Semiconductor devices - Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and generation - Part 8: Test and evaluation methods of flexible and stretchable supercapacitors for use in low power electronics

IEC 62830-8:2021(E) specifies terms, definitions, symbols, test, and evaluation methods used to determine the performance characteristics of flexible and stretchable supercapacitor for practical use in low power electronics such as energy storage devices for energy harvesting, flexible and stretchable electronics, low-power devices, IoT applications, etc. This document is applicable to all the flexible and stretchable supercapacitor for consumers and manufacturers, without any limitations of device technology and size.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Oct-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
22-Oct-2021
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
IEC 62830-8:2021 - Semiconductor devices - Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and generation - Part 8: Test and evaluation methods of flexible and stretchable supercapacitors for use in low power electronics
English language
36 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

IEC 62830-8
Edition 1.0 2021-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Semiconductor devices – Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and
generation –
Part 8: Test and evaluation methods of flexible and stretchable supercapacitors
for use in low power electronics
IEC 62830-8:2021-10(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2021 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester. If you have any questions about IEC

copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address below or

your local IEC member National Committee for further information.
IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé info@iec.ch
CH-1211 Geneva 20 www.iec.ch
Switzerland
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigendum or an amendment might have been published.

IEC publications search - webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform IEC online collection - oc.iec.ch

The advanced search enables to find IEC publications by a Discover our powerful search engine and read freely all the

variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical publications previews. With a subscription you will always

committee, …). It also gives information on projects, replaced have access to up to date content tailored to your needs.

and withdrawn publications.
Electropedia - www.electropedia.org
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished
The world's leading online dictionary on electrotechnology,
Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published
containing more than 22 000 terminological entries in English
details all new publications released. Available online and
and French, with equivalent terms in 18 additional languages.
once a month by email.
Also known as the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary
(IEV) online.
IEC Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/csc
If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or
need further assistance, please contact the Customer Service
Centre: sales@iec.ch.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62830-8
Edition 1.0 2021-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Semiconductor devices – Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and
generation –
Part 8: Test and evaluation methods of flexible and stretchable supercapacitors
for use in low power electronics
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 31.080.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-1040-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62830-8:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

3.1 General terms ......................................................................................................... 6

3.2 Characteristic parameters ..................................................................................... 10

4 Essential ratings and characteristic parameters ............................................................. 11

4.1 Identification and type ........................................................................................... 11

4.2 Limiting values and operating conditions ............................................................... 11

4.3 Additional information ........................................................................................... 12

5 Test method .................................................................................................................. 12

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 12

5.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 12

5.1.2 Standard atmospheric conditions for test ....................................................... 13

5.1.3 Standard atmospheric conditions for measurement ........................................ 13

5.2 Flat status ............................................................................................................. 13

5.2.1 Measurement circuit ...................................................................................... 13

5.2.2 Measurement procedure ................................................................................ 14

5.2.3 Essential parameters calculation ................................................................... 16

5.3 Bending status ...................................................................................................... 18

5.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 18

5.3.2 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 19

5.4 Stretching status ................................................................................................... 22

5.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 22

5.4.2 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 23

6 Test reports ................................................................................................................... 26

Annex A (informative) Classification of supercapacitors and its working principles ............... 28

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 28

A.2 Classification ........................................................................................................ 28

A.3 Working principles ................................................................................................ 28

A.3.1 Electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) ........................................................ 28

A.3.2 Pseudocapacitor ............................................................................................ 29

A.3.3 Hybrid supercapacitor .................................................................................... 29

Annex B (informative) Endurance test (continuous application of rated voltage at low

or high temperature) ............................................................................................................. 30

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 30

B.2 Test method .......................................................................................................... 30

B.2.1 Test conditions .............................................................................................. 30

B.2.2 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 30

B.2.3 Recommendations ......................................................................................... 30

Annex C (informative) Other bending testers ........................................................................ 32

C.1 Bending stage using fixed and moving stage ......................................................... 32

C.2 Bending stage using rotating motor ....................................................................... 32

Annex D (informative) Classification of flexible and stretchable supercapacitor .................... 34

D.1 Flexible and stretchable supercapacitor with sandwich structure ........................... 34

D.2 Flexible and stretchable supercapacitor with in-planar structure ............................ 34

D.3 Flexible and stretchable supercapacitor with wire-shaped structure ...................... 34

D.4 Flexible textile made by using wire-shape supercapacitor ..................................... 35

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62830-8:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 36

Figure 1 – Schematic of curvature radius .............................................................................. 10

Figure 2 – Measurement procedure of flexible and stretchable supercapacitor ...................... 13

Figure 3 – Measurement circuit of flexible and stretchable supercapacitor ............................ 14

Figure 4 – Schematic illustration of the voltage-time (V-t) curve of the tested flexible

and stretchable supercapacitor ............................................................................................. 15

Figure 5 – Schematic illustration of current-time (I-t) curve of the tested flexible and

stretchable supercapacitor .................................................................................................... 15

Figure 6 – Schematic illustration of the voltage-current (V-I) curve of the tested flexible

and stretchable supercapacitor ............................................................................................. 16

Figure 7 – Voltage-time curves during ten continuous charging-discharging processes

of flexible and stretchable supercapacitor ............................................................................. 17

Figure 8 – Calculated capacitance retention after certain number of repeated

charging-discharging processes of flexible and stretchable supercapacitor ........................... 18

Figure 9 – Bending method of flexible and stretchable supercapacitor using bending stage .. 19

Figure 10 – Test setup for the performance reliability of flexible and stretchable

supercapacitor under bending condition ................................................................................ 20

Figure 11 – Comparison of charging-discharging curves with different curvature values

of a flexible and stretchable supercapacitor .......................................................................... 21

Figure 12 – Capacitance retention of flexible and stretchable supercapacitor under

bending status ...................................................................................................................... 21

Figure 13 – Performacne reliability of flexible and stretchable supercapacitor under

bending status ...................................................................................................................... 22

Figure 14 – Stretching method of flexible and stretchable supercapacitor using

stretching stage .................................................................................................................... 23

Figure 15 – Test setup for the performance reliability of flexible and stretchable

supercapacitor under stretching condition ............................................................................. 24

Figure 16 – Comparison of charging-discharging processes of flexible and stretchable

supercapacitor under various strain status ............................................................................ 25

Figure 17 – Capacitance retention of flexible and stretchable supercapacitor under

stretching status ................................................................................................................... 25

Figure 18 – Reliability of flexible and stretchable supercapacitor under stretching status ...... 26

Figure A.1 – Classification of supercapacitor according to its operation principles ................ 28

Figure A.2 – Schematic illustration of the configuration of EDLC ........................................... 28

Figure A.3 – Schematic illustration of the configuration of psuedocapacitor .......................... 29

Figure A.4 – Schematic illustration of the configuration of asymmetric hybrid

supercapacitor ...................................................................................................................... 29

Figure C.1 – Bending stage using fixed and moving stage .................................................... 32

Figure C.2 – Bending stage using rotating motor ................................................................... 33

Figure D.1 – Flexible and stretchable supercapacitor with sandwich structure ....................... 34

Figure D.2 – Flexible and stretchable supercapacitor with in-planar interdigital

structured electrodes ............................................................................................................ 34

Figure D.3 – Flexible and stretchable supercapacitor with wire-shaped structure .................. 35

Figure D.4 – Flexible and stretchable supercapacitor with textile structure ............................ 35

Table 1 – Table of specification parameters for flexible and stretchable supercapacitor ........ 12

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62830-8:2021 © IEC 2021
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES FOR ENERGY
HARVESTING AND GENERATION –
Part 8: Test and evaluation methods of flexible and stretchable
supercapacitors for use in low power electronics
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between

any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 62830-8 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 47: Semiconductor devices. It is

an International Standard.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
47/2724/FDIS 47/2733/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62830-8:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62830 series, published under the general title Semiconductor

devices – Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and generation, can be found on the

IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62830-8:2021 © IEC 2021
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES FOR ENERGY
HARVESTING AND GENERATION –
Part 8: Test and evaluation methods of flexible and stretchable
supercapacitors for use in low power electronics
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62830 specifies terms, definitions, symbols, test, and evaluation methods used

to determine the performance characteristics of flexible and stretchable supercapacitor for

practical use in low power electronics such as energy storage devices for energy harvesting,

flexible and stretchable electronics, low-power devices, IoT applications, etc. This document is

applicable to all the flexible and stretchable supercapacitor for consumers and manufacturers,

without any limitations of device technology and size.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.
IEC 60068-1:2013, Environmental testing – Part 1: General and guidance

IEC 62391-1, Fixed electric double-layer capacitors for use in electric and electronic equipment

– Part 1: Generic specification

IEC 62576, Electric double-layer capacitors for use in hybrid electric vehicles – Test methods

for electrical characteristics

IEC 62813, Lithium ion capacitors for use in electric and electronic equipment – Test methods

for electrical characteristics
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
flexible and stretchable supercapacitor

electrochemical capacitor which can be incorporated into clothing or worn on the body as

accessories

Note 1 to entry: Figure A.1 in Annex A shows classification of the supercapacitor.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62830-8:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
3.1.2
electrical double layer capacitor
EDLC

electrochemical capacitor in which energy storage predominantly is achieved by double-layer

capacitance
Note 1 to entry: Figure A.2 shows a schematic illustration of the EDLCs.
3.1.3
pseudocapacitor

electrochemical capacitor in which electrical energy is stored faradaically by electron charge

transfer between electrode and electrolyte

Note 1 to entry: Figure A.3 shows a schematic illustration of the pseudocapacitor.

3.1.4
hybrid capacitor

supercapacitor which consists of two different types of supercapacitors such as EDLC and

pseudocapacitor

Note 1 to entry: Figure A.4 shows a schematic illustration of the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor.

Note 2 to entry: In the symmetric supercapacitor, both EDLC-like behaving material and pseudocapacitor-like

behaving material are on each anode and cathode. In the asymmetric supercapacitor, EDLC-like behaving material

is on cathode and pseudocapacitor-like behaving material is on anode.
3.1.5
electrode mass
mass of electroactive material for a supercapacitor
3.1.6
cell volume
volume of a supercapacitor cell
3.1.7
electrode area
geometric area of electroactive material for supercapacitor
3.1.8
category temperature

range of ambient temperatures for which the supercapacitor has been designed to operate

continuously
[SOURCE: IEC 62391-1:2015, 3.8, modified – "capacitor" has been replaced by
"supercapacitor" and the note has been omitted.]
3.1.9
lower category temperature

minimum ambient temperature for which the supercapacitor has been designed to operate

continuously

[SOURCE: IEC 62391-1:2015, 3.9, modified – In the definition, "a capacitor" has been replaced

by "the supercapacitor".]
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62830-8:2021 © IEC 2021
3.1.10
upper category temperature

highest ambient temperature including internal heating in which the supercapacitor is designed

to operate continuously

[SOURCE: IEC 62391-1:2015, 3.10, modified – In the definition, "a capacitor" has been

replaced by "the supercapacitor".]
3.1.11
rated voltage

maximum direct current (DC) voltage or peak value of pulse which may be applied continuously

or repetitively to the supercapacitor at category temperature

[SOURCE: IEC 62391-1:2015, 3.12, modified – In the definition, "a capacitor" has been

replaced by "the supercapacitor" and "at any temperature between the lower category

temperature and rated temperature" has been replaced by "at category temperature"]

3.1.12
charging
storage of energy in a supercapacitor

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-436:1990, 436-01-08, modified – "of a capacitor" has been removed from

the term and "capacitor has been replaced by "supercapacitor in the definition.]
3.1.13
charging current
current which flows during the charging of a supercapacitor
3.1.14
charging time

time needed for accumulating above 90 % of the total charges to the supercapacitor

3.1.15
discharging
release of all or part of the energy stored in a supercapacitor

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-436:1990, 436-01-10, modified – The term and definition have been

adapted to supercapacitor.]
3.1.16
discharging current
disch
current which flows during the discharging of a supercapacitor

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-436:1990, 436-01-11, modified – The term and definition have been

adapted to supercapacitor and a letter symbol for discharging current has been added.]

3.1.17
discharging time
disch
time needed for dissolving above 90 % of the total charges in the supercapacitor
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62830-8:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –
3.1.18
energy efficiency

ratio of the electric energy provided from a supercapacitor during discharge to the electric

energy supplied to the battery during the preceding charge

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-05-53, modified – The definition has been adapted to

supercapacitor.]
3.1.19
voltage drop
drop

instantaneous change of voltage when the operation condition of a supercapacitor changes

from the charging to discharging process
3.1.20
strain

change of the relative positions of parts of a supercapacitor, excluding a displacement of the

body as a whole under stretching status
ll−
σ ×100 %
(1)
where
σ is the strain;
l is the stretched length of supercapacitor after elongation;
l is the original length of supercapacitor before elongation.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-113:2011, 113-03-57, modified – The definition has been adapted to

supercapacitor, and Equation (1) added.]
3.1.21
radius of curvature
bending radius
point of a curve, radius of the osculating circle under bending status

Note 1 to entry: The osculating circle is the circle tangent to a curve at a point that approaches at best the curve in

the vicinity of the point. Figure 1 shows a schematic of curvature radius.

Note 2 to entry: The other methods to bend the supercapacitor are indicated in Annex C.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-113:2011, 113-01-30, modified – The admitted term, letter symbol and

Note 2 to entry have been added.]
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62830-8:2021 © IEC 2021
Figure 1 – Schematic of curvature radius
3.2 Characteristic parameters
3.2.1
nominal capacitance
calculated capacitance value from galvano charging/discharging curve
3.2.2
specific capacitance
2 3
capacitance per unit mass/area/volume of the supercapacitor, F/g, F/cm , F/cm
3.2.3
equivalent series resistance
internal resistance
ESR

resistance component in an equivalent series circuit of capacitance and resistance of the

supercapacitor
Note 1 to entry: The internal resistance in given in ohms (Ω).

[SOURCE: IEC 62391-1:2015, 3.20, modified – The terms "equivalent series resistance" and

"ESR" have been added and in the definition, "a capacitor" has been replaced by "the

supercapacitor".]
3.2.4
energy density

amount of energy that can be stored per area/mass/volume of the supercapacitor, Wh/cm ,

Wh/kg, Wh/cm
3.2.5
maximum power density
max

speed at which energy can be delivered per area/mass/volume of the supercapacitor

2 3
to/absorbed from the load, W/cm , W/kg, W/cm
3.2.6
life cycle

certain number of repeated charging and discharging processes resulting in 90 % of

capacitance retention
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 62830-8:2021 © IEC 2021 – 11 –
3.2.7
critical strain

strain at which the capacitance starts to decrease a predefined limit, and/or fracture of the

supercapacitor caused by delamination or initiation of the cracks occurs
Note 1 to entry: It is the minimum strain that the supercapacitor can tolerate.
Note 2 to entry: Manufacturer should indicate predefined limit of strain.

[SOURCE: IEC 62951-1:2017, 3.1.2, modified – In the definition, "bending radius", "electrical

resistance", "exceed", and "film" have been replaced by "strain", "capacitance", "decrease", and

"supercapacitor", respectively. In addition, Note 2 to entry has been added.]
3.2.8
critical radius of curvature

bending radius at which the capacitance starts to decrease a predefined limit, and/or fracture

of the supercapacitor caused by delamination or initiation of the cracks occurs

Note 1 to entry: It is the minimum radius of curvature that the supercapacitor can tolerate.

Note 2 to entry: Manufacturer should indicate predefined limit of radius of curvature.

[SOURCE: IEC 62951-1:2017, 3.1.2, modified – In the definition, "electrical resistance",

"exceed", and "film" have been replaced by "capacitance", "decrease", and "supercapacitor",

respectively. Note 2 to entry has been added.]
4 Essential ratings and characteristic parameters
4.1 Identification and type

The wearable electrochemical-glucose sensors shall be clearly and durably marked in the order

given below:
a) year and week (or month) of manufacture;
b) manufacturer name or trade mark;
c) terminal identification (optional);
d) serial number;
e) factory identification code (optional).
4.2 Limiting values and operating conditions

The manufacturer shall clearly announce the operating conditions and its limitations for the use

of the wearable glucose sensor. Table 1 shows a list of specification for operating conditions

and its limitation.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 62830-8:2021 © IEC 2021
Tabl
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.