Semiconductor devices - Part 9: Discrete devices - Insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs)

IEC 60747-9:2019 specifies product specific standards for terminology, letter symbols, essential ratings and characteristics, verification of ratings and methods of measurement for insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs).
This third edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:  
reverse-blocking IGBT and its related technical contents have been added;
reverse-conducting IGBT and its related technical contents have been added;
some parts of the previous edition have been amended, combined or deleted.

Dispositifs à semiconducteurs - Partie 9: Dispositifs discrets - Transistors bipolaires à grille isolée (IGBT)

L’IEC 60747-9:2019 ED3 spécifie la terminologie, les symboles littéraux, les valeurs assignées et caractéristiques essentielles, la vérification des valeurs assignées ainsi que les méthodes de mesure pour les transistors bipolaires à grille isolée (IGBT, insulated-gate bipolar transistors).
Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l’édition précédente:  
ajout de transistor bipolaire à grille isolée bloqué en inverse et du contenu technique associé;
ajout de transistor bipolaire à grille isolée passant en inverse et du contenu technique associé;
modification, combinaison ou suppression de certaines parties de l’édition précédente.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
12-Nov-2019
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
13-Nov-2019
Ref Project

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IEC 60747-9
Edition 3.0 2019-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Semiconductor devices –
Part 9: Discrete devices – Insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs)
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs –
Partie 9: Dispositifs discrets – Transistors bipolaires à grille isolée (IGBT)
IEC 60747-9:2019-11(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60747-9
Edition 3.0 2019-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Semiconductor devices –
Part 9: Discrete devices – Insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs)
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs –
Partie 9: Dispositifs discrets – Transistors bipolaires à grille isolée (IGBT)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.080.01; 31.080.30 ISBN 978-2-8322-7530-6

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60747-9:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 9

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 9

3.1 General terms ......................................................................................................... 9

3.2 Terms related to ratings and characteristics, voltages and currents ...................... 10

3.3 Terms related to ratings and characteristics .......................................................... 13

4 Letter symbols ............................................................................................................... 15

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 15

4.2 Graphical symbols ................................................................................................ 16

4.3 Additional general subscripts ................................................................................ 16

4.4 List of letter symbols ............................................................................................. 16

4.4.1 Voltages ........................................................................................................ 16

4.4.2 Currents ........................................................................................................ 17

4.4.3 Other electrical magnitudes ........................................................................... 17

4.4.4 Time .............................................................................................................. 18

4.4.5 Thermal magnitudes ...................................................................................... 18

5 Essential ratings and characteristics .............................................................................. 18

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 18

5.2 Ratings (limiting values) ........................................................................................ 18

5.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 18

5.2.2 Ambient or case or virtual junction operating temperature (T or T or
a c

T ) ................................................................................................................ 18

5.2.3 Storage temperature (T ) ............................................................................ 18

stg

5.2.4 Collector-emitter voltage with gate-emitter short-circuited (V ) ................. 18

CES

5.2.5 Gate-emitter voltage with collector-emitter short-circuit (V ) ..................... 19

GES

5.2.6 Continuous (direct) reverse voltage of a reverse-blocking IGBT (V ) ........... 19

5.2.7 Continuous (direct) collector current (I ) ....................................................... 19

5.2.8 Repetitive peak collector current (I ) ....................................................... 19

CRM

5.2.9 Non-repetitive peak collector current (I ) ................................................. 19

CSM
5.2.10 Continuous (direct) reverse-conducting current of a reverse-conducting

IGBT (I ) .................................................................................................... 19

5.2.11 Repetitive peak reverse-conducting current of a reverse-conducting

IGBT (I ) ............................................................................................... 19

RCRM
5.2.12 Non-repetitive peak reverse-conducting current of a reverse-conducting

IGBT (I ) ............................................................................................... 19

RCSM

5.2.13 Total power dissipation (P ) ........................................................................ 19

tot
5.2.14 Maximum forward biased safe operating area (FBSOA) (where

appropriate) ................................................................................................... 19

5.2.15 Maximum reverse biased safe operating area (RBSOA) ................................. 19

5.2.16 Maximum short-circuit safe operating area (SCSOA) ..................................... 20

5.2.17 Maximum terminal current (I ) (where appropriate) ................................. 20

tRMS

5.2.18 Mounting force (F) ......................................................................................... 20

5.2.19 Mounting torque (M) ...................................................................................... 20

5.3 Characteristics ...................................................................................................... 20

5.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 20

5.3.2 Collector-emitter breakdown voltage (V ) (where appropriate) ........... 20

(BR)CES
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60747-9:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –

5.3.3 Collector-emitter sustaining voltage (V ) (where appropriate)............... 20

CE*sus

5.3.4 Collector-emitter saturation voltage (V ) ................................................ 20

CEsat

5.3.5 Gate-emitter threshold voltage (V ) ....................................................... 20

GE(th)

5.3.6 Reverse-conducting voltage of a reverse-conducting IGBT (V ) .................. 20

5.3.7 Collector-emitter cut-off current (I ) .......................................................... 20

CE*

5.3.8 Gate leakage current (I ) ......................................................................... 20

GES

5.3.9 Reverse current of a reverse-blocking IGBT (I ) .......................................... 21

5.3.10 Capacitances ................................................................................................. 21

5.3.11 Gate charge (Q ) .......................................................................................... 21

5.3.12 Internal gate resistance (r ) .......................................................................... 21

5.3.13 Switching characteristics ............................................................................... 21

5.3.14 Thermal resistance junction to case (R ) ................................................ 22

th(j-c)

5.3.15 Thermal resistance junction to ambient (R ) ........................................... 22

th(j-a)

5.3.16 Transient thermal impedance junction to case (Z ) ................................. 22

th(j-c)

5.3.17 Transient thermal impedance junction to ambient (Z ) ............................ 23

th(j-a)

6 Measuring methods ....................................................................................................... 23

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 23

6.2 Verification of ratings (limiting values)................................................................... 23

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 23

6.2.2 Collector-emitter voltages (V , V , V ) ........................................... 23

CES CER CEX

6.2.3 Reverse voltage of a reverse-blocking IGBT (V , V ) ............................... 24

RS RX

6.2.4 Gate-emitter voltage with collector-emitter short-circuit (±V ) ................... 25

GES

6.2.5 Continuous (direct) collector current (I ) ....................................................... 26

6.2.6 Maximum peak collector current (I and I ) ........................................ 27

CRM CSM
6.2.7 Continuous (direct) reverse-conducting current of a reverse-conducing

IGBT (I ) .................................................................................................... 28

6.2.8 Maximum peak reverse-conducting current of a reverse-conducting

IGBT (I and I ) ............................................................................ 29

RCRM RCSM

6.2.9 Maximum reverse biased safe operating area (RBSOA) ................................. 30

6.2.10 Maximum short-circuit safe operating area (SCSOA) ..................................... 32

6.3 Methods of measurement ...................................................................................... 35

6.3.1 Collector-emitter saturation voltage (V ) ................................................ 35

CEsat

6.3.2 Gate-emitter threshold voltage (V ) ....................................................... 36

GE(th)

6.3.3 Reverse-conducting voltage of a reverse-conducting IGBT (V ) .................. 36

6.3.4 Collector cut-off current (I , I , I ) ................................................. 37

CES CER CEX

6.3.5 Gate leakage current (I ) ......................................................................... 38

GES

6.3.6 Reverse current of a reverse-blocking IGBT (I , I ) ................................. 39

RS RX

6.3.7 Input capacitance (C ) ................................................................................ 40

ies

6.3.8 Output capacitance (C ) ............................................................................ 41

oes

6.3.9 Reverse transfer capacitance (C ) .............................................................. 43

res

6.3.10 Gate charge (Q ) .......................................................................................... 43

6.3.11 Internal gate resistance (r ) .......................................................................... 45

6.3.12 Turn-on times (t , t , t ) and turn-on energy (E ) ................................. 46

d(on) r on on

6.3.13 Turn-off times (t , t , t , t ) and turn-off energy (E )............................ 48

d(off) f off z off
6.3.14 Peak reverse recovery current (I ), reverse recovery time (t ),
rrm rr
reverse recovery energy (E ) and reverse recovered charge (Q ) of a
rr rr

reverse-blocking IGBT ................................................................................... 49

6.3.15 Peak forward recovery current (I ), forward recovery time (t ),
frm fr
forward recovery energy (E ) and forward recovered charge (Q ) of a
fr fr

reverse-conducting IGBT ............................................................................... 52

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– 4 – IEC 60747-9:2019 © IEC 2019
6.3.16 Thermal resistance junction to case (R ) and transient thermal
th(j-c)

impedance junction to case (Z ) ............................................................. 54

th(j-c)

7 Acceptance and reliability .............................................................................................. 60

7.1 General requirements ........................................................................................... 60

7.2 Specific requirements ........................................................................................... 60

7.2.1 List of endurance and reliability tests ............................................................. 60

7.2.2 Conditions for endurance and reliability tests ................................................. 60

7.2.3 Acceptance-defining characteristics and criteria for endurance and

reliability tests ............................................................................................... 60

7.2.4 Procedure in case of a testing error ............................................................... 61

7.2.5 Endurance and reliability tests and test methods ........................................... 61

7.3 Type tests and routine tests .................................................................................. 64

7.3.1 Type tests...................................................................................................... 64

7.3.2 Routine tests ................................................................................................. 65

Annex A (normative) Measuring method for collector-emitter breakdown voltage ................. 66

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 66

A.2 Purpose ................................................................................................................ 66

A.3 Circuit diagram ..................................................................................................... 66

A.4 Measurement procedure ....................................................................................... 66

A.5 Specified conditions .............................................................................................. 67

Annex B (normative) Measuring method for collector-emitter sustaining voltage .................. 68

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 68

B.2 Purpose ................................................................................................................ 68

B.3 Circuit diagram ..................................................................................................... 68

B.4 Circuit description and requirements ..................................................................... 68

B.5 Measurement procedure ....................................................................................... 69

B.6 Precautions to be observed................................................................................... 69

B.7 Requirements ....................................................................................................... 69

B.8 Specified conditions .............................................................................................. 70

Annex C (normative) Measuring method for inductive load turn-off current under

specified conditions .............................................................................................................. 71

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 71

C.2 Purpose ................................................................................................................ 71

C.3 Circuit diagram and waveforms ............................................................................. 71

C.4 Circuit description and requirements ..................................................................... 72

C.5 Measurement procedure ....................................................................................... 72

C.6 Specified conditions .............................................................................................. 72

Annex D (normative) Forward biased safe operating area (FBSOA) ..................................... 73

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 73

D.2 Purpose ................................................................................................................ 73

D.3 Method 1 .............................................................................................................. 73

D.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 73

D.3.2 Circuit diagram .............................................................................................. 73

D.3.3 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 74

D.3.4 Specified conditions....................................................................................... 75

D.4 Method 2 .............................................................................................................. 75

D.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 75

D.4.2 Circuit diagram .............................................................................................. 75

D.4.3 Test procedure and precautions to be taken .................................................. 76

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60747-9:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –

D.4.4 Specified conditions....................................................................................... 77

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 78

Figure 1 – Graphical symbols................................................................................................ 16

Figure 2 – Circuit for testing the collector-emitter voltages V , V , V ................... 24

CES CER CEX

Figure 3 – Circuit for testing the reverse voltages V , V ................................................. 25

RS RX

Figure 4 – Circuit for testing the gate-emitter voltage ±V ................................................ 26

GES

Figure 5 – Circuit for testing collector current ........................................................................ 27

Figure 6 – Circuit for testing peak collector current ............................................................... 28

Figure 7 – Circuit for testing reverse-conducting current ....................................................... 28

Figure 8 – Circuit for testing peak reverse-conducting current ............................................... 29

Figure 9 – Circuit for testing reverse biased safe operating area (RBSOA) ........................... 30

Figure 10 – Waveforms of gate-emitter voltage V and collector current I during
GE C

turn-off .................................................................................................................................. 31

Figure 11 – Circuit for testing safe operating pulse width at load short-circuit (SCSOA1) ...... 32

Figure 12 – Waveforms of gate-emitter voltage V , collector current I and collector-

GE C

emitter voltage V during load short-circuit condition SCSOA1 ........................................... 32

Figure 13 – Circuit for testing short-circuit safe operating area 2 (SCSOA2) ......................... 33

Figure 14 – Waveforms during SCSOA2 ............................................................................... 34

Figure 15 – Circuit for measuring the collector-emitter saturation voltage V ................. 35

CEsat

Figure 16 – Circuit for measuring the gate-emitter threshold voltage ..................................... 36

Figure 17 – Circuit for measuring the reverse-conducting voltage V ................................. 37

Figure 18 – Circuit for measuring the collector cut-off current ............................................... 38

Figure 19 – Circuit for measuring the gate leakage current ................................................... 39

Figure 20 – Circuit for measuring the reverse current............................................................ 40

Figure 21 – Circuit for measuring the input capacitance ........................................................ 41

Figure 22 – Circuit for measuring the output capacitance ...................................................... 42

Figure 23 – Circuit for measuring the reverse transfer capacitance ....................................... 43

Figure 24 – Circuit for measuring the gate charge ................................................................. 44

Figure 25 – Basic gate charge waveform .............................................................................. 44

Figure 26 – Circuit for measuring the internal gate resistance ............................................... 45

Figure 27 – Circuit for measuring turn-on times and energy .................................................. 46

Figure 28 – Waveforms during turn-on times ......................................................................... 47

Figure 29 – Circuit for measuring turn-off times and energy .................................................. 48

Figure 30 – Waveforms during turn-off times ......................................................................... 48

Figure 31 – Circuit for measuring reverse recovery characteristics........................................ 50

Figure 32 – Waveforms during reverse recovery ................................................................... 50

Figure 33 – Circuit for measuring forward recovery characteristics........................................ 52

Figure 34 – Waveforms during forward recovery ................................................................... 53

Figure 35 – Circuit for measuring the variation with temperature of the collector-

emitter voltage V at a low measuring current I and for heating up the IGBT by a
CE C1

high current I .................................................................................................................... 55

Figure 36 – Typical variation of the collector-emitter voltage V at a low measuring

current I with the case temperature T (when heated from outside, i.e. T = T ) ............. 56

C1 c c vj

Figure 37 – I , V and T with time .................................................................................... 57

C CE c
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60747-9:2019 © IEC 2019

Figure 38 – Circuit for measuring thermal resistance and transient thermal impedance:

Method 2 .............................................................................................................................. 58

Figure 39 – Typical variation of the gate-emitter threshold voltage V at a low
GE(th)

measuring current I with the case temperature T (when heated from the outside, i.e.

T = T ) ............................................................................................................................... 59

c vj

Figure 40 – I , V and T with time ................................................................................... 60

C GE c

Figure 41 – Circuit for high-temperature blockings ................................................................ 62

Figure 42 – Circuit for high-temperature gate bias ................................................................ 63

Figure 43 – Circuit for intermittent operating life ................................................................... 64

Figure 44 – Expected number of cycles versus temperature rise ∆T ................................... 64

Figure A.1 – Circuit for measuring the collector-emitter breakdown voltage ........................... 66

Figure B.1 – Circuit for measuring the collector-emitter sustaining voltage V ............. 68

CE*sus

Figure B.2 – Operating locus of the collector current ............................................................. 69

Figure C.1 – Circuit for measuring inductive load turn-off current .......................................... 71

Figure C.2 – Waveforms of collector current I and collector voltage V during turn-off ..... 72

C CE

Figure D.1 – Circuit for testing forward biased safe operating area (method 1) ..................... 73

Figure D.2 – Typical ∆V versus collector-emitter voltage V characteristics ................... 74

CE CE

Figure D.3 – Typical forward biased safe operating area ....................................

...

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