2016 © IEC 2016
CONTENTS

FOREWORD......................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 9

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations ............................................................................ 10

3.1 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................... 10

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................... 15

4 Types of disturbance to be measured ........................................................................... 16

4.1 General ............................................................................................................... 16

4.2 Types of disturbance ........................................................................................... 16

4.3 Detector functions ............................................................................................... 16

5 Connection of measuring equipment ............................................................................ 16

6 General measurement requirements and conditions...................................................... 17

6.1 General ............................................................................................................... 17

6.2 Disturbance not produced by the equipment under test ........................................ 17

6.2.1 General ...................................................................................................... 17

6.2.2 Compliance (conformity assessment) testing ............................................... 17

6.3 Measurement of continuous disturbance .............................................................. 17

6.3.1 Narrowband continuous disturbance ........................................................... 17

6.3.2 Broadband continuous disturbance ............................................................. 17

6.3.3 Use of spectrum analyzers and scanning receivers ..................................... 17

6.4 EUT arrangement and measurement conditions ................................................... 18

6.4.1 General arrangement of the EUT ................................................................ 18

6.4.2 Operation of the EUT ................................................................................. 20

6.4.3 EUT time of operation ................................................................................ 20

6.4.4 EUT running-in time ................................................................................... 21

6.4.5 EUT supply ................................................................................................ 21

6.4.6 EUT mode of operation ............................................................................... 21

6.4.7 Operation of multifunction equipment .......................................................... 21

6.4.8 Determination of arrangement(s) causing maximum emissions .................... 21

6.4.9 Recording of measurements ....................................................................... 21

6.5 Interpretation of measuring results ...................................................................... 22

6.5.1 Continuous disturbance .............................................................................. 22

6.5.2 Discontinuous disturbance .......................................................................... 22

6.5.3 Measurement of the duration of disturbance ................................................ 22

6.6 Measurement times and scan rates for continuous disturbance ............................ 22

6.6.1 General ...................................................................................................... 22

6.6.2 Minimum measurement times ..................................................................... 23

6.6.3 Scan rates for scanning receivers and spectrum analyzers .......................... 23

6.6.4 Scan times for stepping receivers ............................................................... 24

6.6.5 Strategies for obtaining a spectrum overview using the peak detector .......... 25

6.6.6 Timing considerations using FFT-based instruments ................................... 29

7 Measurement of radiated disturbances ......................................................................... 32

7.1 Introductory remarks ........................................................................................... 32

7.2 Loop-antenna system measurements (9 kHz to 30 MHz) ...................................... 33

7.2.1 General ...................................................................................................... 33

7.2.2 General measurement method .................................................................... 33

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CISPR 16-2-3:2016 © IEC 2016 – 3 –

7.2.3 Test environment ....................................................................................... 34

7.2.4 Configuration of the equipment under test ................................................... 35

7.2.5 Measurement uncertainty for LAS ............................................................... 35

7.3 Open-area test site or semi-anechoic chamber measurements (30 MHz to

1 GHz) ................................................................................................................ 35

7.3.1 Measurand ................................................................................................. 35

7.3.2 Test site requirements ................................................................................ 38

7.3.3 General measurement method .................................................................... 38

7.3.4 Measurement distance ............................................................................... 39

7.3.5 Antenna height variation ............................................................................. 40

7.3.6 Product specification details ....................................................................... 40

7.3.7 Measurement instrumentation ..................................................................... 42

7.3.8 Field-strength measurements on other outdoor sites ................................... 42

7.3.9 Measurement uncertainty for OATS and SAC .............................................. 42

7.4 Fully-anechoic room measurements (30 MHz to 1 GHz) ....................................... 42

7.4.1 Test set-up and site geometry .................................................................... 42

7.4.2 EUT position .............................................................................................. 45

7.4.3 Cable layout and termination ...................................................................... 46

7.4.4 Measurement uncertainty for FAR ............................................................... 47

7.5 Radiated emission measurement method (30 MHz to 1 GHz) and radiated
immunity test method (80 MHz to 1 GHz) with common test set-up in semi-

anechoic chamber ............................................................................................... 47

7.5.1 Applicability ............................................................................................... 47

7.5.2 EUT perimeter definition and antenna-to-EUT separation distance .............. 47

7.5.3 Uniform test volume ................................................................................... 48

7.5.4 Specifications for EUT set-up in common emissions/immunity test set-

up .............................................................................................................. 49

7.5.5 Measurement uncertainty for common emission/immunity set-up and

method ...................................................................................................... 55

7.6 Fully-anechoic room and absorber-lined OATS/SAC measurements (1 GHz

to 18 GHz) .......................................................................................................... 55

7.6.1 Quantity to measure ................................................................................... 55

7.6.2 Measurement distance ............................................................................... 55

7.6.3 Set-up and operating conditions of the equipment under test (EUT) ............. 56

7.6.4 Measurement site ....................................................................................... 56

7.6.5 Measurement instrumentation ..................................................................... 56

7.6.6 Measurement procedure ............................................................................. 57

7.6.7 Measurement uncertainty for FAR ............................................................... 63

7.7 In situ measurements (9 kHz to 18 GHz) .............................................................. 64

7.7.1 Applicability of and preparation for in situ measurements ............................ 64

7.7.2 Field-strength measurements in situ in the frequency range 9 kHz to

30 MHz ...................................................................................................... 65

7.7.3 Field-strength measurements in situ in the frequency range above

30 MHz ...................................................................................................... 65

7.7.4 In situ measurement of the disturbance effective radiated power using

the substitution method .............................................................................. 66

7.7.5 Documentation of the measurement results ................................................. 70

7.7.6 Measurement uncertainty for in situ method ................................................ 70

7.8 Substitution measurements (30 MHz to 18 GHz) .................................................. 70

7.8.1 General ...................................................................................................... 70

7.8.2 Test site ..................................................................................................... 71

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– 4 – CISPR 16-2-3:2016 © IEC 2016

7.8.3 Test antennas ............................................................................................ 71

7.8.4 EUT configuration ...................................................................................... 72

7.8.5 Test procedure ........................................................................................... 72

7.8.6 Measurement uncertainty for substitution method ........................................ 72

7.9 Reverberation chamber measurements (80 MHz to 18 GHz) ................................. 72

7.10 TEM waveguide measurements (30 MHz to 18 GHz) ............................................ 72

8 Automated measurement of emissions ......................................................................... 72

8.1 Introduction – Precautions for automated measurements ..................................... 72

8.2 Generic measurement procedure ......................................................................... 73

8.3 Pre-scan measurements ...................................................................................... 73

8.3.1 General ...................................................................................................... 73

8.3.2 Determination of the required measurement time ........................................ 74

8.3.3 Pre-scan requirements for different types of measurements ........................ 74

8.4 Data reduction .................................................................................................... 75

8.5 Emission maximization and final measurement .................................................... 76

8.6 Post-processing and reporting ............................................................................. 77

8.7 Emission measurement strategies with FFT-based measuring instruments ........... 77

Annex A (informative) Measurement of disturbances in the presence of ambient

emissions ........................................................................................................................... 78

A.1 General ............................................................................................................... 78

A.2 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................... 78

A.3 Problem description ............................................................................................ 78

A.4 Proposed solution ............................................................................................... 78

A.4.1 Overview .................................................................................................... 78

A.4.2 Pre-testing the EUT in a shielded room ....................................................... 81

A.4.3 Method of measurement of EUT disturbances in the presence of

narrowband ambient emissions ................................................................... 82

A.4.4 Method of measurement of EUT disturbance in the presence of

broadband ambient emissions .................................................................... 85

A.5 Determination of the EUT disturbance in case of superposition ............................ 87

Annex B (informative) Use of spectrum analyzers and scanning receivers ........................... 92

B.1 General ............................................................................................................... 92

B.2 Overload ............................................................................................................. 92

B.3 Linearity test ....................................................................................................... 92

B.4 Selectivity ........................................................................................................... 92

B.5 Normal response to pulses .................................................................................. 92

B.6 Peak detection .................................................................................................... 92

B.7 Frequency scan rate ............................................................................................ 93

B.8 Signal interception .............................................................................................. 93

B.9 Average detection ............................................................................................... 93

B.10 Sensitivity ........................................................................................................... 93

B.11 Amplitude accuracy ............................................................................................. 94

Annex C (informative) Scan rates and measurement times for use with the average

detector .............................................................................................................................. 95

C.1 Purpose .............................................................................................................. 95

C.2 Suppression of disturbances ................................................................................ 95

C.2.1 Suppression of impulsive disturbance ......................................................... 95

C.2.2 Suppression of impulsive disturbance by digital averaging .......................... 96

C.2.3 Suppression of amplitude modulation .......................................................... 96

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CISPR 16-2-3:2016 © IEC 2016 – 5 –
C.3 Measurement of slowly intermittent, unsteady or drifting narrowband

disturbances ....................................................................................................... 96

C.4 Recommended procedure for automated or semi-automated measurements ......... 98

Annex D (informative) Explanation of the APD measurement method applying to the

compliance test .................................................................................................................. 99

Annex E (normative) Determination of suitability of spectrum analyzers for compliance

tests ................................................................................................................................. 101

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 102

Figure 1 – Measurement of a combination of a CW signal (NB) and an impulsive signal

(BB) using multiple sweeps with maximum hold ................................................................... 26

Figure 2 – Example of a timing analysis .............................................................................. 27

Figure 3 – A broadband spectrum measured with a stepped receiver ................................... 28

Figure 4 – Intermittent narrowband disturbances measured using fast short repetitive

sweeps with maximum hold function to obtain an overview of the emission spectrum ........... 29

Figure 5 – FFT scan in segments ........................................................................................ 31

Figure 6 – Frequency resolution enhanced by FFT-based measuring instrument .................. 32

Figure 7 – Concept of magnetic field induced current measurements made with the

loop antenna system ........................................................................................................... 34

Figure 8 – Measurement distance ....................................................................................... 36

Figure 9 – Separation distance relative to the phase centre of an LPDA antenna .................. 38

Figure 10 – Concept of electric field strength measurements made on an open-area
test site (OATS) or semi-anechoic chamber (SAC) showing the direct and reflected

rays arriving at the receiving antenna .................................................................................. 39

Figure 11 – Position of CMAD for table-top equipment on OATS or in SAC .......................... 42

Figure 12 – Typical FAR site geometry, where a, b, c, e depend upon the room

performance ....................................................................................................................... 43

Figure 13 – Typical test set-up for table-top equipment within the test volume of a FAR ....... 44

Figure 14 – Typical test set-up for floor-standing equipment within the test volume of a

FAR ................................................................................................................................... 45

Figure 15 – Positions of reference planes for uniform field calibration (top-view) .................. 48

Figure 16 – Test set-up for table-top equipment ................................................................... 52

Figure 17 – Test set-up for table-top equipment – Top view ................................................. 53

Figure 18 – Test set-up for floor-standing equipment ........................................................... 54

Figure 19 – Test set-up for floor-standing equipment – Top view .......................................... 55

Figure 20 – Measurement method above 1 GHz, receive antenna in vertical

polarization ......................................................................................................................... 57

Figure 21 – Illustration of height scan requirements for two different categories of

EUTs .................................................................................................................................. 59

Figure 22 – Determination of the transition distance ............................................................ 69

Figure 23 – Substitution method set-up geometries for: a) measurement, b) calibration ........ 71

Figure 24 – Process to give reduction of measurement time ................................................. 73

Figure A.1 – Flow diagram for the selection of bandwidths and detectors and the

estimated measurement errors due to that selection ............................................................ 80

Figure A.2 – Relative difference in adjacent emission amplitudes during preliminary

testing ................................................................................................................................ 82

Figure A.3 – Disturbance by an unmodulated signal (dotted line) ......................................... 83

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– 6 – CISPR 16-2-3:2016 © IEC 2016

Figure A.4 – Disturbance by an amplitude-modulated signal (dotted line) ............................. 83

Figure A.5 – Indication of an amplitude-modulated signal as a function of modulation

frequency with the QP detector in CISPR bands B, C and D ................................................ 84

Figure A.6 – Indication of a pulse-modulated signal (pulse width 50 µs) as a function of

pulse repetition frequency with peak, QP and average detectors .......................................... 85

Figure A.7 – Disturbance by a broadband signal (dotted line) ............................................... 85

Figure A.8 – Unmodulated EUT disturbance (dotted line) ..................................................... 86

Figure A.9 – Amplitude-modulated EUT disturbance (dotted line) ......................................... 87

Figure A.10 – Increase of peak value with superposition of two unmodulated signals ........... 88

Figure A.11 – Determination of the amplitude of the disturbance signal by means of the

amplitude ratio d and the factor i (see Equation (A.3) and Equation (A.6)) ............................ 89

Figure A.
...

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