Photovoltaic (PV) modules - Transportation testing - Part 1: Transportation and shipping of module package units

IEC 62759-1:2022 describes methods for the simulation of transportation of complete package units of modules and combined subsequent environmental impacts.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2015. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a. Cancellation of tests and references to relevant standards for CPV. b. Deletion of different classes for PV modules. c. Deletion of requirement for minimum 10 modules per shipping unit. d. Implementation of stabilization as intermediate measurement. e. Addition of pass/fail criteria. f. Change of requirements for retesting. g. Change of number of cycles in dynamic mechanical load test.

Modules photovoltaïques (PV) - Essais de transport - Partie 1: Transport et expédition d'unités d'emballage de modules

IEC 62759-1:2022 décrit les méthodes de simulation de transport de l’ensemble des unités d’emballage des modules et des impacts environnementaux résultants combinés. Le présent document s’applique aux modules photovoltaïques à plaque plane.
Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2015. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l’édition précédente:
a. annulation des essais et des références relatifs aux normes applicables aux modules photovoltaïques à concentration (CPV);
b. suppression des différentes classes de modules PV;
c. suppression du minimum exigé de 10 modules par colis d’expédition;
d. mise en place de la stabilisation comme mesurage intermédiaire;
e. ajout des critères d’acceptation/de rejet;
f. modification des exigences pour les contre-essais;
g. modification du nombre de cycles dans l’essai de charge mécanique dynamique.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Jul-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
07-Jul-2022
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IEC 62759-1
Edition 2.0 2022-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Photovoltaic (PV) modules – Transportation testing –
Part 1: Transportation and shipping of module package units
Modules photovoltaïques (PV) – Essais de transport –
Partie 1: Transport et expédition d'unités d'emballage de modules
IEC 62759-1:2022-07(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62759-1
Edition 2.0 2022-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Photovoltaic (PV) modules – Transportation testing –
Part 1: Transportation and shipping of module package units
Modules photovoltaïques (PV) – Essais de transport –
Partie 1: Transport et expédition d'unités d'emballage de modules
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 27.160 ISBN 978-2-8322-1431-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62759-1:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 5

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Sampling ......................................................................................................................... 7

5 Handling .......................................................................................................................... 7

6 Testing procedures .......................................................................................................... 7

6.1 General ................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Measurements ........................................................................................................ 8

6.3 Transportation testing ............................................................................................. 9

6.3.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9

6.3.2 Random vibration testing ................................................................................. 9

6.3.3 Shock testing ................................................................................................. 10

6.4 Environmental stress tests .................................................................................... 11

6.4.1 Path A ........................................................................................................... 11

6.4.2 Path B ........................................................................................................... 11

7 Pass criteria .................................................................................................................. 12

8 Reporting....................................................................................................................... 12

Annex A (informative) Test profiles ...................................................................................... 14

A.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 14

A.2 Data points of appropriate PSD test profiles .......................................................... 14

Annex B (normative) Retesting ............................................................................................ 17

B.1 Overview of transportation tests after modification ................................................ 17

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 19

Figure 1 – Test sequences for PV modules ............................................................................. 8

Figure A.1 – Appropriate PSD test profile.............................................................................. 16

Table A.1 – Severity of common transport test profiles: complete and in range

(1 Hz to 200 Hz) ................................................................................................................... 14

Table A.2 – ASTM D4169-16 (medium) and ISTA 3E:2017 .................................................... 15

Table B.1 – Retests .............................................................................................................. 17

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62759-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MODULES –
TRANSPORTATION TESTING –
Part 1: Transportation and shipping of module package units
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 62759-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 82: Solar photovoltaic energy

systems. It is an International Standard.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2015. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) Cancellation of tests and references to relevant standards for CPV.
b) Deletion of different classes for PV modules.
c) Deletion of requirement for minimum 10 modules per shipping unit.
d) Implementation of stabilization as intermediate measurement.
e) Addition of pass/fail criteria.
f) Change of requirements for retesting.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62759-1:2022 © IEC 2022

g) Change of number of cycles in dynamic mechanical load test. See also clause 6.4.2.1.

The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
82/2029/FDIS 82/2052/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62759 series, published under the general title Photovoltaic (PV)

modules – Transportation testing, can be found on the IEC website.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62759-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –
PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MODULES –
TRANSPORTATION TESTING –
Part 1: Transportation and shipping of module package units
1 Scope

Photovoltaic (PV) modules are electrical devices intended for continuous outdoor exposure

during their lifetime. Existing type approval standards do not consider mechanical stresses that

may occur during transportation to the PV installation destination.

This part of IEC 62759 describes methods for the simulation of transportation of complete

package units of modules and combined subsequent environmental impacts.
A list of design modifications which require a retest is provided in Annex B.
This document applies to flat plate photovoltaic modules.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 60068-2-27:2008, Environmental testing – Part 2-27: Tests – Test Ea and guidance: Shock

IEC TS 60904-13, Photovoltaic devices – Part 13: Electroluminescence of photovoltaic modules

IEC 61215-1:2021, Terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules – Design qualification and type

approval – Part 1: Test requirements

IEC 61215-2:2021, Terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules – Design qualification and type

approval – Part 2: Test procedures

IEC 61730-2:2022, Photovoltaic (PV) module safety qualification – Part 2: Requirements for

testing

IEC TS 61836, Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems – Terms, definitions and symbols

IEC TS 62782:2016, Photovoltaic (PV) modules – Cyclic (dynamic) mechanical load testing

ASTM D880-92, Standard Test Method for Impact Testing for Shipping Containers and Systems

ASTM D4169-16, Standard Practice for Performance Testing of Shipping Containers and

Systems

ASTM D4728:2006, Standard Test Method for Random Vibration Testing of Shipping Containers

ASTM D5277-92, Test method for performing programmed horizontal impact using an inclined

impact tester
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62759-1:2022 © IEC 2022
ISTA 3E:2017, Unitized Loads of Same Product
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC TS 61836 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
bandwidth
difference in Hz between the upper and lower limits of a frequency band

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of the described test method, the bandwidth may be considered equivalent to the

frequency resolution of a spectrum analysis.
3.2
overall g
RMS

square root of the integral of power spectral density over the total frequency range

Note 1 to entry: It describes the severity or harshness of the testing grade.
3.3
root mean square
RMS
square root of the mean square value

Note 1 to entry: In the exclusive case of a sine wave, the RMS value is 0,707 times peak value.

3.4
random vibration

oscillation whose instantaneous amplitude is not prescribed for any given instant in time

Note 1 to entry: The instantaneous amplitudes of a random vibration are prescribed by a probability distribution

function, the integral of which, over a given amplitude range, will give the probable percentage of time that the

amplitude will fall within that range.

Note 2 to entry: Random vibration contains no periodic or quasi-periodic components.

3.5
packaging

material and technology used to protect goods from transportation stresses and separate

individual units from each other
3.6
power spectral density
PSD

expression of random vibration in terms of mean square acceleration per unit of frequency

Note 1 to entry: Power spectral density is the limit of the mean square amplitude in a given rectangular waveband

divided by the bandwidth, as the bandwidth approaches zero.
2 2 2 3 2

Note 2 to entry: The units are (m/s ) /Hz, it is equal to m /s . The coherent non-SI unit is g /Hz.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62759-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 7 –
4 Sampling

As test samples for the basic transportation and shock test methods, a shipping unit of PV

modules, shall be taken at random from a production batch or batches. When the test samples

are prototypes of a new design and not from production, this fact shall be noted in the test

report. The shipping unit shall contain the usual number of PV modules.

Further three PV modules are to be taken from a separate shipping unit not undergoing any

transportation simulation.

Use the regular shipment packaging materials with the modules, as marketed and designed by

the manufacturer.

The modules shall have been manufactured from specified materials and components in

accordance with the relevant drawings and process sheets and shall have been subjected to

the manufacturer's normal inspection, quality control and production acceptance procedures.

The modules shall be complete in every detail, including a type label and shall be accompanied

by the manufacturer's handling, mounting, shipping/packaging and installation instructions,

including the information of the maximum permissible system voltage.

The test specimen of shipping unit shall be packed in accordance with the standard procedures

used to ship modules to customers.
5 Handling

The test samples shall be handled with suitable care prior to the application of the tests

described in this document. It should be ensured that the test samples are not exposed to

additional mechanical impacts in form of shocks, rough handling, dropping, etc.

For the transportation from the manufacturer to the test laboratory special care should be taken

to avoid any kind of damage. A special packaging concept, e.g. an additional packaging, special

transportation method, etc., may be considered for this particular shipping route (manufacturer

– test site). Testing shall be carried out without additional packaging.
6 Testing procedures
6.1 General

Performance measurements, visual inspection, insulation and wet leakage current testing shall

be performed in accordance with IEC 61215-2:2021, MQT 01, MQT 02, and in accordance with

IEC 61730-2:2022, MST 16 and MST 17 as reference initial and control measurements.

Electroluminescence images according to IEC TS 60904-13 may be used to detect cracks which

are not visible at initial and intermediate status (no pass/fail criteria are specified).

The actual transportation test is shown in Figure 1. The sequences of combined transportation

stress testing and the possible effects of these impacts on the PV modules shall detect early

failures in regards to future life time stresses.

Separate modules, that have not undergone any transportation testing, are also subjected to

the stress tests in sequences A and B. These modules shall be used to identify if defects are

caused by transportation test and subsequent environmental test, or by environmental test only.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62759-1:2022 © IEC 2022
* See 6.2 for details on measurements.
Figure 1 – Test sequences for PV modules
6.2 Measurements

Each initial, intermediate and final measurement shall characterize the electrical performance

of the PV modules and document the influence of the stress tests. The initial, intermediate and

final measurements are:
• Visual inspection according to IEC 61215-2:2021 (MQT 01)

• Stabilization (optional for intermediate measurements) according to IEC 61215-2:2021

(MQT 19)
• Maximum power determination according to IEC 61215-2:2021 (MQT 02)
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62759-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 9 –
• Insulation test according to IEC 61730-2:2022 (MST 16)

• Continuity test of equipotential bonding according to IEC 61730-2:2021 (MST 13)

• Wet leakage current test according to IEC 61730-2:2022 (MST 17)

• Electroluminescence images according to IEC TS 60904-13 or alternative methods, e.g.

dark I-V, may be used to detect cracks which are not visible at initial and intermediate status

(no pass/fail criteria are specified).

NOTE While the maximum power determination is only a reference measurement, some PV technologies may need

stabilization according to their respective type approval standard to arrive at meaningful data.

6.3 Transportation testing
6.3.1 General

Performing tests of random vibration and various shock tests on the complete package system

of modules simulates road transportation and the related mechanical impacts on shipping units

and the PV modules that are contained within.

The packaged-product shall be stored at laboratory ambient temperature and humidity for 12 h

prior to starting the tests.

NOTE Sequence B of Figure 1 can be extended by the UV preconditioning test to be able to coordinate with

IEC 61215 if desired.

While the PV modules are carefully unpacked, the modules shall be marked: the original

packaging state and the module position, e.g. vertically or horizontally stacked within the

shipping unit shall be adequately documented.

After the initial measurements described in 6.2, the modules shall be restored to their original

packaged condition in order to perform the tests described in 6.3.2 and 6.3.3.
6.3.2 Random vibration testing
6.3.2.1 Purpose

Transportation simulation is achieved through a random vibration test. Truck transportation is

considered to be the most severe method of long distance transportation for shipping goods.

The truck transportation test therefore covers most other means of transportation.

6.3.2.2 Apparatus

Test equipment as described in ASTM D4728:2006, Clause 5 – Apparatus shall be used.

6.3.2.3 Procedure

The transportation simulation shall be performed in accordance with ASTM D4169-16 with one

complete stack of modules:
The applied test profile shall meet the following requirements:
a) A frequency range from 1 Hz to 200 Hz.
as described in Annex A.
b) A test severity not below 0,54 g
RMS
c) The test duration shall last at least 180 min.
d) Excitation axis: vertical.

Following the random vibration test, a series of shock tests shall be carried out on the shipping

unit.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62759-1:2022 © IEC 2022
6.3.3 Shock testing
6.3.3.1 Incline impact test
6.3.3.1.1 Purpose

The incline impact test shall be performed to simulate stress potentially caused by forklift

transportation.
6.3.3.1.2 Apparatus
Test equipment as described in ASTM D880-92 shall be used.
6.3.3.1.3 Procedure
The procedure as described in ISTA 3E Test Block 2 shall be followed.
6.3.3.2 Rotational edge drop test
6.3.3.2.1 Purpose

A rotational edge drop test shall be performed to test the integrity of the shipping supporting

units pallet.
6.3.3.2.2 Apparatus
Test equipment as described in ISTA 3E Test Block 3 shall be used.
6.3.3.2.3 Procedure
The procedure as described in ISTA 3E Test Block 3 shall be followed.
6.3.3.3 Vertical shock test
6.3.3.3.1 Purpose

A shock test according to IEC 60068-2-27 shall be performed. This test procedure simulates

stresses as may be caused by potholes or sidewalk edges which are not covered by the random

vibration test.
6.3.3.3.2 Apparatus
Test equipment as described in IEC 60068-2-27:2008, Clause 4 shall be used.

The following deviation will be tolerated, if the applied variations are explained and clearly

documented in the report:

• Extension of the mounting table in order to fit larger package units in an appropriate way.

6.3.3.3.3 Procedure

100 half sinusoidal shocks with duration of 11 ms shall be applied vertically (z direction).

6.3.3.4 Horizontal impact test
6.3.3.4.1 Purpose

For testing the integrity of the shipping unit regarding internal displacements or displacements

of the shipping goods against the pallet, an incline impact test shall be performed in accordance

with ASTM D5277-92. This test simulates sudden deceleration and sideward acceleration in

curves during truck transportation.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 62759-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 11 –
6.3.3.4.2 Apparatus
Test equipment as described in ASTM D5277-92 shall be used.
6.3.3.4.3 Procedure

A test according to ASTM D5277-92 “test method for performing programmed horizontal impact

using an incline impact tester” shall be performed. The difference compared to the incline impact

test is that the shipping unit is decelerated on the transport sledge / transport vehicle.

The pallet has to be restrained, and the load on top of the pallet has to be unrestrained.

The characteristic of this impact shall be half sinusoidal shock like. The half sinus shock shall

have a deceleration of 1 g and a length of 350 ms and shall be applied on each horizontal side.

It is common to start with an initial value of 0,3 g and increase the deceleration stepwise until

the integrity of the shipping unit is damaged or the end value of 1 g is reached.

6.4 Environmental stress tests
6.4.1 Path A
6.4.1.1 General
The transportation test is followed by a thermal cycling test in accordance with
IEC 61215‑2:2021 MQT 11 for 200 cycles.
6.4.1.2 Sample allocation for path A

a) 1 x module (highest power loss relative to initial measurement after transport simulation);

b) 1 x module (lowest power loss relative to initial measurement after transport simulation);

c) 1 x module from separate shipping unit.

NOTE The thermal cycling test represents the worst case variability of temperature in temperate climates. In

general, PV modules are multilayer products. Each material (layer) has a different thermal expansion. This causes

stress between the layers while thermal cycling. The cells, the joints and cell/string connectors may be especially

prone to strains.
6.4.2 Path B
6.4.2.1 General

The transportation test is followed by a dynamic mechanical load test according to

IEC TS 62782 (1 000 cycles), a thermal cycling test according to IEC 61215-2:2021 MQT 11

with 50 cycles and a humidity-freeze test according to IEC 61215-2:2021 MQT 12 with

...

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