Radiation protection instrumentation - X-ray computed tomography (CT) inspection systems of bottled/canned liquids

IEC 62963:2020 describes the technical requirements, test methods, inspection requirements, markings and labelling, and requirements on the accompanying documents, packaging, shipping and storage for X-ray security inspection systems that inspect bottled or canned liquids (hereinafter referred to as "the system") based on X-ray computed tomography (CT). Here, the system is limited to those that feature tomographic scanning, not standard X-ray projection. This document is applicable to liquids, aerosols and gelatinous objects in transparent or visually opaque containers.
This technical performance document includes minimum or baseline performance requirements; regulators may require additional performance testing.

Instrumentation pour la radioprotection - Systèmes d'inspection par tomographie aux rayons x par ordinateur (CT) des liquides en bouteille ou en canette

IEC 62963:2020 décrit les exigences techniques, les méthodes d'essai, les exigences d'inspection, le marquage et l'étiquetage ainsi que les exigences relatives aux documents d'accompagnement, au conditionnement, au transport et au stockage des systèmes d'inspection aux rayons X des liquides en bouteille ou en canette (ci-après dénommés "le système") reposant sur la tomographie par ordinateur. Seuls les systèmes d'imagerie par tomographie sont ici pris en considération, et non les systèmes d'émission normale de rayons X. Le présent document s'applique aux liquides, aux aérosols et aux gels dans des contenants transparents ou visuellement opaques.
Le présent document fixe des exigences de performance minimales ou de référence; les organismes de réglementation peuvent exiger des essais de performance supplémentaires.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Jun-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
11-Jun-2020
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IEC 62963
Edition 1.0 2020-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Radiation protection instrumentation – X-ray computed tomography (CT)
inspection systems of bottled/canned liquids
Instrumentation pour la radioprotection – Systèmes d'inspection par
tomographie aux rayons x par ordinateur (CT) des liquides en bouteille ou en
canette
IEC 62963:2020-06(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62963
Edition 1.0 2020-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Radiation protection instrumentation – X-ray computed tomography (CT)
inspection systems of bottled/canned liquids
Instrumentation pour la radioprotection – Systèmes d'inspection par
tomographie aux rayons x par ordinateur (CT) des liquides en bouteille ou en
canette
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 13.280 ISBN 978-2-8322-8254-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62963:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 5

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Requirements .................................................................................................................. 8

4.1 Structure and appearance ....................................................................................... 8

4.2 Functionality ........................................................................................................... 8

4.3 Performance ........................................................................................................... 8

4.4 Radiation safety .................................................................................................... 17

4.5 Electrical safety .................................................................................................... 18

4.6 Mechanical safety ................................................................................................. 19

4.7 Power voltage suitability ....................................................................................... 20

4.8 Environmental requirements ................................................................................. 20

4.9 Electromagnetic compatibility ................................................................................ 21

5 Marking and documentation ........................................................................................... 22

5.1 Marking ................................................................................................................. 22

5.2 Documentation ...................................................................................................... 22

6 Packing and shipment ................................................................................................... 23

6.1 Packing ................................................................................................................. 23

6.2 Shipment .............................................................................................................. 23

6.3 Documentation ...................................................................................................... 23

Annex A (informative) Guidance for scoring the contrast-sensitivity and spatial-

resolution metrics ................................................................................................................. 24

A.1 Contrast sensitivity evaluation ............................................................................... 24

A.2 Spatial resolution example .................................................................................... 24

Annex B (informative) Example recording form for container-artifacts testing ....................... 26

Figure 1 – The image-contrast-sensitivity test article (all units are in mm) ............................. 10

Figure 2 – The spatial-resolution test article (all the units are in mm) .................................... 12

Figure 3 – The container-artifacts test article ........................................................................ 13

Figure A.1 – Spatial resolution example ................................................................................ 25

Table 1 – Reference condition and standard test condition ..................................................... 9

Table 2 – Container for minimum volume test ......................................................................... 9

Table 3 – Densities of test samples and respective NaCl concentrations .............................. 11

Table 4 – Position versus dimension of line pairs .................................................................. 12

Table 5 – The recording form for container-artifacts test object's parameters ........................ 13

Table 6 – Standard deviation and relative measured deviation .............................................. 15

Table 7 – Requirements on accuracy .................................................................................... 16

Table 8 – Containers for test ................................................................................................. 17

Table 9 – Reference table of noise correction ....................................................................... 17

Table 10 – Tolerance limit of touch current ........................................................................... 19

Table 11 – Requirements on temperature and relative humidity ............................................ 20

Table 12 – Mechanical test projects and relevant requirement .............................................. 21

Table A.1 – Image contrast sensitivity of different density samples ....................................... 24

Table B.1 – Recording form for container-artifacts testing ..................................................... 26

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62963:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
RADIATION PROTECTION INSTRUMENTATION –
X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) INSPECTION
SYSTEMS OF BOTTLED/CANNED LIQUIDS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC

Publication(s)"). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

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between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

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services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

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expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62963 has been prepared by subcommittee 45B: Radiation

protection instrumentation, of IEC technical committee 45: Nuclear instrumentation.

The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
45B/958/FDIS 45B/962/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62963:2020 © IEC 2020

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62963:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –
RADIATION PROTECTION INSTRUMENTATION –
X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) INSPECTION
SYSTEMS OF BOTTLED/CANNED LIQUIDS
1 Scope

This document describes the technical requirements, test methods, inspection requirements,

markings and labelling, and requirements on the accompanying documents, packaging,

shipping and storage for X-ray security inspection systems that inspect bottled or canned

liquids (hereinafter referred to as "the system") based on X-ray computed tomography (CT).

Here, the system is limited to those that feature tomographic scanning, not standard X-ray

projection. This document is applicable to liquids, aerosols and gelatinous objects in

transparent or visually opaque containers.
This technical performance document includes minimum or baseline performance
requirements; regulators may require additional performance testing.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
IEC 60068-2-1, Environmental testing – Part 2-1:Tests – Test A:Cold
IEC 60068-2-2, Environmental testing – Part 2-2:Tests – Test B:Dry heat

IEC 60068-2-6, Environmental testing – Part 2-6: Tests – Test Fc: Vibration (sinusoidal)

IEC 60068-2-78, Environmental testing – Part 2-78: Tests – Test Cab: Damp heat, steady

state
IEC 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)

IEC 61000-6-1:2016, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-1: Generic standards –

Immunity standard for residential, commercial and light-industrial environments

IEC 61000-6-3:2006, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-3: Generic standards –

Emission standard for residential, commercial and light-industrial environments

IEC 61010-1:2010, Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control,

and laboratory use – Part 1: General requirements

ISO 780:2015, Packaging – Distribution packaging – Graphical symbols for handling and

storage of packages

ISO 13849 (all parts), Safety of machinery – Safety-related parts of control systems

ASTM A624/624M:2013, Standard Specification for Tin Mill Products, Electrolytic Tin Plate,

Single Reduced
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62963:2020 © IEC 2020

ASTM B221:2014, Standard Specification for Aluminium and Aluminium-Alloy Extruded Bars,

Rods, Wire, Profiles, and Tubes

EN 546-1:2006, Aluminium and aluminium alloys – Foil – Part 1: Technical conditions for

inspection and delivery
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
ambient dose equivalent
H*(10)

dose equivalent at a point in a radiation field that would be produced by the corresponding

expanded and aligned field in the ICRU sphere at a depth of 10 mm on the radius opposing

the direction of the aligned field

Note 1 to entry: The SI unit of ambient dose equivalent is the sievert (Sv) or its decimal multiples or submultiples

(e.g. mSv).

Note 2 to entry: The ambient dose equivalent (rate), used for the monitoring of strongly penetrating radiation, is

not an appropriate quantity for any beta radiation even that which is nominally penetrating (ICRU Report 47, 1992).

Note 3 to entry: When the term dose equivalent alone is used in this document, the quantities ambient dose

equivalent and directional dose equivalent are implied.
3.2
ambient dose equivalent rate

ratio of dH*(10) by dt, where dH*(10) is the increment of ambient dose equivalent in the time

interval dt:
dH * (10)
H * (10)=

Note 1 to entry: The SI unit of ambient dose equivalent rate is the sievert per second (Sv·s ). Units of ambient

dose equivalent rate are any quotient of the sievert or its decimal multiples or submultiples by a suitable unit of

time (e.g., mSv·h ).
3.3
CT value

value reported by CT systems on a per voxel basis that is a function of the material’s density

and atomic number

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in Hounsfield units (HU) in which the value of air at standard pressure and

temperature (STP) is defined as zero HU, while the value of distilled water at STP is defined as 1 000 HU.

3.4
density resolution

measure of the extent to which a tomograph or radiograph can be used to detect physical

differences in the test object
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62963:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –
3.5
effective atomic number
eff

material property that represents the atomic number of a theoretical element that, if the

material were replaced by the element, would produce the same x-ray attenuation
characteristics

Note 1 to entry: Z measurements can be scanner-dependent and its value shall not be considered as absolute.

eff
3.6
electron density
material property defined as:
𝜌𝜌 =𝜌𝜌×2𝑍𝑍/𝐴𝐴
𝑒𝑒
Where
𝜌𝜌 is electron density,
𝑒𝑒
𝜌𝜌 is physical density,
𝑍𝑍 is atomic number, and
𝐴𝐴 is atomic weight.
3.7
object inspection time

time interval from when the object to be inspected is inserted into the system to the time when

the system shows the result for the whole object. This does not include initial system warm up

time
Note 1 to entry: Object inspection may contain one or more single slices.
3.8
single slice inspection time

time interval from when the object to be inspected is inserted into the system, to the time that

the system shows the result for only one two-dimensional imaged slice of the object, a single

voxel in height

Note 1 to entry: This definition applies only to systems that have a single-slice mode available. This does not

include initial system warm up time.
3.9
spatial resolution

smallest separation distance at which two points (or line pairs) can be distinguished as

separate entities
3.10
test sample
combination of designated container and its content to be scanned
3.11
X-ray computed tomography (CT)

technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from

different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual 'slices') of specific

areas of a scanned object
3.12
X-ray inspection system of bottled/canned liquids

system that applies X-ray CT to bottles or cans with the intent of identifying liquids, aerosols,

or gels for security purposes
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62963:2020 © IEC 2020
4 Requirements
4.1 Structure and appearance

Protection grade for the system’s shell shall be subject to rules of IEC 60529, which shall not

be rated lower than the international protection marking code IP20.
4.2 Functionality
4.2.1 Threat alarm

The system shall automatically provide warning by audible or visual signals when threats are

detected. The signals may be disabled by configuration, if desired.
4.2.2 Image display

a) The system shall designate the position(s) that a container should be placed for inspection.

b) The system shall display images of inspected position(s).
4.2.3 Data storage

a) Data stored in the system shall include the resulting image, device identification number

(ID), operator ID and image generation time.

b) Image retrieval: functionality shall be provided to retrieve result images by operator ID,

image generation time and alarm result.

c) Image storage capacity: The system shall save images and results of a minimum of 10

000 scanned objects.

d) Image storage security: Images saved in the system shall be secured. Only authorized

personnel should be able to access to operate on the images.

e) Image export: The system shall export images into an open image format that can be

easily transferred or exported.
4.3 Performance
4.3.1 Reference environmental conditions and standard test requirements

Except where otherwise specified, tests shall be carried out within the standard test

conditions shown in the third column of Table 1. For tests performed outside the standard test

conditions, the values of temperature, pressure and relative humidity shall be stated and the

appropriate corrections, if any, made to give the response under reference conditions. All

tests in 4.3 shall be performed with the same values of these reference environmental

conditions. Reference conditions are given in the second column of Table 1.

The values in Table 1 are intended for tests performed in temperate climates. In other

climates, the actual values for the test shall be stated. Similarly atmospheric pressure lower

than 70 kPa may be permitted at higher altitudes. If the system is to be operate outside the

environmental standard test conditions, testing shall be performed at these non-standard

conditions.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62963:2020 © IEC 2020 – 9 –
Table 1 – Reference condition and standard test condition
Environment condition Reference condition Standard test conditions
Environment temperature 20 °C 15 °C to 35 °C
Relative humidity 65 % 45 % to 75 %
Atmospheric pressure 101,3 kPa 70 kPa to 106,6 kPa
Ambient dose equivalent rate no Ambient dose equivalent rate less than
Background radiation dose rate
greater than 0,1 μSv·h 0,25 μSv·h-1
Less than the lowest value that causes
Ambient electromagnetic field Negligible
interference
Less than twice the value of the
Ambient magnetic induction Negligible
induction due to earth’s magnetic field

For the system under test, the image quality test report shall include manufacturer,

manufacture date, model No., serial No., software version, environmental conditions, serial

No. of the test articles, type and serial No. of X-ray emitter. For all performance requirements

in 4.3, image evaluation shall be based on images acquired under normal security-screening

operation mode including exposure time, high voltage, and any other adjustable parameters.

4.3.2 Requirement on inspection time
4.3.2.1 Requirements

The object inspection time shall not be more than 30 s. In single slice mode, if available, the

inspection time shall be no more than 10 s.
4.3.2.2 Test method

The system shall conduct an inspection for a test sample and the measurement/scanning time

and mode shall be recorded, and comply with the requirement of 4.3.2.1.
4.3.3 Requirement on minimum volume of liquid to be inspected
4.3.3.1 Requirements

The system shall be able to inspect volumes of liquid that are ≥ 100 ml. The shape of the

container used to test for minimum scannable volume shall be a cylinder with a diameter of 50

mm.
4.3.3.2 Test method

Fill the container TC01, defined in Table 2, with water, and use the sample to perform

inspection. Such test shall be normally achieved and finally give an inspection result.

Table 2 – Container for minimum volume test
Code Name Specification
Container for minimum
Cross-section is circular; external diameter: 50±1 mm; wall thickness:
TC01 volume of liquid-to-be-
1±0,5 mm; polyethylene plastic bottle
inspected test sample
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62963:2020 © IEC 2020
4.3.4 Image contrast sensitivity
4.3.4.1 Requirements

The system's image contrast sensitivity shall be sufficient to achieve discrimination between

samples with physical density that differs by less than or equal to 3 % from that of water. The

evaluation report format for this metric is given in Annex A, Table A.1.
4.3.4.2 Description of the image-contrast-sensitivity test article

Using image contrast, this metric gauges effective liquid density resolution or sensitivity. The

test article consists of 6 cylindrical cavities in a large cylindrical base, each filled with a

different density liquid, as shown in Figure 1. The large cylinder is made of polyethylene.

Each cavity is filled with distilled water or NaCl water solutions of different concentrations

which is contained with a lid. Ensure the liquids are chemically stable over the period of

testing. Relative densities of the liquids are given in Table 3.
Key
1 to 6 Test samples at different densities
7 Base of the cylinder
Figure 1 – The image-contrast-sensitivity test article (all units are in mm)
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 62963:2020 © IEC 2020 – 11 –
Table 3 – Densities of test samples and respective NaCl concentrations
Sample NaCl concentration
Physical density of test liquid
No. (20 °C)
1 Water 0
2 Base density of water +1 % 1,66 ± 0,05 %
3 Base density of water +2 % 3,06 ± 0,05 %
4 Base density of water +3 % 4,44 ± 0,05 %
5 Base density of water +4 % 5,83 ± 0,05 %
6 Base density of water +5 % 7,20 ± 0,05 %
4.3.4.3 Test method

Place the image-contrast-sensitivity test article at the center of the inspection volume with the

axis of the cylinder vertically upwards. Scan the test object such that the central position of

the article that contains the test samples is imaged. Visually determine which of the NaCl test

samples can be discriminated from the water test sample by comparing the imaged samples

within one of the following reconstructed images: CT value, electron density or Z . If the

eff

reconstructed image includes more than one vertical voxel, before performing the evaluation,

produce a two-dimensional image using a projection method in the vertical direction that

produces the best signal to noise. Otherwise, evaluate dir
...

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