Nanomanufacturing - Material specifications - Part 5-2: Nano-enabled electrodes of electrochemical capacitors - Blank detail specification

IEC 62565-5-2:2022(E) which is a Technical Specification, establishes a blank detail specification that lists the relevant key control characteristics (KCC) including chemical, physical, structural, and electrochemical characteristics of nano-enabled electrode for electrochemical capacitors. Electrodes of both electric double layer capacitors and pseudo capacitors with nano/ nanostructured materials such as nanoporous activated carbon, graphene, carbon nanotube, carbon black, carbon aerogel, carbon nanomaterial coating collector, etc., are included. For other electrodes, this document can be used for reference.
In addition, this document enables the customer to specify requirements in a standardized manner and to verify through standardized methods that the nano-enabled electrode of the electrochemical capacitors meets the required properties.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
20-Apr-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
21-Apr-2022
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IEC TS 62565-5-2
Edition 1.0 2022-04
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
Nanomanufacturing – Material specifications –
Part 5-2: Nano-enabled electrodes of electrochemical capacitors – Blank detail
specification
IEC TS 62565-5-2:2022-04(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TS 62565-5-2
Edition 1.0 2022-04
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
Nanomanufacturing – Material specifications –
Part 5-2: Nano-enabled electrodes of electrochemical capacitors – Blank detail
specification
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 07.120 ISBN 978-2-8322-1099-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TS 62565-5-2:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

3.1 General terms ......................................................................................................... 8

3.2 Terms related to capacitors ..................................................................................... 9

3.3 General product description and procurement information ..................................... 10

3.4 Chemical key control characteristics ..................................................................... 11

3.5 Physical key control characteristics ....................................................................... 11

3.6 Structural key control characteristics..................................................................... 12

3.7 Electrochemical key control characteristics ........................................................... 13

3.8 Measurement methods relevant for this document ................................................ 14

4 General introduction regarding measurement methods .................................................. 15

5 Specification format of nano-enabled electrode of electrochemical capacitor ................. 16

5.1 General procurement information .......................................................................... 16

5.2 Chemical key control characteristics ..................................................................... 17

5.3 Physical key control characteristics ....................................................................... 17

5.4 Structural key control characteristics..................................................................... 18

5.5 Electrochemical key control characteristics ........................................................... 18

6 Overview of test methods .............................................................................................. 19

Annex A (normative) KCC measurement procedures – supporting information ..................... 22

A.1 Water content: Karl Fischer method ...................................................................... 22

A.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 22

A.1.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 22

A.2 Ash content: Incineration ...................................................................................... 22

A.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 22

A.2.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 22

A.3 Ash content: Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) .................................................. 22

A.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 22

A.3.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 22

A.4 Magnetic impurities: ICP-MS ................................................................................. 23

A.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 23

A.4.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 23

A.4.3 Adaptations required ..................................................................................... 23

A.5 Magnetic impurities: ICP-OES ............................................................................... 23

A.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 23

A.5.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 23

A.6 Magnetic impurities: ASS ...................................................................................... 23

A.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 23

A.6.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 23

A.7 Bending strength: Lacquer cylinder bending tester ................................................ 24

A.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 24

A.7.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 24

A.8 Peel strength ........................................................................................................ 24

A.8.1 General ......................................................................................................... 24

A.8.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 24

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IEC TS 62565-5-2:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –

A.9 Rebound rate ........................................................................................................ 24

A.9.1 General ......................................................................................................... 24

A.9.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 24

A.10 Electrolyte adsorption capacity ............................................................................. 24

A.10.1 General ......................................................................................................... 24

A.10.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 25

A.11 Contact angle ....................................................................................................... 25

A.11.1 General ......................................................................................................... 25

A.11.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 25

A.12 Resistivity ............................................................................................................. 25

A.12.1 General ......................................................................................................... 25

A.12.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 25

A.12.3 Adaptations required ..................................................................................... 25

A.13 Thickness ............................................................................................................. 25

A.14 Surface and rolling density .................................................................................... 25

A.14.1 General ......................................................................................................... 25

A.14.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 26

A.14.3 Adaptations required ..................................................................................... 26

A.15 Specific surface area and pore volume ................................................................. 26

A.15.1 General ......................................................................................................... 26

A.15.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 26

A.16 Surface roughness ................................................................................................ 26

A.17 Specific capacitance: CCC, CCD .......................................................................... 26

A.17.1 General ......................................................................................................... 26

A.17.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 27

A.18 Voltage maintenance rate ..................................................................................... 27

A.18.1 General ......................................................................................................... 27

A.18.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 27

A.19 Leakage current: CCC, CCD, CVD ........................................................................ 27

A.19.1 General ......................................................................................................... 27

A.19.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 27

A.20 Endurance in cycling ............................................................................................. 27

A.20.1 General ......................................................................................................... 27

A.20.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 28

A.21 Temperature endurance ........................................................................................ 28

A.21.1 General ......................................................................................................... 28

A.21.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 28

A.22 DC resistance: CCC, CCD .................................................................................... 28

A.22.1 General ......................................................................................................... 28

A.22.2 Documented measurement procedure............................................................ 28

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 29

Table 1 – Format for general product description and procurement information ..................... 16

Table 2 – Format for chemical key control characteristics ..................................................... 17

Table 3 – Format for physical key control characteristics ...................................................... 17

Table 4 – Format for structural key control characteristics .................................................... 18

Table 5 – Format for electrochemical key control characteristics ........................................... 18

Table 6 – Overview of measurement methods ....................................................................... 20

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– 4 – IEC TS 62565-5-2:2022 © IEC 2022
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
NANOMANUFACTURING – MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS –
Part 5-2: Nano-enabled electrodes of electrochemical capacitor –
Blank detail specification
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC Publication(s)"). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

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with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

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6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

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expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC TS 62565-5-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 113: Nanotechnology for

electrotechnical products and systems. It is a Technical Specification.
The text of this Technical Specification is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
113/628/DTS 113/643/RVDTS

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.

The language used for the development of this Technical Specification is English.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC TS 62565-5-2:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62565 series, published under the general title Nanomanufacturing –

Material specifications, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
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– 6 – IEC TS 62565-5-2:2022 © IEC 2022
INTRODUCTION

This Technical Specification specifies how to report the various characteristics of electrodes for

industrial use in electrotechnical products, and how to incorporate these into a bilateral detail

specification between vendor and user.

Electrochemical capacitors are widely used in the fields of electric vehicles, high speed trains,

aircraft, photovoltaic, wind power and electronics, due to their ultra-fast charge/discharge

capability, long cycle life, wide working temperature range, high security reliability and low

maintenance cost [1] . In the manufacture process of electrochemical capacitor, the electrode

is a bridge between raw material and device. Therefore, the performance of the electrode is

very critical in the whole electrochemical capacitor industry chain because the properties of

electrodes not only reflect the performance of upstream raw material but also determine the

performance of electrochemical capacitor [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9].

For the purposes of development and commercialization of raw nanomaterials for electrodes

and the electrochemical capacitor and assembly produced therefrom, the product

characteristics and characterization methods need to be specified in a standardized way. This

blank detail specification will benefit different stakeholders as follows: for material suppliers, it

provides necessary feedback from the manufacturers to guide the design and production of raw

materials; for the end-product manufacturers, it provides a toolbox for evaluating product quality

so as to manage and improve process control, yield of products; for commercialization and

trade, it provides a guidance on referred test methods for electrode classification; in addition,

it will strengthen the links between material manufacture and down-stream user.

In this blank detail specification, the key chemical, physical, structural and electrochemical

characteristics that will significantly influence the performance of electrochemical capacitors

and their measurement methods are listed. These characteristics and characterization methods

are not limited only to nano-enabled electrodes but also can be reference for other electrodes

which are constructed by coating electrode materials on a current collector.
_____________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
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IEC TS 62565-5-2:2022 © IEC 2022 – 7 –
NANOMANUFACTURING – MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS –
Part 5-2: Nano-enabled electrodes of electrochemical capacitor –
Blank detail specification
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62565, which is a Technical Specification, establishes a blank detail

specification that lists the relevant key control characteristics (KCC) including chemical,

physical, structural, and electrochemical characteristics of nano-enabled electrode for

electrochemical capacitors. Electrodes of both electric double layer capacitors and pseudo

capacitors with nano/ nanostructured materials such as nanoporous activated carbon, graphene,

carbon nanotube, carbon black, carbon aerogel, carbon nanomaterial coating collector, etc.,

are included. For other electrodes, this document can be used for reference.

In addition, this document enables the customer to specify requirements in a standardized

manner and to verify through standardized methods that the nano-enabled electrode of the

electrochemical capacitors meets the required properties.

Numeric values to be specified for the characteristics in this document are intentionally left

blank and are determined by agreement between customer and electrochemical capacitor

supplier. Properties and characteristics deemed by the customer or supplier as not relevant to

a specific application are classified as "not applicable" or "not specified".
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC TS 62607-4-2, Nanomanufacturing – Key control characteristics – Part 4-2: Nano-enabled

electrical energy storage – Physical characterization of cathode nanomaterials, density

measurement

IEC TS 62607-4-3, Nanomanufacturing – Key control characteristics – Part 4-3: Nano-enabled

electrical energy storage – Contact and coating resistivity measurements for nanomaterials

IEC TS 62607-4-8, Nanomanufacturing – Key control characteristics – Part 4-8: Nano-enabled

electrical energy storage – Determination of water content in electrode nanomaterials, Karl

Fischer method

IEC TS 62607-6-20, Nanomanufacturing – Key control characteristics – Part 6-20: Graphene-

based material – Metallic impurity content: ICP-MS

ISO 9277, Determination of the specific surface area of solids by gas adsorption – BET method

ISO 15901-2, Pore size distribution and porosity of solid materials by mercury porosimetry and

gas adsorption – Part 2: Analysis of nanopores by gas adsorption
_____________
Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: IEC DTS 62607-6-20:2021.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC TS 62565-5-2:2022 © IEC 2022

ISO 25178 (all parts), Geometrical product specifications (GPS) – Surface texture: Areal

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
nanomaterial

material with any external dimension in the nanoscale or having internal structure or surface

structure in the nanoscale
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.4, modified – The two notes have been removed.]
3.1.2
nanostructured material
material having internal nanostructure or surface nanostructure

Note 1 to entry: This definition does not exclude the possibility for a nano-object to have internal structure or surface

structure. If external dimension(s) are in the nanoscale, the term nano-object is recommended.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.7]
3.1.3
nano-enabled device

device in which the material elements or assembly of such elements exhibit performance or

function only possible with nanotechnology
Note 1 to entry: The material element is a nanomaterial.

Note 2 to entry: The performance or function exhibited is measurable and significant for the application of the nano-

enabled device.

Note 3 to entry: Applications of nano-enabled devices can include, but are not limited to, energy storage devices

(capacitors, materials for lithium ion battery, fuel cell membrane, etc.), photovoltaic, organic electronics, and electro-

optical devices.
[SOURCE: IEC 80004-9:2017, 3.1.5, modified – Notes 1 and 2 have been modified.]
3.1.4
key control characteristic
KCC
key performance indicator

material property or intermediate product characteristic which can affect safety or compliance

with regulations, fit, function, performance, quality, reliability or subsequent processing of the

final product

Note 1 to entry: The measurement of a key control characteristic is described in a standardized measurement

procedure with known accuracy and precision.

Note 2 to entry: It is possible to define more than one measurement method for a key control characteristic if the

correlation of the results is well-defined and known.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC TS 62565-5-2:2022 © IEC 2022 – 9 –
3.1.5
blank detail specification
BDS

structured generic specification of the set of key control characteristics which are needed to

describe a specific nano-enabled product without assigning specific values and/or attributes

Note 1 to entry: The templates defined in a blank detail specification list the key control characteristics for the nano-

enabled material or product without assigning specific values to it.

Note 2 to entry: Examples of nano-enabled products are: nanomaterials, nanocomposites and nano-subassemblies.

Note 3 to entry: Blank detail specifications are intended to be used by industrial users to prepare their detail

specifications used in bilateral procurement contracts. A blank detail specification facilitates the comparison and

benchmarking of different materials. Furthermore, a standardized format makes procurement more efficient and more

error robust.
3.2 Terms related to capacitors
3.2.1
electrochemical capacitor
supercapacitor

device that stores electrical energy using a double layer in an electrochemical cell

Note 1 to entry: The electrochemical capacitor is not to be confused with electrolytic capacitors.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-114:2014, 114-03-03]
3.2.2
electrode

conductive part in electric contact with a medium of lower conductivity and intended to perform

one or more of the functions of emitting charge carriers to or receiving charge carriers from that

medium or to establish an electric field in that medium
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-151:2001, 151-13-01]
3.2.3
electrode type

classification of the electrode of an electrochemical capacitor according to the charge-storage

mechanism

Note 1 to entry: There are two electrochemical capacitor types: electric double layer capacitor and pseudo

capacitor.
3.2.4
electric double layer capacitor
EDLC

device for electrostatic storage of electrical energy achieved by separation of charge in a double

layer
[SOURCE: ISO 18300:2016, 3.8]
3.2.5
pseudo capacitor
Faraday capacitor

device for storage of electrical energy achieved by rapid oxidation-reduction reaction near the

surface of electrode
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– 10 – IEC TS 62565-5-2:2022 © IEC 2022
3.3 General product description and procurement information
3.3.1
active material

material that can be used to store energy by electrochemical double-layer or pseudo

capacitance effect

Note 1 to entry: Typically, nonreactive carbon materials are electric double-layer capacitance active material,

including activated carbon, pure carbon nanotube and pure graphene.

Note 2 to entry: Typically, carbon composites and carbons embedded with heteroatoms are

...

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