Electromagnetic compatibility - Part 1-8: Phase angles of harmonic current emissions and voltages in the public supply networks - Future expectations

IEC TR 61000-1-8:2019, which is a technical report, provides information about the current conditions, and project future developments, of prevailing phase angles, predominantly for the 3rd and 5th harmonic currents, on public supply networks. This objective is accomplished by monitoring a number of networks, and efforts to forecast the effects of changes in technologies. This document presents information to guide the discussion about the effectiveness of potential mitigation techniques and the generalisation of effects of the prevailing angle positions of selected current harmonics. This document mainly deals with the phase angles of the 3rd and 5th harmonic currents, but also contains information about other harmonics.
Keywords: 3rd and 5th harmonic currents, phase angles

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Jan-2019
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
16-Jan-2019
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IEC TR 61000-1-8:2019 - Electromagnetic compatibility - Part 1-8: Phase angles of harmonic current emissions and voltages in the public supply networks - Future expectations
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IEC TR 61000-1-8
Edition 1.0 2019-01
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Electromagnetic compatibility –
Part 1-8: General – Phase angles of harmonic current emissions and voltages in
the public supply networks – Future expectations
IEC TR 61000-1-8:2019-01(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TR 61000-1-8
Edition 1.0 2019-01
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Electromagnetic compatibility –
Part 1-8: General – Phase angles of harmonic current emissions and voltages in
the public supply networks – Future expectations
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.100.10, 33.100.01 ISBN 978-2-8322-6416-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 61000-1-8:2019  IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 8

0.1 Series overview ............................................................................................................... 8

0.2 Purpose of this document ................................................................................................ 8

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 10

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 10

4 Summary of field measurements and data analysis ........................................................ 12

4.1 Field measurement methods and concepts ........................................................... 12

4.2 Summary of measurement results, analysis, and conclusions ............................... 14

5 Critical appraisal of potential economic impact .............................................................. 18

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 18

5.2 Dependencies on electrical parameters ................................................................. 19

5.3 Dependencies on non-electrical influence quantities ............................................. 19

5.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 19

5.3.2 Development of economic sectors and demand of energy .............................. 19

5.3.3 Consumer durables ....................................................................................... 21

5.3.4 Capital-income ratio in rich industrial countries .............................................. 25

6 Data evaluation concepts and principles ........................................................................ 27

6.1 Concept of data evaluation ................................................................................... 27

6.2 Principles of statistical survey ............................................................................... 28

6.2.1 Correlation ..................................................................................................... 28

6.2.2 Review of correlation coefficient calculation with complex numerical

series ............................................................................................................ 29

6.2.3 Prevailing phase angle and prevailing vector ................................................. 32

7 Detailed analysis of data ............................................................................................... 35

7.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 35

7.2 Time series analysis of electrical basic parameters and concept of statistical

survey ................................................................................................................... 35

7.3 Time series analysis of selected harmonics .......................................................... 36

7.4 Phase angle of selected harmonic currents ........................................................... 44

7.4.1 Time series analysis of phase angle .............................................................. 44

7.4.2 Phase angle in polar coordinates ................................................................... 46

7.5 Harmonic spectra .................................................................................................. 49

7.6 Correlations .......................................................................................................... 51

8 Empirical evidence ........................................................................................................ 54

8.1 Inductive versus deductive approach .................................................................... 54

8.2 Laboratory tests .................................................................................................... 55

8.3 Field measurements .............................................................................................. 57

9 Conclusions and recommendations................................................................................ 60

Annex A (informative) Prevailing vectors at test sites ........................................................... 61

A.1 Prevailing vectors at test sites M1 to M16 ............................................................. 61

A.2 Prevailing vectors at test site M17 ........................................................................ 65

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 67

Figure 1 – Definition of the 5 harmonic current phase angle (I leads U , α > 0) ............ 11

5 p1 5
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IEC TR 61000-1-8:2019  IEC 2019 – 3 –

Figure 2 – Polar diagrams with prevailing vector for each of the three phases of the

rd th th

3 , 5 and 7 harmonic currents at test site M1 ................................................................. 15

Figure 3 – Polar diagrams with prevailing vector for each of the three phases of the

rd th th

3 , 5 and 7 harmonic currents at test site M7 ................................................................. 15

Figure 4 – Polar diagrams with prevailing vector for each of the three phases of the

rd th th

3 , 5 and 7 harmonic currents at test site M16 ............................................................... 16

Figure 5 – Computed prevailing phase angle of the 5 harmonic current .............................. 16

Figure 6 – Computed in-phase factor of the 5 harmonic current ......................................... 17

Figure 7 – Prevailing vectors of the 3 harmonic current (three phases, all test sites) ......... 17

Figure 8 – Prevailing vectors of the 5 harmonic current (three phases, all test sites) .......... 17

Figure 9 – Prevailing vectors of the 7 harmonic current (three phases, all test sites) .......... 18

Figure 10 – Development of demand of energy ..................................................................... 20

Figure 11 – Development of economic sectors in industrial countries .................................... 20

Figure 12 – Growth rates of product ownership of electrical household appliances ............... 22

Figure 13 – Growth rates of product ownership of ICT .......................................................... 23

Figure 14 – Growth rates of product ownership of entertainment electronics ......................... 24

Figure 15 – Capital income ratio [5] ...................................................................................... 26

Figure 16 – Capital share of national income [5] ................................................................... 26

Figure 17 – Representative prevailing vector ........................................................................ 34

Figure 18 – Unrepresentative prevailing vector ..................................................................... 35

Figure 19 – Diurnal cycle of magnitude of the 5 harmonic current at test site M1 ............... 36

Figure 20 – Diurnal cycle of magnitude of the 5 harmonic voltage at test site M1 ............... 37

Figure 21 – Diurnal cycle of total harmonic current distortion in percent at test site M1 ......... 37

Figure 22 – Diurnal cycle of total harmonic voltage distortion in percent at test site M1 ........ 37

Figure 23 – Minimum-maximum envelope of the 5 harmonic phase angle curve at

site M1 .................................................................................................................................. 38

Figure 24 – Minimum-maximum envelope curves of the 5 harmonic current level at

site M1 .................................................................................................................................. 38

Figure 25 – Minimum-maximum envelope curves of the 5 harmonic voltage level at

test site M1 ........................................................................................................................... 39

Figure 26 – Minimum-maximum envelope curves of the total harmonic current

distortion at site M1 .............................................................................................................. 39

Figure 27 – Minimum-maximum envelope curves of the total harmonic voltage

distortion at site M1 .............................................................................................................. 40

Figure 28 – Histogram of the 5 harmonic current phase angle at test site M1 ..................... 40

Figure 29 – Histogram of the 5 harmonic current level in percent at test site M1 ................ 41

Figure 30 – Histogram of the 5 harmonic voltage level in percent at test site M1 ................ 41

Figure 31 – Histogram of total harmonic current distortion in percent at test site M1 ............. 42

Figure 32 – Histogram of total harmonic voltage distortion in percent at test site M1 ............. 42

Figure 33 – Cumulative frequency of the 5 harmonic current phase angle at site M1 .......... 43

Figure 34 – Cumulative frequency of the 5 harmonic current level at test site M1 ............... 43

Figure 35 – Cumulative frequency of the 5 harmonic voltage level at test site M1 .............. 43

Figure 36 – Cumulative frequency of the total harmonic current distortion at test

site M1 .................................................................................................................................. 44

Figure 37 – Cumulative frequency of the total harmonic voltage distortion at test

site M1 .................................................................................................................................. 44

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– 4 – IEC TR 61000-1-8:2019  IEC 2019

Figure 38 – Daily cycle of the 5 harmonic current phase angle at test site M1 .................... 45

Figure 39 – Daily cycle of the 5 harmonic current magnitude (level) at test site M1 ............ 45

Figure 40 – Minimum-maximum envelope of the 5 harmonic phase angle curve at

site M1 .................................................................................................................................. 46

Figure 41 – Phase angle of the 3 harmonic current at test site M1 ..................................... 47

Figure 42 – Phase angle of the 5 harmonic current at test site M1 ..................................... 47

Figure 43 – Phase angle of the 7 harmonic current at test site M1 ..................................... 48

Figure 44 – Dispersion factor of the phase angle of the 3 harmonic current ....................... 48

Figure 45 – Dispersion factor of the phase angle of the 5 harmonic current ....................... 48

Figure 46 – Dispersion factor of the phase angle of the 7 harmonic current ....................... 49

Figure 47 – Harmonic current spectrum including level distribution at test site M1 ................ 50

Figure 48 – Harmonic voltage spectrum including level distribution at test site M1 ................ 50

Figure 49 – Harmonic phase angles including phase distribution at test site M1 .................... 51

th th
Figure 50 – Correlations between the 5 harmonic current phase angle and the 5

harmonic current H05i ........................................................................................................... 52

th th
Figure 51 – Correlations between the 5 harmonic current phase angle and the 5

harmonic voltage H05u ......................................................................................................... 52

Figure 52 – Correlations between the 5 harmonic current phase angle and THDI ............... 52

Figure 53 – Correlations between the 5 harmonic current phase angle and THDV .............. 53

Figure 54 – Correlations between the 5 harmonic current phase angle and apparent

power S ................................................................................................................................ 53

Figure 55 – Correlation trace between the 5 harmonic current phase angle and THD-I ....... 54

Figure 56 – Correlation trace between the 5 harmonic current phase angle and P, Q

and S .................................................................................................................................... 54

rd th th

Figure A.1 – Prevailing vectors of the 3 , 5 and 7 harmonic current at test site M1 ........ 61

rd th th

Figure A.2 – Prevailing vectors of the 3 , 5 and 7 harmonic current at test site M2 ........ 61

rd th th

Figure A.3 – Prevailing vectors of the 3 , 5 and 7 harmonic current at test site M3 ........ 62

rd th th

Figure A.4 – Prevailing vectors of the 3 , 5 and 7 harmonic current at test site M4 ........ 62

rd th th

Figure A.5 – Prevailing vectors of the 3 , 5 and 7 harmonic current at test site M5 ........ 62

rd th th

Figure A.6 – Prevailing vectors of the 3 , 5 and 7 harmonic current at test site M6 ........ 63

rd th th

Figure A.7 – Prevailing vectors of the 3 , 5 and 7 harmonic current at test site M7 ........ 63

rd th th

Figure A.8 – Prevailing vectors of the 3 , 5 and 7 harmonic current at test site M8 ........ 63

rd th th

Figure A.9 – Prevailing vectors of the 3 5 and 7 harmonic current at test site M13 ....... 64

rd th th
Figure A.10 – Prevailing vectors of the 3 , 5 and 7 harmonic current at test

site M14 ................................................................................................................................ 64

rd th th
Figure A.11 – Prevailing vectors of the 3 , 5 and 7 harmonic current at test

site M15 ................................................................................................................................ 64

rd th th
Figure A.12 – Prevailing vectors of the 3 , 5 and 7 harmonic current at test

site M16 ................................................................................................................................ 65

rd th th
Figure A.13 – Prevailing vectors of the 3 , 5 and 7 harmonic voltage at test

site M17 ................................................................................................................................ 66

rd th th
Figure A.14 – Prevailing vectors of the 3 , 5 and 7 harmonic current at test

site M17 ................................................................................................................................ 66

Table 1 – Structure of test (measurement) sites .................................................................... 14

Table 2 – Product ownership of electrical household appliances ........................................... 22

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IEC TR 61000-1-8:2019  IEC 2019 – 5 –

Table 3 – Product ownership of information and communication technology.......................... 23

Table 4 – Product ownership of entertainment electronics ..................................................... 24

Table 5 – Example of weighting factor for a prevailing vector ................................................ 34

Table 6 – Comparison between CFL, SSL and electronic devices [10] .................................. 56

Table 7 – Comparison between combinations of superpositions [10] ..................................... 56

Table 8 – Structure of network [1] ......................................................................................... 58

Table 9 – Structure of load [1] ............................................................................................... 58

Table 10 – Structure of generation [1] ................................................................................... 58

Table 11 – Dispersion of phase angle of the 3 harmonic current ........................................ 58

Table 12 – Dispersion of phase angle of the 5 harmonic current ........................................ 59

rd th th
Table A.1 – In-phase factor and prevailing vector of the 3 , 5 and 7 harmonic

current per test-site............................................................................................................... 65

rd th th
Table A.2 – In-phase factor and prevailing vector of the 3 , 5 and 7 harmonic

current and voltage at test site M17 ..................................................................................... 66

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– 6 – IEC TR 61000-1-8:2019  IEC 2019
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY –
Part 1-8: General – Phase angles of harmonic current emissions and
voltages in the public supply networks – Future expectations
FOREWORD

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9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

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The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

technical committee may propose the publication of a Technical Report when it has collected

data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard, for

example "state of the art".

IEC TR 61000-1-8, which is a Technical Report, has been prepared by subcommittee 77A:

EMC – Low frequency phenomena, of IEC technical committee 77: Electromagnetic
compatibility.
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Draft TR Report on voting
77A/1002/DTR 77A/1012/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for the approval of this Technical Report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC TR 61000-1-8:2019  IEC 2019 – 7 –

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 61000 series, published under the general title Electromagnetic

compability, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC TR 61000-1-8:2019  IEC 2019
INTRODUCTION
0.1 Series overview
IEC 61000 is published in separate parts, according to the following structure:
Part 1: General
General considerations (introduction, fundamental principles)
Definitions, terminology
Part 2: Environment
Description of the environment
Classification of the environment
Compatibility levels
Part 3: Limits
Emission limits

Immunity limits (in so far as they do not fall under the responsibility of the product

committees)
Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques
Testing techniques
Part 5: Installation and mitigation guidelines
Installation guidelines
Mitigation methods and devices
Part 6: Generic standards
Part 9: Miscellaneous

Each part is further subdivided into several parts, published either as international standards

or as technical specifications or technical reports, some of which have already been published

as sections. Others will be published with the part number followed by a dash and a second

number identifying the subdivision (example: 61000-6-1).
0.2 Purpose of this document

This part of IEC 61000 documents measurements at a number of public supply networks in

Germany, and explains the analysis of the obtained data. Data were acquired under certain

conditions. These conditions include categories of different network structures, load

structures and power generation structures, especially including a review of networks with

varying degrees of renewable energy. The loads in various networks include mainly

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC TR 61000-1-8:2019  IEC 2019 – 9 –

consumers, office buildings, and retail/shopping centres, and thus represent several

categories of technologies in the input circuit of the electrical devices.

This document provides statistical evaluations aimed at quantifying the level of diversification

of the prevailing harmonic current phase angles, and, where possible, to identify methods to

reduce the overall emissions of dominant harmonics in the network.

For that purpose, the existing prevailing phase angle in the network at this time is analysed,

and the type of prevailing phase angle expected in the future is evaluated. In particular, the

potential changes in phase angle that can be expected, because of new technologies and/or

network structures, are of interest. This would mean determining what harmonic

compensation, if any, can be expected from various products. The goal is to determine or

verify the existing phase angle (mainly of the 5 harmonic) and to assess the possible

influences of future developments – such as changes in lighting types and other electronic

equipment.

This document is exclusively applicable to public low-voltage electricity supply networks.

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– 10 – IEC TR 61000-1-8:2019  IEC 2019
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY –
Part 1-8: General – Phase angles of harmonic current emissions and
voltages in the public supply networks – Future expectations
1 Scope

The objective of this part of IEC 61000 is to provide information about the current conditions,

rd th

and project future developments, of prevailing phase angles, predominantly for the 3 and 5

harmonic currents, on public supply networks. This objective is accomplished by monitoring a

number of networks, and efforts to forecast the effects of changes in technologies.

This document presents information to guide the discussion about the effectiveness of

potential mitigation techniques and the generalisation of effects of the prevailing angle

positions of selected current harmonics.
rd th

This document mainly deals with the phase angles of the 3 and 5 harmonic currents, but

also contains information about other harmonics.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the fol
...

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