Cable networks for television signals, sound signals and interactive services - Part 3-2: Method of measurement of 5<sup>th</sup> order non-linearity for active electronic equipment using five carriers

IEC TR 60728-3-2:2016(E) is applicable to the measurement of 5th order non-linearity for active electronic equipment which carries only digitally modulated television signals, sound signals and signals for interactive services. This method of measurement is specifically applicable to MATV installations but could be applied to broadband and channel selective amplifiers used in all kinds of cable networks.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Oct-2016
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
05-Oct-2016
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IEC TR 60728-3-2:2016 - Cable networks for television signals, sound signals and interactive services - Part 3-2: Method of measurement of 5<sup>th</sup> order non-linearity for active electronic equipment using five carriers
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IEC TR 60728-3-2
Edition 1.0 2016-10
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Cable networks for television signals, sound signals and interactive services –
Part 3-2: Method of measurement of 5 order non-linearity for active electronic
equipment using five carriers
IEC TR 60728-3-2:2016-10(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TR 60728-3-2
Edition 1.0 2016-10
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Cable networks for television signals, sound signals and interactive services –
Part 3-2: Method of measurement of 5 order non-linearity for active electronic
equipment using five carriers
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.060.40; 33.170 ISBN 978-2-8322-3646-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 60728-3-2:2016 © IEC 2016
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 7

2 Normative references..................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms ......................................................... 7

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 7

3.2 Symbols ................................................................................................................ 9

3.3 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 9

4 Method of measurement of 5 order non-linearity for active electronic equipment

using five carriers ........................................................................................................ 10

4.1 General ............................................................................................................... 10

4.2 Equipment required ............................................................................................. 11

4.3 Connection of the equipment ............................................................................... 11

rd th
4.4 Measurement procedure for 3 order and 5 order intermodulation

products .............................................................................................................. 11

4.5 Measurement procedure for 2 order intermodulation products ........................... 13

4.6 Presentation of the results ................................................................................... 13

4.7 Estimated maximum usable output level with a higher number of channels ........... 14

4.8 Setting of the 5 carriers frequencies for narrow-band equipment .......................... 14

5 Equipment characteristics required to be published ...................................................... 14

6 Example of measurement results ................................................................................. 15

Annex A (informative) Examples of measurement frequencies for channel spacing of

7 MHz and 8 MHz ............................................................................................................... 16

A.1 Wide-band equipment ......................................................................................... 16

A.1.1 General ....................................................................................................... 16

A.1.2 Operating frequency range: VHF .................................................................. 16

A.1.3 Operating frequency range: UHF .................................................................. 16

A.2 Narrow-band equipment ...................................................................................... 17

A.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 17

A.2.2 Operating frequency range: VHF .................................................................. 17

A.2.3 Operating frequency range: UHF .................................................................. 17

Annex B (informative) Examples of measurement frequencies for channel spacing of

6 MHz................................................................................................................................. 20

B.1 Wide-band equipment ......................................................................................... 20

B.1.1 General ....................................................................................................... 20

B.1.2 Operating frequency range: VHF .................................................................. 20

B.1.3 Operating frequency range: UHF .................................................................. 20

B.2 Narrow-band equipment ...................................................................................... 21

B.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 21

B.2.2 Operating frequency range: VHF .................................................................. 21

B.2.3 Operating frequency range: UHF .................................................................. 21

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 24

Figure 1 – Measurement configuration with 5 carriers .......................................................... 11

Figure 2 – The five carriers equally spaced at distance D and the intermodulation

products ............................................................................................................................. 12

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC TR 60728-3-2:2016 © IEC 2016 – 3 –
Figure 3 – Example of measurement results using the measuring method with 5

carriers ............................................................................................................................... 15

Table A.1 – Allocation of measurement carrier frequencies (MHz) and intermodulation

products in VHF – Band III .................................................................................................. 16

Table A.2 – Allocation of measurement carrier frequencies (MHz) and intermodulation

products in UHF – Band IV .................................................................................................. 16

Table A.3 – Allocation of measurement carrier frequencies (MHz) and intermodulation

products in UHF – Band V (Low part) .................................................................................. 16

Table A.4 – Allocation of measurement carrier frequencies (MHz) and intermodulation

products in UHF – Band V (High part) ................................................................................. 17

Table A.5 – Allocation of measurement carrier frequencies (MHz) and intermodulation

products in VHF – Band III, narrow-band equipment ............................................................ 17

Table A.6 – Allocation of measurement carrier frequencies (MHz) and intermodulation

products in UHF – Band IV, narrow-band equipment ............................................................ 18

Table A.7 – Allocation of measurement carrier frequencies (MHz) and intermodulation

products in UHF – Band V, narrow-band equipment ............................................................. 19

Table B.1 – Allocation of measurement carrier frequencies (MHz) and intermodulation

products in VHF – Band III .................................................................................................. 20

Table B.2 – Allocation of measurement carrier frequencies (MHz) and intermodulation

products in UHF – Band IV .................................................................................................. 20

Table B.3 – Allocation of measurement carrier frequencies (MHz) and intermodulation

products in UHF – Band V (Low part) .................................................................................. 20

Table B.4 – Allocation of measurement carrier frequencies (MHz) and intermodulation

products in UHF – Band V (High part) ................................................................................. 21

Table B.5 – Allocation of measurement carrier frequencies (MHz) and intermodulation

products in VHF – Band III, narrow-band equipment ............................................................ 21

Table B.6 – Allocation of measurement carrier frequencies (MHz) and intermodulation

products in UHF – Band IV, narrow-band equipment ............................................................ 22

Table B.7 – Allocation of measurement carrier frequencies (MHz) and intermodulation

products in UHF – Band V, narrow-band equipment ............................................................. 23

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– 4 – IEC TR 60728-3-2:2016 © IEC 2016
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
CABLE NETWORKS FOR TELEVISION SIGNALS,
SOUND SIGNALS AND INTERACTIVE SERVICES –
Part 3-2: Method of measurement of 5 order non-linearity
for active electronic equipment using five carriers
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

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patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

technical committee may propose the publication of a technical report when it has collected

data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard, for

example "state of the art".

IEC TR 60728-3-2, which is a technical report, has been prepared by technical area 5: Cable

networks for television signals, sound signals and interactive services, of IEC technical

committee 100: Audio, video and multimedia systems and equipment.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC TR 60728-3-2:2016 © IEC 2016 – 5 –
The text of this technical report is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
100/2708/DTR 100/2761/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

The list of all parts of the IEC 60728 series, under the general title, Cable networks for

television signals, sound signals and interactive services, can be found on the IEC website.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC TR 60728-3-2:2016 © IEC 2016
INTRODUCTION

Standards and deliverables of the IEC 60728 series deal with cable networks including

equipment and associated methods of measurement for headend reception, processing and

distribution of television and sound signals, and for processing, interfacing and transmitting all

kinds of data signals for interactive services using all applicable transmission media. These

signals are typically transmitted in networks by frequency-multiplexing techniques.

This includes, for instance:
• regional and local broadband cable networks,
• extended satellite and terrestrial television distribution systems,
• individual satellite and terrestrial television receiving systems,

and all kinds of equipment, systems and installations used in such cable networks, distribution

and receiving systems.

The extent of this standardization work is from the antennas and/or special signal source

inputs to the headend or other interface points to the network up to the terminal input of the

equipment on the customer's premises.

The standardization work will consider coexistence with users of the RF spectrum in wired

and wireless transmission systems.

The standardization of any user terminals (i.e. tuners, receivers, decoders, multimedia

terminals etc.) as well as of any coaxial, balanced and optical cables and accessories thereof

is excluded.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC TR 60728-3-2:2016 © IEC 2016 – 7 –
CABLE NETWORKS FOR TELEVISION SIGNALS,
SOUND SIGNALS AND INTERACTIVE SERVICES –
Part 3-2: Method of measurement of 5 order non-linearity
for active electronic equipment using five carriers
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60728 is applicable to the measurement of 5 order non-linearity for active

electronic equipment which carries only digitally modulated television signals, sound signals

and signals for interactive services. This method of measurement is specifically applicable to

MATV installations but could be applied to broadband and channel selective amplifiers used in

all kinds of cable networks.

NOTE 1 The methods of measurement of non-linearity (intermodulation products) applicable to active equipment,

when loaded with analogue signals, considered that third order intermodulation products were the most important

ones. The new era of television digital signals, transmitted according to DVB-S/S2, DVB-C/C2 and DVB-T/T2

modulation formats, has shown that the non-linear distortions (intermodulation products) in active equipment, when

loaded with digital signals, are significant up to the 5 order.

NOTE 2 With this method of measurement it is possible to obtain information on non-linear distortions

(intermodulation products) up to the 5 order in active wideband equipment, using only 5 carriers, placed in an

appropriate and suitable way in the equipment bandwidth. Moreover, with this method of measurement it is

possible to obtain information on non-linear distortions (up to the 5 order) in narrowband equipment (channel

amplifiers and channel frequency converters) carrying DVB-C/C2 and/or DVB-T/T2 signals.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60728-3, Cable networks for television signals, sound signals and interactive services –

Part 3: Active wideband equipment for cable networks
3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60728-3 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
extended satellite television distribution network or system

distribution network or system designed to provide sound and television signals received by a

satellite receiving antenna to households in one or more buildings

Note 1 to entry: This kind of network or system could be combined with terrestrial antennas for the additional

reception of TV and/or radio signals via terrestrial networks.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC TR 60728-3-2:2016 © IEC 2016

Note 2 to entry: This kind of network or system could also carry control signals for satellite switched systems or

other signals for special transmission systems (e.g. MoCA or WiFi) in the return path direction.

[SOURCE: IEC 60728-1:2014, 3.1.35]
3.1.2
extended terrestrial television distribution network or system

distribution network or system designed to provide sound and television signals received by a

terrestrial receiving antenna to households in one or more buildings

Note 1 to entry: This kind of network or system could be combined with a satellite antenna for the additional

reception of TV and/or radio signals via satellite networks.

Note 2 to entry: This kind of network or system could also carry other signals for special transmission systems

(e.g. MoCA or WiFi) in the return path direction.
[SOURCE: IEC 60728-1:2014, 3.1.36]
3.1.3
individual satellite television receiving system

system designed to provide sound and television signals received from one or more satellites

to an individual household

Note 1 to entry: This kind of system could also carry control signals for satellite switched systems or other signals

for special transmission systems (e.g. MoCA or WiFi) in the return path direction.

[SOURCE: IEC 60728-1:2014, 3.1.51]
3.1.4
individual terrestrial television receiving system

system designed to provide sound and television signals received via terrestrial broadcast

networks to an individual household

Note 1 to entry: This kind of system could also carry other signals for special transmission systems (e.g. MoCA or

WiFi) in the return path direction.
[SOURCE: IEC 60728-1:2014, 3.1.52]
3.1.5
local broadband cable network

network designed to provide sound and television signals as well as signals for interactive

services to a local area (e.g. one town or one village)
[SOURCE: IEC 60728-1:2014, 3.1.56]
3.1.6
MATV network

extended terrestrial television distribution networks or systems designed to provide sound and

television signals received by terrestrial receiving antennas to households in one or more

buildings
Note 1 to entry: Originally defined as Master Antenna Television network.

Note 2 to entry: This kind of network or system could be combined with a satellite antenna for the additional

reception of TV and/or radio signals via satellite networks.

Note 3 to entry: This kind of network or system could also carry other signals for special transmission systems

(e.g. MoCA or WiFi) in the return path direction.
[SOURCE: IEC 60728-1:2014, 3.1.60]
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC TR 60728-3-2:2016 © IEC 2016 – 9 –
3.1.7
regional broadband cable network

network designed to provide sound and television signals as well as signals for interactive

services to a regional area covering several towns and/or villages
[SOURCE: IEC 60728-1:2014, 3.1.75]
3.1.8
maximum operating output level

output level of the EUT when measured with an input signal containing five carriers equally

spaced, at distance D, that produces a given C/I intermodulation ratio at frequencies −2D,

−D lower than the lowest carrier and at frequencies +D, +2D higher than the highest carrier of

the applied signal
SEE: Figure 2.
3.2 Symbols

The following graphical symbols are used in the figures of this document. These symbols are

either listed in IEC 60617 or based on symbols defined in IEC 60617.
Symbols Terms Symbols Terms
sine-wave generator variable attenuator
[IEC 60617-S01226 (2001-07)] [IEC 60617-S01245 (2001-07)]
combiner based on spectrum analyzer (electrical) based
∑ P(f)
[IEC 60617-S00059 (2001-07)] on [IEC 60617-S00910 (2001-07)]
equipment under test based on
EUT
[IEC 60617-S00059 (2001-07)]
3.3 Abbreviated terms
DVB Digital Video Broadcasting
EUT Equipment Under Test
MATV Master Antenna TeleVision (system)
MoCA Multimedia over Coax Alliance
QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
RF Radio Frequency
UHF Ultra-High Frequency
VHF Very-High Frequency
U maximum operating output level with five carriers applied
M5C
U maximum operating output level with N carriers applied
MNC
WiFi synonym of WLAN
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC TR 60728-3-2:2016 © IEC 2016
4 Method of measurement of 5 order non-linearity for active electronic
equipment using five carriers
4.1 General

Active equipment (e.g. amplifiers) has a non-linear behaviour mainly due to the third and fifth

order components of the transfer (input-output) characteristic approximated by the formula:

2 3 4 5
V = k V + k V + k V + k V + k V (1)
u 1 in 2 in 3 in 4 in 5 in
The gain of the active equipment (amplifier) is directly related to the k value.

The measurement method of non-linearity for active equipment using five carriers allows

rd th

analysis of the importance and contribution of both the 3 and 5 order intermodulation

products within the active equipment bandwidth.

The method of measurement requires that five carriers, equally spaced at a distance D, be

applied at the input of the active equipment:

V = V cos (2πf t) + V cos (2πf t) + V cos (2πf t) + V cos (2πf t) + V cos (2πf t) (2)

in i i j j k k z z w w
rd th

Measurements are made at the frequencies of 3 and 5 order intermodulation products with

significant levels, namely:

– 3 order (e.g. at f + f − f = f − D and at −f + f + f = f + D) (beats of 3 carriers) (3)

i j k i k z w w

– 3 order (e.g. at f + f − f = f − 2D and at −f + f + f = f + 2D) (beats of 3 carriers) (4)

i j z i j z w w

– 5 order (e.g. at f + f − f + f − f = f − 2D and at −f + f − f + f + f = f + 2D)

i j k z w i i j k z w w
(beats of 5 carriers) (5)
– 5 order (e.g. at 2f − f + f − f = f − 2D or at 2f − f + f − f = f − D
i j k z i j k z w i

and at 2f − f + f − f = f + D or at 2f − f + f − f = f + 2D) (beats of 4 carriers) (6)

z k j i w w z k j w
rd th

It is important to note that 3 order and 5 order intermodulation products both fall at the

same frequencies which are:

– at distance D below the first carrier and at distance D above the fifth carrier,

– at distance 2D below the first carrier and at distance 2D above the fifth carrier.

The method of measurement also allows the determination of the 2 order intermodulation

products at frequencies that are (besides the 2 harmonic frequency of each carrier) at the

sum and difference frequency of the 5 applied carriers:
– 2 order at D, 2D, 3D, 4D (frequency difference of two applied carriers
(beats of 2 carriers)
(e.g. f − f = D, f − f = 2D, f − f = 3D, f − f = 4D)
w z w k w j w i
– 2 order at the frequency sum of two applied carriers (beats of 2 carriers)
(e.g.: f + f = 2f + D and f + f = 2f − D, ..f + f = 2f + D and f + f =
i j i i j j j k j j k
2f − D,…… ...f + f = 2f + 2D and f + f = 2f − 2D,………..
k i k i i k k
f + f = 2f + 3D and f + f = 2f − 3D, ……….…f + f =
i z i i z z i w
2f + 4D and f + f = 2f − 4D, ...etc.
i i w w

i.e.: in many cases these products are at the second harmonic frequency of each carrier

±D, ±2D, ±3D, ±4D).
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC TR 60728-3-2:2016 © IEC 2016 – 11 –
4.2 Equipment required
The equipment required is:

a) five sine-wave signal generators able to produce the five carriers at a suitable level;

b) a combiner for the output signals of the five signal generators, with negligible distortion

and suitable isolation for the applied signals;
c) precision attenuators (1 dB steps) to be placed before an
...

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