Semiconductor devices - Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and generation - Part 7: Linear sliding mode triboelectric energy harvesting

IEC 62830-7:2021 defines terms, definitions, symbols, configurations, and test methods that can be used to evaluate and determine the performance characteristics of linear sliding mode triboelectric energy harvesting devices for practical use. This document is applicable to energy harvesting devices for consumer, general industries, military and aerospace applications without any limitations on device technology and size.

Dispositifs à semiconducteurs - Dispositifs à semiconducteurs pour récupération et génération d’énergie - Partie 7: Récupération d’énergie triboélectrique en mode de coulissement linéaire

L’IEC 62830-7:2021 définit les termes, définitions, symboles, configurations et les méthodes d’essai pouvant être utilisés pour évaluer et déterminer les caractéristiques de performance des dispositifs de récupération d’énergie triboélectrique en mode de coulissement linéaire dans le contexte d’une utilisation pratique. Le présent document s’applique aux dispositifs de récupération d’énergie destinés au grand public, aux industries générales, aux applications militaires et aérospatiales, sans restriction concernant la technologie et la taille des dispositifs.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
02-Mar-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
03-Mar-2021
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IEC 62830-7
Edition 1.0 2021-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Semiconductor devices – Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and
generation –
Part 7: Linear sliding mode triboelectric energy harvesting
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Dispositifs à semiconducteurs pour
récupération et génération d’énergie –
Partie 7: Récupération d’énergie triboélectrique en mode de coulissement
linéaire
IEC 62830-7:2021-03(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62830-7
Edition 1.0 2021-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Semiconductor devices – Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and
generation –
Part 7: Linear sliding mode triboelectric energy harvesting
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Dispositifs à semiconducteurs pour
récupération et génération d’énergie –
Partie 7: Récupération d’énergie triboélectrique en mode de coulissement
linéaire
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.080.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-9469-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62830-7:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

3.1 General terms ......................................................................................................... 6

3.2 Triboelectric transducer .......................................................................................... 6

3.3 Characteristic parameters ....................................................................................... 7

4 Essential ratings and blank specification ....................................................................... 10

4.1 Identification and type ........................................................................................... 10

4.2 Limiting values and operating conditions ............................................................... 10

4.3 Additional information ........................................................................................... 10

5 Test method .................................................................................................................. 11

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

5.2 Electrical characteristics ....................................................................................... 12

5.2.1 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 12

5.2.2 Open-circuit voltage ....................................................................................... 13

5.2.3 Short-circuit current ....................................................................................... 14

5.2.4 Output voltage ............................................................................................... 14

5.2.5 Output current ............................................................................................... 14

5.2.6 Output power ................................................................................................. 15

5.2.7 Optimal load impedance ................................................................................ 15

5.3 Mechanical characteristics .................................................................................... 16

5.3.1 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 16

5.3.2 Contact area .................................................................................................. 17

5.3.3 Contact force ................................................................................................. 17

5.3.4 Displacement ................................................................................................. 18

5.3.5 Sliding speed ................................................................................................. 18

5.3.6 Relative humidity range ................................................................................. 19

5.3.7 Temperature range ........................................................................................ 19

6 Test report ..................................................................................................................... 20

Annex A (informative) Linear sliding modes ......................................................................... 22

A.1 Dielectric-to-dielectric sliding ................................................................................ 22

A.2 Conductor-to-dielectric sliding ............................................................................... 22

Annex B (informative) Example of experimental setup .......................................................... 23

Annex C (informative) Example of measurement for linear sliding mode triboelectric

energy harvester ................................................................................................................... 24

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 24

C.2 Linear sliding mode triboelectric energy harvester ................................................ 24

C.2.1 Weight and dimension of tested sliding mode triboelectric energy

harvesting device........................................................................................... 24

C.2.2 Type, frequency, acceleration and displacement conditions of energy

harvester ....................................................................................................... 24

C.2.3 Measurement conditions and measurement results for open-circuit

voltage .......................................................................................................... 24

C.2.4 Measurement condition and measurement results for short-circuit

current ........................................................................................................... 25

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62830-7:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –
C.2.5 Measurement conditions and measurement results for different

acceleration ................................................................................................... 25

C.2.6 Measurement conditions and measurement results for different

frequency ...................................................................................................... 27

C.2.7 Measurement conditions and measurement results for different

displacement ................................................................................................. 27

C.2.8 Measurement conditions and measurement results for output voltage

and current at different loads ......................................................................... 28

C.2.9 Measurement conditions and measurement results for output power.............. 29

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 30

Figure 1 – Schematic of linear sliding mode triboelectric energy harvester .............................. 7

Figure 2 – Equivalent circuit diagram of linear sliding mode triboelectric energy

harvester ................................................................................................................................ 8

Figure 3 – Measurement procedure for sliding mode triboelectric energy harvester ............... 11

Figure 4 – Test setup for the electrical characteristics of linear sliding mode

triboelectric energy harvester ................................................................................................ 12

Figure 5 – Instantaneous open-circuit output voltage characteristic....................................... 13

Figure 6 – Instantaneous short-circuit output current characteristic ....................................... 14

Figure 7 – Output voltage and current at different loads ........................................................ 15

Figure 8 – Output power characteristic at various external loads ........................................... 15

Figure 9 – Block diagram of a test setup for evaluating the reliability .................................... 16

Figure 10 – Output voltage for different surface contact areas .............................................. 17

Figure 11 – Output voltage dependence on contact force ...................................................... 18

Figure 12 – Output voltage for varying displacement between interfacing layers ................... 18

Figure 13 – Output voltage for different sliding speeds.......................................................... 19

Figure 14 – Output voltage under different relative humidity .................................................. 19

Figure 15 – Output voltage at different temperature .............................................................. 20

Figure A.1 – Operation modes of linear sliding mode triboelectric energy harvester .............. 22

Figure B.1 – Experimental setup for testing linear sliding mode triboelectric energy

harvester .............................................................................................................................. 23

Figure C.1 – Photographs of the triboelectric energy harvester ............................................. 24

Figure C.2 – Instantaneous open-circuit output voltage waveform ......................................... 25

Figure C.3 – Instantaneous short-circuit output current waveform ......................................... 25

Figure C.4 – Voltage waveform at 5 Hz frequency for different accelerations ........................ 26

Figure C.5 – Output voltage characteristic at various accelerations....................................... 27

Figure C.6 – Output voltage characteristic at different frequencies ........................................ 27

Figure C.7 – Output voltage for varying displacements between interfacing layers at 5

Hz frequency ........................................................................................................................ 28

Figure C.8 – Output voltage and current at different loads .................................................... 28

Figure C.9 – Output power characteristic at various external loads ....................................... 29

Table 1 – Specification parameters for linear sliding mode triboelectric energy

harvesters ............................................................................................................................. 10

Table C.1 – Measurement conditions .................................................................................... 24

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62830-7:2021 © IEC 2021
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES – SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
FOR ENERGY HARVESTING AND GENERATION –
Part 7: Linear sliding mode triboelectric energy harvesting
FOREWORD

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International Standard IEC 62830-7 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 47:

Semiconductor devices.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
47/2676/FDIS 47/2686/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62830-7:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –

A list of all parts in the IEC 62830 series, published under the general title Semiconductor

devices – Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and generation, can be found on the

IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

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• reconfirmed,
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colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62830-7:2021 © IEC 2021
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES – SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
FOR ENERGY HARVESTING AND GENERATION –
Part 7: Linear sliding mode triboelectric energy harvesting
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62830 defines terms, definitions, symbols, configurations, and test methods

that can be used to evaluate and determine the performance characteristics of linear sliding

mode triboelectric energy harvesting devices for practical use. This document is applicable to

energy harvesting devices for consumer, general industries, military and aerospace

applications without any limitations on device technology and size.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
linear sliding
physical sliding of one material on another material in horizontal direction
3.1.2
sliding-based energy harvester
energy transducer that transforms physical sliding energy into electrical energy

Note 1 to entry: A linear sliding mode triboelectric energy harvester to convert linear sliding to electricity

comprises dielectric materials, a surface electrode, an external load, and a relative displacement between

dielectric materials as shown in Figure 1. The sliding makes the two dielectric material surfaces come into physical

touch, and relative displacement makes the gap between those two materials. The top and bottom electrodes on

the two dielectric materials harvest charges generated from the coupling of triboelectrification and electrostatic

induction. The triboelectric charges are generated by the charge transfer between two thin organic/inorganic films

that exhibit distinct surface electron affinity, and the potential difference results from the separation of the

triboelectric charges; under short-circuit conditions, electrons are driven to flow between two electrodes attached

on the back side of the films through the load in order to balance the potential difference resulting from mechanical

action.
3.2 Triboelectric transducer
3.2.1
triboelectric effect

type of contact electrification in which certain materials become electrically charged after they

come into frictional contact with a different material
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62830-7:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
3.2.2
triboelectric series

list that ranks various materials according to their tendency to gain or lose electrons

3.2.3
triboelectric transducer

energy converter to generate electricity from mechanical energy by means of the triboelectric

effect
Key
Configuration of energy harvester
x(t) displacement
R external load
Figure 1 – Schematic of linear sliding mode triboelectric energy harvester

Note 1 to entry: A linear sliding mode triboelectric energy harvester can be divided into parts as shown in

Figure 1. The equivalent circuit consists of capacitance C which stores charge as +Q and −Q, open-circuit voltage

source V and external load R. Considering the materials to be used as the pair of the triboelectric layers, the

sliding mode triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has two types: dielectric-to-dielectric and conductor-to-dielectric.

The fundamentals of these two types are reported under Annex A.
3.3 Characteristic parameters
3.3.1
equivalent circuit

electrical circuit block diagram that has the same output voltage from relative displacement-

based linear sliding mode triboelectric energy harvester in the immediate neighborhood of the

acting force

Note 1 to entry: An equivalent circuit diagram of linear sliding mode triboelectric energy harvester is shown in

Figure 2.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62830-7:2021 © IEC 2021
Key parameters
C capacitance
V open-circuit voltage
Figure 2 – Equivalent circuit diagram of linear
sliding mode triboelectric energy harvester
3.3.2
V-Q-x relationship

relationship between the triboelectric output voltage, the amount of charge transferred

between electrodes and the separation distance between tribological material surfaces

Note 1 to entry: Owing to the electrical potential superposition principle, the total voltage difference between the

two electrodes can be given by Formula (1):
l d σ dx
V=− QV+ =− Q+ (1)
C wεεlx−−lx
( ) ( )

where, d is effective dielectric thickness, w is dielectric width, ε is the permittivity of the medium, σ is the surface

0 o

charge density, l is the length of the dielectric material, x is the lateral separation distance, and other parameters

are as defined before.
3.3.3
open-circuit voltage

electrical potential difference relative to a reference node of an energy harvester when there

is no external load connected to the terminal of the energy harvester

Note 1 to entry: The theoretical V expression for the linear sliding mode triboelectric energy harvester is given

by Formula (2):
 
σ x dd
V + (2)
OC  
ε lx− εε
( )
0  rr12

where, d and d are the dielectric thickness, ε and ε are the permittivity of dielectric material 1 and 2,

1 2 r1 r2
respectively, and the other parameters are as defined before.
3.3.4
short-circuit current

current measured through the terminals of the energy harvester from induced excitation

without external load
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62830-7:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –

Note 1 to entry: The theoretical I expression for linear sliding mode TENG is given by Formula (3)Error!

Bookmark not defined.:
I σσw wv()t (3)

where w is the thickness of the dielectric material, v(t) is the sliding speed of the triboelectric layer, and the other

parameters are as defined before.
3.3.5
output voltage

electrical potential difference relative to a reference node of an energy harvester when an

external load is connected to the terminal of the energy harvester
3.3.6
output current

current through the external load connected to the terminal of an

energy harvester
3.3.7
output power

electrical power transferred to the external load connected to the terminal of an energy

harvester

Note 1 to entry: The theoretical expression for the output power of linear sliding mode TENG is given by Formula

(4):
P= VI (4)
3.3.8
optimal load impedance
opt

specified value of the external load for transferring the largest electrical energy from the

energy harvester
3.3.9
contact area
area of physical contact of one object with the other object

Note 1 to entry: When two objects touch, a certain portion of their surface areas will be in contact with each other.

The contact area is the fraction of this area that consists of the atoms of one object in contact with the atoms of the

other object. Because objects are never perfectly flat because of asperities, the actual contact area (on a

microscopic scale) is usually much less than the contact area apparent on a macroscopic scale. The contact area

may depend on the normal force between the two objects because of deformation.
3.3.10
contact force

applied force in the normal direction to the surface owing to friction at the interface of two

triboelectric material surfaces
3.3.11
displacement
moving distance of one material from its original position
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62830-7:2021 © IEC 2021
3.3.12
sliding speed

displacement per unit time of one material over another material surface while maintaining

continuous contact
3.3.13
relative humidity range

range of humidity as measured on the enclosure over which the energy harvester will not

sustain permanent damage though not necessarily functioning within certain tolerances

3.3.14
temperature range

range of temperatures as measured on the enclosure over which the energy harvester will not

sustain permanent damage though not necessarily functioning within the specified tolerances

4 Essential ratings and blank specification
4.1 Identification and type

The linear sliding mode triboelectric energy harvester shall be clearly and durably marked

with the following information, in the orde
...

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