Fuel cell technologies - Part 7-2: Test methods - Single cell and stack performance tests for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

IEC 62282-7-2:2021 applies to SOFC cell/stack assembly units, testing systems, instruments and measuring methods, and specifies test methods to test the performance of SOFC cells and stacks. This document is not applicable to small button cells that are designed for SOFC material testing and provide no practical means of fuel utilization measurement. This document is used based on the recommendation of the entity that provides the cell performance specification or for acquiring data on a cell or stack in order to estimate the performance of a system based on it. Users of this document can selectively execute test items suitable for their purposes from those described in this document. This first edition cancels and replaces IEC TS 62282-7-2 published in 2014. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to IEC TS 62282­7-2:2014:
- users can substitute selected test methods of this document with equivalent test methods of IEC 62282-8-101 for solid oxide cell (SOC) operation for energy storage purposes, operated in reverse or reversible mode;
- terms and definitions are aligned with the corresponding terms and definitions in IEC 62282-8-101;
- symbols are aligned with the corresponding symbols in IEC 62282-8-101.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
20-May-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
21-May-2021
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IEC 62282-7-2
Edition 1.0 2021-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Fuel cell technologies –
Part 7-2: Test methods – Single cell and stack performance tests for solid oxide
fuel cells (SOFCs)
IEC 62282-7-2:2021-05(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62282-7-2
Edition 1.0 2021-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Fuel cell technologies –
Part 7-2: Test methods – Single cell and stack performance tests for solid oxide
fuel cells (SOFCs)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 27.070 ISBN 978-2-8322-9805-3

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62282-7-2:2021  IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms, definitions and symbols........................................................................................ 8

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 8

3.2 Symbols ................................................................................................................ 10

4 General safety conditions .............................................................................................. 11

5 Cell/stack assembly unit ................................................................................................ 11

6 Testing system .............................................................................................................. 12

6.1 Subsystems in testing system ............................................................................... 12

6.2 Maximum variation in control items of testing system ............................................ 13

7 Instruments and measurement methods ........................................................................ 14

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 14

7.2 Instrument uncertainty .......................................................................................... 14

7.3 Anode gas ............................................................................................................ 14

7.4 Cathode gas ......................................................................................................... 17

7.5 Output voltage ...................................................................................................... 18

7.6 Output current ....................................................................................................... 18

7.7 Cell/stack assembly unit temperature .................................................................... 18

7.8 Mechanical load .................................................................................................... 18

7.9 Total impedance ................................................................................................... 18

7.10 Ambient conditions................................................................................................ 19

8 Test preparation ............................................................................................................ 19

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 19

8.2 Standard test conditions and test range ................................................................ 19

8.3 Components and impurities of anode gas and cathode gas ................................... 20

8.4 Basis of the test procedure ................................................................................... 20

8.5 Confirmation of aging conditions of unit ................................................................ 20

8.6 Confirmation of criteria of stable state ................................................................... 20

8.7 Data acquisition method ........................................................................................ 20

9 Test procedure .............................................................................................................. 20

9.1 Set-up ................................................................................................................... 20

9.2 Initial conditioning ................................................................................................. 21

9.3 Shut-down ............................................................................................................ 21

10 Performance test ........................................................................................................... 21

10.1 Rated power test ................................................................................................... 21

10.2 Current-voltage characteristics test ....................................................................... 22

10.3 Effective fuel utilization dependency test .............................................................. 23

10.4 Long term durability test ....................................................................................... 24

10.5 Thermal cycling durability test ............................................................................... 25

10.6 Internal reforming performance test ...................................................................... 26

10.7 Resistance components identification test ............................................................. 27

11 Test report ..................................................................................................................... 28

11.1 General ................................................................................................................. 28

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62282-7-2:2021  IEC 2021 – 3 –

11.2 Report items ......................................................................................................... 28

11.3 Test unit data description ...................................................................................... 29

11.4 Test conditions description.................................................................................... 29

11.5 Test data description ............................................................................................ 29

11.6 Uncertainty evaluation .......................................................................................... 29

Annex A (informative) Example of cell assembly unit ........................................................... 30

Annex B (informative) Calculation of effective fuel utilization ............................................... 31

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 31

B.2 Calculation method ............................................................................................... 31

B.3 Calculation examples ............................................................................................ 32

Annex C (informative) Calculation of effective oxygen utilization .......................................... 34

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 34

C.2 Calculation method ............................................................................................... 34

C.3 Calculation example .............................................................................................. 35

Annex D (informative) Maximum width of the voltage hysteresis in I‑V characteristics test ... 36

Annex E (informative) Current-voltage characteristics test under constant effective

fuel utilization ....................................................................................................................... 37

Annex F (informative) Test report (template) ........................................................................ 38

F.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 38

F.2 General information .............................................................................................. 38

F.3 Test unit data description ...................................................................................... 38

F.4 Test conditions ..................................................................................................... 39

F.5 Rated power test ................................................................................................... 39

F.6 Current-voltage characteristics test ....................................................................... 39

F.7 Effective fuel utilization dependency test .............................................................. 40

F.8 Long-term durability test ....................................................................................... 41

F.9 Thermal cycling durability test ............................................................................... 42

F.10 Internal reforming performance test ...................................................................... 42

F.11 Resistance components identification test ............................................................. 43

Annex G (informative) Method for determining instrument uncertainty .................................. 44

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 45

Figure 1 – Testing system ..................................................................................................... 12

Figure 2 – Typical diagram of complex impedance plot for SOFC .......................................... 28

Figure A.1 – Example of cell assembly unit ........................................................................... 30

Figure D.1 – Voltage hysteresis at a given sweep rate in I-V characteristics test ................... 36

Figure E.1 – Example of the record in current-voltage characteristics test under

constant effective fuel utilization ........................................................................................... 37

Table 1 – Symbols ................................................................................................................ 10

Table B.1 − n for representative fuels .................................................................................. 32

Table B.2 − Anode gas composition, flow rate of each fuel component q , and n q ............... 32

j j j

Table C.1 − Cathode gas composition, q , and I ....................................................... 35

O2 theory
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– 4 – IEC 62282-7-2:2021  IEC 2021
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES –
Part 7-2: Test methods – Single cell and
stack performance tests for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC

Publication(s)"). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

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4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

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6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 62282-7-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 105: Fuel cell technologies. It

is an International Standard.
This first edition cancels and replaces IEC TS 62282-7-2 published in 2014.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to

IEC TS 62282-7-2:2014:

a) users can substitute selected test methods of this document with equivalent test methods

of IEC 62282-8-101 for solid oxide cell (SOC) operation for energy storage purposes,

operated in reverse or reversible mode;

b) terms and definitions are aligned with the corresponding terms and definitions in

IEC 62282-8-101;
c) symbols are aligned with the corresponding symbols in IEC 62282-8-101.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62282-7-2:2021  IEC 2021 – 5 –
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
105/847/FDIS 105/851/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement,

available at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by

IEC are described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62282 series, published under the general title Fuel cell

technologies, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62282-7-2:2021  IEC 2021
INTRODUCTION

This part of IEC 62282 specifies test methods for a single cell and stack (denoted as

"cell/stack" hereafter) that is required in power generation systems using solid oxide fuel cells

(SOFCs).

SOFCs have a broad range of geometry and size. As such, in general, peripherals like current

collectors and gas manifolds are unique to each cell or stack and are often incorporated into a

cell or stack to form one integrated unit. In addition, they tend to have a significant effect on

the power generation characteristics of the cell or stack. This document therefore introduces

as its subject "cell/stack assembly units", which are defined as those units containing not only

a cell or stack but also peripherals.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62282-7-2:2021  IEC 2021 – 7 –
FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES –
Part 7-2: Test methods – Single cell and
stack performance tests for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62282 applies to SOFC cell/stack assembly units, testing systems,

instruments and measuring methods, and specifies test methods to test the performance of

SOFC cells and stacks.

This document is not applicable to small button cells that are designed for SOFC material

testing and provide no practical means of fuel utilization measurement.

This document is used based on the recommendation of the entity that provides the cell

performance specification or for acquiring data on a cell or stack in order to estimate the

performance of a system based on it. Users of this document can selectively execute test

items suitable for their purposes from those described in this document.

Users can substitute selected test methods of this document with equivalent test methods of

IEC 62282-8-101 for solid oxide cell (SOC) operation for energy storage purposes, operated

in reverse or reversible mode.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050-485, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 485: Fuel cell

technologies (available at http://www.electropedia.org)
IEC 60584-1, Thermocouples – Part 1: EMF specifications and tolerances

IEC 60584-3, Thermocouples – Part 3: Extension and compensating cables – Tolerances and

identification system

IEC 61515, Mineral insulated metal-sheathed thermocouple cables and thermocouples

ISO 5168, Measurement of fluid flow – Procedures for the evaluation of uncertainties

ISO 6141, Gas analysis – Contents of certificates for calibration gas mixtures

ISO 6142-1, Gas analysis – Preparation of calibration gas mixtures – Gravimetric method for

Class I mixtures

ISO 6143, Gas analysis – Comparison methods for determining and checking the composition

of calibration gas mixtures

ISO 6145-7, Gas analysis – Preparation of calibration gas mixtures using dynamic methods –

Part 7: Thermal mass-flow controllers
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62282-7-2:2021  IEC 2021

ISO 6974 (all parts), Natural gas – Determination of composition with defined uncertainty by

gas chromatography

ISO 7066-2, Assessment of uncertainty in the calibration and use of flow measurement

devices – Part 2: Non-linear calibration relationships
ISO 8573-1, Compressed air – Part 1: Contaminants and purity classes
ISO 8756, Air quality – Handling of temperature, pressure and humidity data

ISO 12185, Crude petroleum and petroleum products – Determination of density – Oscillating

U-tube method
3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60050-485 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
cell/stack assembly unit

unit including a single cell or stack, as well as gas supply parts, current collector parts, and

any other peripherals as required for power generation tests
3.1.2
active electrode area
geometric electrode area upon which an electrochemical reaction occurs
Note 1 to entry: Usually this is the smaller of the anode and cathode areas.
3.1.3
current density
current divided by the active electrode area
3.1.4
average repeating unit voltage

cell/stack assembly unit voltage divided by the number of the cells in a series connection in

the unit
3.1.5
standard temperature and pressure
STP
temperature of 0 °C and an absolute pressure of 101,325 kPa, respectively
3.1.6
anode gas

gas that is supplied to the inlet of the anode of a single cell/stack assembly unit

Note 1 to entry: Such a gas belongs to one of the following categories:

a) pure hydrogen or mixture that contains hydrogen as a principal component with water vapour or nitrogen;

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62282-7-2:2021  IEC 2021 – 9 –

b) reformed gas of raw fuel of SOFC such as methane or kerosene premixed with water vapour or air as oxidant;

c) simulated gas of reformate that contains hydrogen, water vapour, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane,

nitrogen, etc., as main components;

d) methane, alcohols and other raw fuels directly supplied in pure form or mixed with water vapour and/or air.

3.1.7
cathode gas

gas that is supplied to the inlet of the cathode of a single cell/stack assembly unit

Note 1 to entry: Oxygen and nitrogen are its main components.
3.1.8
current collector

conductive material in a fuel cell that collects electrons from the anode side or conducts

electrons to the cathode side
3.1.9
stable state

condition of a cell/stack assembly unit at which the unit is stable enough for any controlling

parameter and the output voltage or output current of the unit to remain within its tolerance

range of variation
3.1.10
theoretical current
current when the supplied anode gas or cathode gas is completely consumed in
electrochemical reactions divided by the number of cells in a series connection
3.1.11
effective fuel utilization

ratio of the actual output current of the cell/stack assembly unit to the theoretical current

Note 1 to entry: The effective utilization is the utilization of reactants in the electrochemical reaction due to the

actual current. This may be less than the actual or total utilization if there are gas inlet and cross leaks.

Note 2 to entry: Causes of less-than-optimal currents include losses due to electronic conduction within the

cell/stack assembly, gas leaks and anode gas pass-through.

Note 3 to entry: A calculation method of effective fuel utilization is given in Annex B.

3.1.12
effective oxygen utilization

ratio of the actual output current of the cell/stack assembly unit to the theoretical current

Note 1 to entry: The effective utilization is the utilization of reactants in the electrochemical reaction due to the

actual current. This may be less than the actual or total utilization if there are gas inlet and cross leaks.

Note 2 to entry: A calculation method of effective oxygen utilization is given in Annex C.

3.1.13
maximum effective fuel utilization

highest effective fuel utilization that the unit can operate at, without causing unacceptable

degradation

Note 1 to entry: The acceptable degradation rate is usually obtained from the developer.

3.1.14
minimum cell/stack assembly unit voltage
lowest cell/stack assembly unit voltage specified by the manufacturer
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62282-7-2:2021  IEC 2021
3.1.15
open circuit voltage
OCV

voltage across the terminals of a fuel cell with cathode and anode gases present and in the

absence of external current flow
Note 1 to entry: Also known as "no-load voltage".
3.1.16
power density
ratio of the power to the active electrode area of a cell/stack assembly unit

Note 1 to entry: Power density is calculated from the voltage multiplied by the current density (P = V × J, where J

is current density).
3.1.17
total impedance

frequency-dependent losses due to ohmic, activation, diffusion, concentration effects, stray

(parasitic) capacitance and inductances
3.1.18
total resistance
real part of the low-frequency limit of total impedance
3.1.19
stoichiometric ratio

ratio between the number of moles of reactant gas flowing per unit time to that needed by the

electrochemical reaction

Note 1 to entry: The terms, "stoichiometric ratio" and "reactant gas utilization," are related. The reciprocal of the

fraction of the gas utilized is the stoichiometric ratio.
3.2 Symbols
Table 1 lists the symbols and units that are used in this document.
Table 1 – Symbols
Symbol Definition Unit
a Error limit specified from specification of instrument
I Current A
J Current density A/cm
n Number of transferred electrons
N Number of cells in a series connection
p Absolute pressure of anode gas kPa
p Absolute pressure of cathode gas kPa
P Output power W
P Output power density W/cm
q Flow rate of anode gas l/min (STP)
q Flow rate of cathode gas l/min (STP)
q Flow rate of fuel component j in anode gas l/min (STP)
t Time s, min, h
T Cell/stack assembly unit operating temperature °C
u Combined standard uncertainty for instruments
u Standard uncertainty for instrument i
I,i
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 62282-7-2:2021  IEC 2021 – 11 –
Symbol Definition Unit
U Effective fuel utilization %
U Effective oxygen utilization %
U Extended instrument uncertainty
V Voltage V
x Molar fraction of component i or Mole percent of component i mol/mol or mol %
c Concentration of component i mol/m
ξ Hydrocarbon conversion rate for hydrocarbon component j %
Denotes where the unit varies depending on the specification.
Mole percent expressed as one hundred times mole fraction.
4 General safety conditions

An operating fuel cell uses oxidizing and combustible gases. Typically, these gases are stored

in high-pressure containers. The fuel cell itself may be operated at pressu
...

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