Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-14: Assessment of emission limits for harmonics, interharmonics, voltage fluctuations and unbalance for the connection of disturbing installations to LV power systems

IEC TR 61000-3-14:2011 is a Technical Report which provides guidance on principles that can be used as the basis for determining the requirements for the connection of disturbing installations to low voltage (LV) public power systems. For the purposes of this part of IEC 61000, a disturbing installation means an installation (which may be a load or a generator) that produces disturbances: harmonics and/or interharmonics, voltage flicker and/or rapid voltage changes, and/or voltage unbalance. The primary objective is to provide guidance to system operators or owners for engineering practices, which will facilitate the provision of adequate service quality for all connected customer installations. In addressing installations, this report is not intended to replace equipment standards for emission limits. This report addresses the allocation of the capacity of the system to absorb disturbances. It does not address how to mitigate disturbances, nor does it address how the capacity of the system can be increased.

Compatibilité électromagnétique (CEM) - Partie 3-14: Evaluation des limites d'émission pour les harmoniques, les interharmoniques, les fluctuations et les déséquilibres de tension lors du raccordement d'installations perturbatrices aux réseaux d'alimentation à basse tension (BT)

IEC TR 61300-3-14:2011 est un Rapport Technique qui fournit des recommandations sur les principes qui peuvent être utilisés pour déterminer les exigences relatives au raccordement des installations perturbatrices aux réseaux publics d'alimentation à basse tension (BT). Pour les besoins de la présente partie de l'IEC 61000, une installation perturbatrice est une installation (qui peut être une charge ou un générateur) qui produit des perturbations: harmoniques et/ou interharmoniques, papillotement de la tension et/ou variations rapides de la tension, et/ou déséquilibres de tension. L'objectif principal est de fournir des recommandations aux gestionnaires ou propriétaires de réseaux pour les pratiques d'ingénierie, ce qui assure la qualité de la fourniture d'électricité pour l'ensemble des installations clientes raccordées. En ce qui concerne les installations, le présent rapport n'a pas pour objet de remplacer les normes d'appareils relatives aux limites d'émission. Le présent rapport traite de la répartition de la capacité du réseau à absorber les perturbations. Il n'explique pas comment atténuer les perturbations ni comment l'aptitude du réseau peut être augmentée.

Elektromagnetna združljivost (EMC) - 3-14. del: Ocena oddajnih mej za harmonike, medharmonike, napetostne spremembe in neravnotežje za priklop motečih naprav v NN elektroenergetska omrežja

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Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Oct-2011
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
20-Oct-2011
Completion Date
20-Oct-2011

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IEC TR 61000-3-14:2011 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-14: Assessment of emission limits for harmonics, interharmonics, voltage fluctuations and unbalance for the connection of disturbing installations to LV power systems
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IEC/TR 61000-3-14
Edition 1.0 2011-10
TECHNICAL
REPORT
BASIC EMC PUBLICATION
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) –
Part 3-14: Assessment of emission limits for harmonics, interharmonics, voltage
fluctuations and unbalance for the connection of disturbing installations to LV
power systems
IEC/TR 61000-3-14:2011(E)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2011 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by

any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either IEC or

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If you have any questions about IEC copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication,

please contact the address below or your local IEC member National Committee for further information.

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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC/TR 61000-3-14
Edition 1.0 2011-10
TECHNICAL
REPORT
BASIC EMC PUBLICATION
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) –
Part 3-14: Assessment of emission limits for harmonics, interharmonics, voltage
fluctuations and unbalance for the connection of disturbing installations to LV
power systems
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
PRICE CODE
ICS 33.100.10 ISBN 978-2-88912-742-9
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – TR 61000-3-14  IEC:2011(E)
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 9

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................... 11

4 Basic EMC concepts ....................................................................................................... 18

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 18

4.2 Compatibility levels ............................................................................................... 18

4.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 18

4.2.2 Harmonics ................................................................................................. 18

4.2.3 Interharmonics........................................................................................... 19

4.2.4 Voltage fluctuations ................................................................................... 20

4.2.5 Unbalance ................................................................................................. 20

4.3 Planning levels ...................................................................................................... 20

4.3.1 Indicative values of planning levels............................................................ 20

4.3.2 Assessment procedure for evaluation against planning levels .................... 21

4.4 Illustration of EMC concepts .................................................................................. 22

4.5 Emission levels ..................................................................................................... 23

5 General principles .......................................................................................................... 24

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 24

5.2 Stage 1: simplified evaluation of disturbance emission .......................................... 24

5.3 Stage 2: emission limits relative to actual system characteristics........................... 25

5.4 Stage 3: acceptance of higher emission levels on a conditional basis .................... 25

5.5 Responsibilities ..................................................................................................... 26

6 General guidelines for the assessment of emission levels .............................................. 26

6.1 Point of evaluation................................................................................................. 26

6.2 Concept of emission level ...................................................................................... 26

6.3 Operating conditions ............................................................................................. 27

6.4 System impedance characteristics ......................................................................... 28

7 General summation law .................................................................................................. 28

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 28

7.2 For harmonics ....................................................................................................... 29

7.3 For flicker and rapid voltage changes .................................................................... 29

7.4 For voltage unbalance ........................................................................................... 29

8 Harmonic emission limits for distorting installations in LV systems ................................. 30

8.1 Stage 1: simplified evaluation of disturbance emission .......................................... 30

8.2 Stage 2: emission limits relative to actual system characteristics........................... 31

8.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 31

8.2.2 Global emission to be shared between the customers ................................ 31

8.2.3 Individual emission limits ........................................................................... 32

8.2.4 Alternative methods for stage 2 ................................................................. 34

8.3 Stage 3: acceptance of higher emission levels on a conditional basis .................... 34

8.4 Emission limits for interharmonics ......................................................................... 34

9 Voltage fluctuation emission limits for installations in LV systems ................................... 35

9.1 Stage 1: simplified evaluation of disturbance emission .......................................... 35

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
TR 61000-3-14  IEC:2011(E) – 3 –

9.2 Stage 2: emission limits relative to actual system characteristics........................... 36

9.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 36

9.2.2 Global emission to be shared between the customers' installations ........... 36

9.2.3 Individual emission limits ........................................................................... 37

9.3 Stage 3: acceptance of higher emission levels on a conditional basis .................... 38

9.4 Rapid voltage changes .......................................................................................... 38

9.4.1 General considerations .............................................................................. 38

9.4.2 Emission limits .......................................................................................... 39

10 Unbalance emission limits for unbalanced installations in LV systems ............................ 39

10.1 General ................................................................................................................. 39

10.2 Stage 1: simplified evaluation of disturbance emission .......................................... 39

10.3 Stage 2: emission limits relative to actual system characteristics........................... 40

10.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 40

10.3.2 Global emission to be shared between the sources of unbalance .............. 40

10.3.3 Individual emission limits ........................................................................... 41

10.4 Stage 3: acceptance of higher emission levels on a conditional basis .................... 43

11 Summary diagrams of the evaluation procedure ............................................................. 43

Annex A (informative) Example of application of the general method for the derivation

of limits for a specific type of LV networks ............................................................................ 47

Annex B (informative) Example of application of the general method for the calculation

of emission limits for a specific installation ............................................................................ 59

Annex C (informative) Harmonic emission limits at stage 2 .................................................. 64

Annex D (informative) Calculation of the reduction factors for harmonics and

unbalance ............................................................................................................................. 77

Annex E (informative) Example of method to allocate harmonic emission limits at

stage 3 ................................................................................................................................. 88

Annex F (informative) Example of application of the approach presented in Annex E ........... 93

Annex G (informative) List of principal letter symbols, subscripts and symbols ..................... 98

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 102

Figure 1 – Illustration of basic voltage quality concepts with time/location statistics

covering the whole system .................................................................................................... 22

Figure 2 – Illustration of basic voltage quality concepts with time statistics relevant to

one site within the whole system ........................................................................................... 23

Figure 3 – Illustration of the emission vector U and its contribution to the measured

disturbance vector U at the point of evaluation .................................................................... 27

Figure 4 – Simplified scheme of an LV public system for harmonics ...................................... 32

Figure 5 – Equivalent circuit and vector diagram for simple assessments ............................. 38

Figure 6 – Example of rapid voltage change associated with motor starting .......................... 38

Figure 7 – Simplified scheme of an LV public system for unbalance ...................................... 41

Figure 8 – Diagram of evaluation procedure for harmonics ................................................... 44

Figure 9 – Diagram of evaluation procedure for voltage fluctuations ..................................... 45

Figure 10 – Diagram of evaluation procedure for unbalance .................................................. 46

Figure A.1 – Simplified scheme of an LV public system for the calculation of harmonic

voltage levels ........................................................................................................................ 51

Figure C.1 – Scheme of an LV public system ........................................................................ 65

Figure C.2 – Scheme of an LV public system in order to work out the global emission

to be shared between the customers ..................................................................................... 66

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – TR 61000-3-14  IEC:2011(E)
Figure C.3 – Simplified scheme of an LV public system in order to work out the

condition at the LV busbar .................................................................................................... 68

Figure C.4 – Simplified scheme of an LV public system in order to work out the

condition for the LV feeder to which a large installation is connected .................................... 71

Figure D.1 – General scheme of an LV public system ........................................................... 78

Figure D.2 – Simplification of the general scheme of an LV public system for the

calculation of harmonic voltage levels at node Ni – 1st step .................................................. 79

Figure D.3 – Simplification of the general scheme of an LV public system for the

calculation of harmonic voltage levels at node Ni – 2nd step ................................................. 79

Figure D.4 – Simplified scheme of an LV public system for the calculation of harmonic

voltage levels at the far end of LV feeders ............................................................................ 81

Figure D.5 – Simplified scheme of an LV public system for the calculation of voltage

unbalance levels at the far end of LV feeders ....................................................................... 85

Figure E.1 – LV system under study ..................................................................................... 88

Figure E.2 – Large installation components .......................................................................... 90

Figure F.1 – System under study .......................................................................................... 93

Figure F.2 – Data for large installations ................................................................................ 95

Table 1 – Compatibility levels for individual harmonic voltages in LV networks (percent

of fundamental component) reproduced from IEC 61000-2-2 ................................................. 19

Table 2 – Compatibility levels for flicker in LV networks reproduced from

IEC 61000-2-2 ...................................................................................................................... 20

Table 3 – Summation exponent for harmonics (indicative values) ........................................ 29

Table 4 – Stage 1 limits for the relative power variations as a function of the number

of voltage changes per minute .............................................................................................. 36

Table 5 – Minimum emission limits at LV .............................................................................. 37

Table A.1– Example of maximum acceptable global contribution to harmonic voltages ........ 48

Table A.2 – Influence of the total supply capacity of the LV system on ratio UhB/UhFj

(example) ............................................................................................................................. 54

Table A.3 – Influence of the number of LV feeders on ratio UhB/UhFj (example).................. 54

Table A.4 – Influence of the length of LV feeders on ratio UhB/UhFj (example) .................... 54

Table A.5 – Influence of the impedance of LV feeders on ratio UhB/UhFj (example) ............ 55

Table A.6 – Influence of the (odd non-triplen) harmonic order on ratio UhB/UhFj

(example) ............................................................................................................................. 55

Table A.7 – Influence of the summation law exponent on ratio UhB/UhFj (example) ............. 55

Table A.8 – ratio UhB/UhFj for an LV feeder length of 100 m (example) ................................ 56

Table A.9 – ratio UhB/UhFj for an LV feeder length of 300 m (example) ................................ 56

Table A.10 – ratio UhB/UhFj for an LV feeder length of 500 m (example) .............................. 56

Table A.11 – ratio UhB/UhFj for an LV feeder length of 1000 m (example) ............................ 57

Table A.12 – Reduction factor KhB as a function of the harmonic order (example) ............... 58

Table B.1 – Example of conservative harmonic current emission limits for stage 1

assessment .......................................................................................................................... 60

Table B.2 – values of global parameters for harmonics ......................................................... 60

Table B.3 – Emission limits for harmonics (with a single value of KhB) ................................ 61

Table B.4 – emission limits for harmonics (KhB value depending on real network

characteristics) ..................................................................................................................... 62

Table B.5 – Emission limit for voltage unbalance (with a single value of KuB) ...................... 63

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
TR 61000-3-14  IEC:2011(E) – 5 –

Table D.1 – Summation law exponent values used for small installations .............................. 83

Table D.2 – values of the reduction factors in the case of a particular rural overhead

LV system ............................................................................................................................. 84

Table D.3 – values of the reduction factors in the case of a particular urban

underground LV system ........................................................................................................ 84

Table D.4 – Example of typical values of the reduction factors KhB for harmonics ................ 84

Table F.1 – Main system data ............................................................................................... 93

Table F.2 – Known large installation data ............................................................................. 94

Table F.3 – Harmonic voltages due to large installations (all values are in pu, h has

the value 5 and Ah is provisionally taken as 1) ...................................................................... 97

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – TR 61000-3-14  IEC:2011(E)
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC) –
Part 3-14: Assessment of emission limits for harmonics, interharmonics,
voltage fluctuations and unbalance for the connection of disturbing
installations to LV power systems
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

technical committee may propose the publication of a technical report when it has collected

data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard, for

example "state of the art".

IEC 61000-3-14, which is a technical report, has been prepared by subcommittee 77A: Low

frequency phenomena, of IEC technical committee 77: Electromagnetic compatibility.

It forms part 3-14 of IEC 61000. It has the status of a basic EMC publication in accordance

with IEC Guide 107.

The first edition of this technical report has been harmonised with IEC/TR 61000-3-6,

IEC/TR 61000-3-7 and IEC/TR 61000-3-13.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
TR 61000-3-14  IEC:2011(E) – 7 –
The text of this technical report is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
77A/741/DTR 77A/748/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – TR 61000-3-14  IEC:2011(E)
INTRODUCTION
IEC 61000 is published in separate parts according to the following structure:
Part 1: General
General considerations (introduction, fundamental principles)
Definitions, terminology
Part 2: Environment
Description of the environment
Classification of the environment
Compatibility levels
Part 3: Limits
Emission limits
Immunity limits
(in so far as they do not fall under the responsibility of product committees)
Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques
Measurement techniques
Testing techniques
Part 5: Installation and mitigation guidelines
Installation guidelines
Mitigation methods and devices
Part 6: Generic standards
Part 9: Miscellaneous

Each part is further subdivided into several parts published either as International Standards

or as technical specifications or technical reports, some of which have already been published

as sections. Others will be published with the part number followed by a dash and a second

number identifying the subdivision (example: IEC 61000-6-1).
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In 2002, the IEC subcommittee 77A made a request to Cigre study committee C4 and Cired

study committee S2, to organize an appropriate technical forum (joint working group) whose

main scope was to prepare, among other tasks, a technical report concerning emission limits

for the connection of disturbing installations to LV public supply systems.

To this effect, joint working group CIGRE C4.103/ CIRED entitled ‘’Emission Limits for

Disturbing Installations’’ was appointed in 2003. The working group held 11 formal meetings

dedicated to the revision of IEC/TR 61000-3-6 and IEC/TR 61000-3-7, and the preparation of

two other technical reports on emission limits for voltage unbalance (IEC/TR 61000-3-13) and

emission limits for disturbing installations connected at LV (this report).
Subsequent endorsement of the report by IEC was the responsibility of SC 77A.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
TR 61000-3-14  IEC:2011(E) – 9 –
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC) –
Part 3-14: Assessment of emission limits for harmonics, interharmonics,
voltage fluctuations and unbalance for the connection of disturbing
installations to LV power systems
1 Scope

This part of IEC 61000, which is informative in its nature, provides guidance on principles that

can be used as the basis for determining the requirements for the connection of disturbing

installations to low voltage (LV) public power systems. For the purposes of this part of

IEC 61000, a disturbing installation means an installation (which may be a load or a

generator) that produces disturbances: harmonics and/or interharmonics, voltage flicker

and/or rapid voltage changes, and/or voltage unbalance. The primary objective is to provide

guidance to system operators or owners for engineering practices, which will facilitate the

provision of adequate service quality for all connected customer installations. In addressing

installations, this report is not intended to replace equipment standards for emission limits.

NOTE 1 In this report, low voltage (LV) refers to U ≤1 kV.

This report addresses the allocation of the capacity of the system to absorb disturbances. It

does not address how to mitigate disturbances, nor does it address how the capacity of the

system can be increased.

This technical report only applies to installations connected to LV public power systems that

supply or may supply other LV loads or installations. It is intended to apply to large

installations exceeding a minimum size. This minimum size (S ) is to be specified by the

min
system operator or owner depending on the system characteristics.

NOTE 2 Due to this minimum size, this report generally does not apply to residential customer's installations.

This technical report is not intended to set emission limits for individual pieces of equipment

connected to LV systems. The emission limits for LV equipment are specified in the applicable

IEC product family standards. The limits specified in these standards have been determined

based on assumptions of the number, type and usage of equipment producing disturbances in

an installation connected to a supply system and based on the reference impedance given in

IEC 60725 considered to be representative of the source impedance for small residential

installations. T
...

IEC TR 61000-3-14
Edition 1.0 2011-10
TECHNICAL
REPORT
RAPPORT
TECHNIQUE
BASIC EMC PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE EN CEM
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) –
Part 3-14: Assessment of emission limits for harmonics, interharmonics, voltage
fluctuations and unbalance for the connection of disturbing installations to LV
power systems
Compatibilité électromagnétique (CEM) –
Partie 3-14: Evaluation des limites d'émission pour les harmoniques, les
interharmoniques, les fluctuations et les déséquilibres de tension lors du
raccordement d'installations perturbatrices aux réseaux d'alimentation à basse
tension (BT)
IEC TR 61000-3-14:2011-10(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2011 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TR 61000-3-14
Edition 1.0 2011-10
TECHNICAL
REPORT
RAPPORT
TECHNIQUE
BASIC EMC PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE EN CEM
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) –
Part 3-14: Assessment of emission limits for harmonics, interharmonics,
voltage fluctuations and unbalance for the connection of disturbing
installations to LV power systems
Compatibilité électromagnétique (CEM) –
Partie 3-14: Evaluation des limites d'émission pour les harmoniques, les
interharmoniques, les fluctuations et les déséquilibres de tension lors du
raccordement d'installations perturbatrices aux réseaux d'alimentation à basse
tension (BT)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 33.100.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-5299-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 61000-3-14:2011  IEC 2011
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 9

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................... 11

4 Basic EMC concepts ....................................................................................................... 18

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 18

4.2 Compatibility levels ............................................................................................... 18

4.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 18

4.2.2 Harmonics ................................................................................................. 18

4.2.3 Interharmonics........................................................................................... 19

4.2.4 Voltage fluctuations ................................................................................... 20

4.2.5 Unbalance ................................................................................................. 20

4.3 Planning levels ...................................................................................................... 20

4.3.1 Indicative values of planning levels............................................................ 20

4.3.2 Assessment procedure for evaluation against planning levels .................... 21

4.4 Illustration of EMC concepts .................................................................................. 22

4.5 Emission levels ..................................................................................................... 23

5 General principles .......................................................................................................... 24

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 24

5.2 Stage 1: simplified evaluation of disturbance emission .......................................... 24

5.3 Stage 2: emission limits relative to actual system characteristics........................... 25

5.4 Stage 3: acceptance of higher emission levels on a conditional basis .................... 25

5.5 Responsibilities ..................................................................................................... 26

6 General guidelines for the assessment of emission levels .............................................. 26

6.1 Point of evaluation................................................................................................. 26

6.2 Concept of emission level ...................................................................................... 26

6.3 Operating conditions ............................................................................................. 27

6.4 System impedance characteristics ......................................................................... 28

7 General summation law .................................................................................................. 28

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 28

7.2 For harmonics ....................................................................................................... 29

7.3 For flicker and rapid voltage changes .................................................................... 29

7.4 For voltage unbalance ........................................................................................... 29

8 Harmonic emission limits for distorting installations in LV systems ................................. 30

8.1 Stage 1: simplified evaluation of disturbance emission .......................................... 30

8.2 Stage 2: emission limits relative to actual system characteristics........................... 31

8.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 31

8.2.2 Global emission to be shared between the customers ................................ 31

8.2.3 Individual emission limits ........................................................................... 32

8.2.4 Alternative methods for stage 2 ................................................................. 34

8.3 Stage 3: acceptance of higher emission levels on a conditional basis .................... 34

8.4 Emission limits for interharmonics ......................................................................... 34

9 Voltage fluctuation emission limits for installations in LV systems ................................... 35

9.1 Stage 1: simplified evaluation of disturbance emission .......................................... 35

9.2 Stage 2: emission limits relative to actual system characteristics........................... 36

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IEC TR 61000-3-14:2011  IEC 2011 – 3 –

9.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 36

9.2.2 Global emission to be shared between the customers' installations ........... 36

9.2.3 Individual emission limits ........................................................................... 37

9.3 Stage 3: acceptance of higher emission levels on a conditional basis .................... 38

9.4 Rapid voltage changes .......................................................................................... 38

9.4.1 General considerations .............................................................................. 38

9.4.2 Emission limits .......................................................................................... 39

10 Unbalance emission limits for unbalanced installations in LV systems ............................ 39

10.1 General ................................................................................................................. 39

10.2 Stage 1: simplified evaluation of disturbance emission .......................................... 39

10.3 Stage 2: emission limits relative to actual system characteristics........................... 40

10.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 40

10.3.2 Global emission to be shared between the sources of unbalance .............. 40

10.3.3 Individual emission limits ........................................................................... 41

10.4 Stage 3: acceptance of higher emission levels on a conditional basis .................... 43

11 Summary diagrams of the evaluation procedure ............................................................. 43

Annex A (informative) Example of application of the general method for the derivation

of limits for a specific type of LV networks ............................................................................ 47

Annex B (informative) Example of application of the general method for the calculation

of emission limits for a specific installation ............................................................................ 59

Annex C (informative) Harmonic emission limits at stage 2 .................................................. 64

Annex D (informative) Calculation of the reduction factors for harmonics and

unbalance ............................................................................................................................. 77

Annex E (informative) Example of method to allocate harmonic emission limits at

stage 3 ................................................................................................................................. 88

Annex F (informative) Example of application of the approach presented in Annex E ........... 93

Annex G (informative) List of principal letter symbols, subscripts and symbols ..................... 98

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 102

Figure 1 – Illustration of basic voltage quality concepts with time/location statistics

covering the whole system .................................................................................................... 22

Figure 2 – Illustration of basic voltage quality concepts with time statistics relevant to

one site within the whole system ........................................................................................... 23

Figure 3 – Illustration of the emission vector U and its contribution to the measured

disturbance vector U at the point of evaluation .................................................................... 27

Figure 4 – Simplified scheme of an LV public system for harmonics ...................................... 32

Figure 5 – Equivalent circuit and vector diagram for simple assessments ............................. 38

Figure 6 – Example of rapid voltage change associated with motor starting .......................... 38

Figure 7 – Simplified scheme of an LV public system for unbalance ...................................... 41

Figure 8 – Diagram of evaluation procedure for harmonics ................................................... 44

Figure 9 – Diagram of evaluation procedure for voltage fluctuations ..................................... 45

Figure 10 – Diagram of evaluation procedure for unbalance .................................................. 46

Figure A.1 – Simplified scheme of an LV public system for the calculation of harmonic

voltage levels ........................................................................................................................ 51

Figure C.1 – Scheme of an LV public system ........................................................................ 65

Figure C.2 – Scheme of an LV public system in order to work out the global emission

to be shared between the customers ..................................................................................... 66

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– 4 – IEC TR 61000-3-14:2011  IEC 2011
Figure C.3 – Simplified scheme of an LV public system in order to work out the

condition at the LV busbar .................................................................................................... 68

Figure C.4 – Simplified scheme of an LV public system in order to work out the

condition for the LV feeder to which a large installation is connected .................................... 71

Figure D.1 – General scheme of an LV public system ........................................................... 78

Figure D.2 – Simplification of the general scheme of an LV public system for the

calculation of harmonic voltage levels at node Ni – 1st step .................................................. 79

Figure D.3 – Simplification of the general scheme of an LV public system for the

calculation of harmonic voltage levels at node Ni – 2nd step ................................................. 79

Figure D.4 – Simplified scheme of an LV public system for the calculation of harmonic

voltage levels at the far end of LV feeders ............................................................................ 81

Figure D.5 – Simplified scheme of an LV public system for the calculation of voltage

unbalance levels at the far end of LV feeders ....................................................................... 85

Figure E.1 – LV system under study ..................................................................................... 88

Figure E.2 – Large installation components .......................................................................... 90

Figure F.1 – System under study .......................................................................................... 93

Figure F.2 – Data for large installations ................................................................................ 95

Table 1 – Compatibility levels for individual harmonic voltages in LV networks (percent

of fundamental component) reproduced from IEC 61000-2-2 ................................................. 19

Table 2 – Compatibility levels for flicker in LV networks reproduced from

IEC 61000-2-2 ...................................................................................................................... 20

Table 3 – Summation exponent for harmonics (indicative values) ........................................ 29

Table 4 – Stage 1 limits for the relative power variations as a function of the number

of voltage changes per minute .............................................................................................. 36

Table 5 – Minimum emission limits at LV .............................................................................. 37

Table A.1– Example of maximum acceptable global contribution to harmonic voltages ........ 48

Table A.2 – Influence of the total supply capacity of the LV system on ratio UhB/UhFj

(example) ............................................................................................................................. 54

Table A.3 – Influence of the number of LV feeders on ratio UhB/UhFj (example).................. 54

Table A.4 – Influence of the length of LV feeders on ratio UhB/UhFj (example) .................... 54

Table A.5 – Influence of the impedance of LV feeders on ratio UhB/UhFj (example) ............ 55

Table A.6 – Influence of the (odd non-triplen) harmonic order on ratio UhB/UhFj

(example) ............................................................................................................................. 55

Table A.7 – Influence of the summation law exponent on ratio UhB/UhFj (example) ............. 55

Table A.8 – ratio UhB/UhFj for an LV feeder length of 100 m (example) ................................ 56

Table A.9 – ratio UhB/UhFj for an LV feeder length of 300 m (example) ................................ 56

Table A.10 – ratio UhB/UhFj for an LV feeder length of 500 m (example) .............................. 56

Table A.11 – ratio UhB/UhFj for an LV feeder length of 1000 m (example) ............................ 57

Table A.12 – Reduction factor KhB as a function of the harmonic order (example) ............... 58

Table B.1 – Example of conservative harmonic current emission limits for stage 1

assessment .......................................................................................................................... 60

Table B.2 – values of global parameters for harmonics ......................................................... 60

Table B.3 – Emission limits for harmonics (with a single value of KhB) ................................ 61

Table B.4 – emission limits for harmonics (KhB value depending on real network

characteristics) ..................................................................................................................... 62

Table B.5 – Emission limit for voltage unbalance (with a single value of KuB) ...................... 63

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IEC TR 61000-3-14:2011  IEC 2011 – 5 –

Table D.1 – Summation law exponent values used for small installations .............................. 83

Table D.2 – values of the reduction factors in the case of a particular rural overhead

LV system ............................................................................................................................. 84

Table D.3 – values of the reduction factors in the case of a particular urban

underground LV system ........................................................................................................ 84

Table D.4 – Example of typical values of the reduction factors KhB for harmonics ................ 84

Table F.1 – Main system data ............................................................................................... 93

Table F.2 – Known large installation data ............................................................................. 94

Table F.3 – Harmonic voltages due to large installations (all values are in pu, h has

the value 5 and Ah is provisionally taken as 1) ...................................................................... 97

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– 6 – IEC TR 61000-3-14:2011  IEC 2011
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC) –
Part 3-14: Assessment of emission limits for harmonics, interharmonics,
voltage fluctuations and unbalance for the connection of disturbing
installations to LV power systems
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

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with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

technical committee may propose the publication of a technical report when it has collected

data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard, for

example "state of the art".

IEC 61000-3-14, which is a technical report, has been prepared by subcommittee 77A: Low

frequency phenomena, of IEC technical committee 77: Electromagnetic compatibility.

It forms part 3-14 of IEC 61000. It has the status of a basic EMC publication in accordance

with IEC Guide 107.

The first edition of this technical report has been harmonised with IEC/TR 61000-3-6,

IEC/TR 61000-3-7 and IEC/TR 61000-3-13.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC TR 61000-3-14:2011  IEC 2011 – 7 –
The text of this technical report is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
77A/741/DTR 77A/748/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC TR 61000-3-14:2011  IEC 2011
INTRODUCTION
IEC 61000 is published in separate parts according to the following structure:
Part 1: General
General considerations (introduction, fundamental principles)
Definitions, terminology
Part 2: Environment
Description of the environment
Classification of the environment
Compatibility levels
Part 3: Limits
Emission limits
Immunity limits
(in so far as they do not fall under the responsibility of product committees)
Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques
Measurement techniques
Testing techniques
Part 5: Installation and mitigation guidelines
Installation guidelines
Mitigation methods and devices
Part 6: Generic standards
Part 9: Miscellaneous

Each part is further subdivided into several parts published either as International Standards

or as technical specifications or technical reports, some of which have already been published

as sections. Others will be published with the part number followed by a dash and a second

number identifying the subdivision (example: IEC 61000-6-1).
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In 2002, the IEC subcommittee 77A made a request to Cigre study committee C4 and Cired

study committee S2, to organize an appropriate technical forum (joint workin
...

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