Laboratory resistors - Part 1: Laboratory DC resistors

IEC 60477-1:2022 applies to resistors intended for use as laboratory DC resistors (hereinafter referred to as "resistors") comprising standard resistors, single or multiple resistors of accuracy Classes 0,000 05 to 10 and single or multi-dial resistors of accuracy Classes 0,000 5 to 10.
This document does not apply to:
1) resistors which are intended for use solely as permanently mounted circuit components,
2) resistors used on alternating current or on pulsed current,
3) active resistors,
4) series resistors and shunts which are considered as accessories of electrical measuring instruments in the relevant IEC document (examples of these are as follows).
IEC 60477-1:2022 cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 60477 published in 1974, and its Amendment 1:1997. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) extended the resistor accuracy classes;
b) deleted the resistor accuracy class expression in parts per million (ppm);
c) excluded the active resistor from the scope of this document;
d) updated the terms and definitions according to new IEC 60050 series;
e) changed the term "resistance decade" to "resistance dial" to cover the multi-dial resistors with other resistance step values;
f) updated the intrinsic error to intrinsic uncertainty according to IEC 60359;
g) added the limits of relative stability for resistors of classes 0,000 05 to 0,01;
h) added the requirements of high voltage resistors;
i) updated the safety symbols and requirements according to the new IEC 61010 series;
j) updated the insulation resistance requirements of resistors;
k) added the requirements of temperature coefficient;
l) updated the temperature requirements for transport and storage of resistors.

Résistances de laboratoire - Partie 1: Résistances de laboratoire à courant continu

L'IEC 60477-1:2022 s’applique aux résistances destinées à être utilisées comme résistances de laboratoire à courant continu (ci-après désignées "résistances"), comprenant des résistances étalons, des résistances simples ou multiples des classes de précision 0,000 05 à 10 et des résistances à commutateurs simples ou multiples des classes de précision 0,000 5 à 10.
Le présent document ne s’applique pas:
1) aux résistances qui sont destinées à être utilisées seulement comme composants, branchées de façon permanente dans des circuits;
2) aux résistances utilisées en courant alternatif ou en courant impulsionnel;
3) aux résistances actives;
4) aux résistances additionnelles et aux shunts qui sont considérés comme accessoires des appareils de mesure électriques dans le document correspondant de l’IEC (en voici des exemples).
L'IEC 60477-1:2022 annule et remplace la première édition de l’IEC 60477 parue en 1974 et son Amendement 1:1997. Cette édition constitue une révision technique.
Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l’édition précédente:
a) extension des classes de précision des résistances;
b) suppression de l’expression classe de précision d’une résistance en parties par million (ppm);
c) exclusion de la résistance active du domaine d’application du présent document;
d) mise à jour des termes et définitions conformément à la nouvelle série IEC 60050;
e) remplacement du terme "résistance à décade" par "commutateur de résistance" pour couvrir les résistances à commutateurs multiples avec d’autres valeurs d’échelon de résistance;
f) mise à jour de l’erreur intrinsèque à l’incertitude intrinsèque conformément à l’IEC 60359;
g) ajout des limites de stabilité relative pour les résistances de classes 0,000 05 à 0,01;
h) ajout des exigences relatives aux résistances haute tension;
i) mise à jour des symboles de sécurité et des exigences conformément à la nouvelle série IEC 61010;
j) mise à jour des exigences de résistance d’isolement d’une résistance;
k) ajout des exigences relatives au coefficient de température;
l) mise à jour des exigences de température pour le transport et le stockage des résistances.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Mar-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
30-Mar-2022
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IEC 60477-1
Edition 1.0 2022-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Laboratory resistors –
Part 1: Laboratory DC resistors
Résistances de laboratoire –
Partie 1: Résistances de laboratoire à courant continu
IEC 60477-1:2022-03(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60477-1
Edition 1.0 2022-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Laboratory resistors –
Part 1: Laboratory DC resistors
Résistances de laboratoire –
Partie 1: Résistances de laboratoire à courant continu
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 17.220.20; 31.040.01 ISBN 978-2-8322-1092-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60477-1:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

3.1 General terms ......................................................................................................... 7

3.2 Characteristic values .............................................................................................. 9

3.3 Accuracy class, class index .................................................................................. 10

3.4 Influence quantities, reference conditions, nominal range of use ........................... 11

3.5 Uncertainty and variations..................................................................................... 13

4 Classification and construction ...................................................................................... 16

4.1 Classification ........................................................................................................ 16

4.2 Construction ......................................................................................................... 16

5 Limits of intrinsic uncertainty ......................................................................................... 16

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 16

5.2 Requirement for multiple resistors ......................................................................... 17

6 Reference conditions ..................................................................................................... 17

7 Permissible variations .................................................................................................... 18

7.1 Limits of variation.................................................................................................. 18

7.2 Conditions for the determination of the variations .................................................. 19

7.3 Influence of self-heating (power dissipation) ......................................................... 19

7.4 Influence of position .............................................................................................. 20

8 Further electrical and mechanical requirements ............................................................. 20

8.1 Electrical safety requirements ............................................................................... 20

8.2 Insulation resistance ............................................................................................. 20

8.3 Storage and transport conditions .......................................................................... 20

8.4 Terminal ............................................................................................................... 20

8.5 Provision of temperature measuring facilities ........................................................ 21

8.6 Guarding and screening requirements ................................................................... 21

9 Information, markings and symbols ................................................................................ 21

9.1 Information ........................................................................................................... 21

9.2 Markings, symbols and their locations ................................................................... 22

9.3 Marking relating to the reference conditions and nominal ranges of use ................ 22

Annex A (informative) Reference information ....................................................................... 25

A.1 Thermoelectric effects (see Clause 6, Note 2) ....................................................... 25

A.2 Reference range and nominal range of use ........................................................... 25

A.3 Example of marking for a single resistor ............................................................... 26

A.4 Example of marking for a five-dial resistor ............................................................ 26

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 27

Figure A.1 – Effect of temperature ........................................................................................ 25

Figure A.2 – Example of marking for a single resistor ........................................................... 26

Figure A.3 – Example of marking for a five-dial resistor ........................................................ 26

Table 1 – Limits of intrinsic relative uncertainty and limits of relative stability ........................ 17

Table 2 – Reference conditions and permissible range of influence quantities ...................... 18

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60477-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –

Table 3 – Nominal range of use for influence quantities (applicable unless marked

otherwise) ............................................................................................................................. 19

Table 4 – Examples of markings for temperature .................................................................. 23

Table 5 – Symbols for marking resistors ............................................................................... 24

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60477-1:2022 © IEC 2022
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
LABORATORY RESISTORS –
Part 1: Laboratory DC resistors
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC Publication(s)"). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

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4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between

any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 60477-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 85: Measuring equipment for

electrical and electromagnetic quantities. It is an International Standard.

This first edition cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 60477 published in 1974, and its

Amendment 1:1997. This edition constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) extended the resistor accuracy classes;
b) deleted the resistor accuracy class expression in parts per million (ppm);
c) excluded the active resistor from the scope of this document;
d) updated the terms and definitions according to new IEC 60050 series;

e) changed the term "resistance decade" to "resistance dial" to cover the multi-dial resistors

with other resistance step values;
f) updated the intrinsic error to intrinsic uncertainty according to IEC 60359;
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60477-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –

g) added the limits of relative stability for resistors of classes 0,000 05 to 0,01;

h) added the requirements of high voltage resistors;

i) updated the safety symbols and requirements according to the new IEC 61010 series;

j) updated the insulation resistance requirements of resistors;
k) added the requirements of temperature coefficient;
l) updated the temperature requirements for transport and storage of resistors.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
85/821/FDIS 85/824/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60477 series, published under the general title Laboratory resistors,

can be found on the IEC website.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60477-1:2022 © IEC 2022
LABORATORY RESISTORS –
Part 1: Laboratory DC resistors
1 Scope

This document applies to resistors intended for use as laboratory DC resistors (hereinafter

referred to as "resistors") comprising standard resistors, single or multiple resistors of accuracy

Classes 0,000 05 to 10 and single or multi-dial resistors of accuracy Classes 0,000 5 to 10.

This document does not apply to:

1) resistors which are intended for use solely as permanently mounted circuit components,

2) resistors used on alternating current or on pulsed current,
3) active resistors,

4) series resistors and shunts which are considered as accessories of electrical measuring

instruments in the relevant IEC document (examples of these are as follows).

EXAMPLE 1 IEC 60051 series: Recommendations for direct acting indicating analogue electrical measuring

instruments and their accessories.

EXAMPLE 2 IEC 60258: Direct acting recording electrical measuring instruments and their accessories.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.
IEC 60027 (all parts), Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology

IEC 60417 (all parts), Graphical symbols for use on equipment (available at http://www.graphical-

symbols.info/equipment)

IEC 61010-1:2010, Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control, and

laboratory use – Part 1: General requirements
IEC 61010-1:2010/AMD1:2016

IEC 61010-2-030, Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control, and

laboratory use – Part 2-030: Particular requirements for equipment having testing or measuring

circuits
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60477-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 7 –
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
terminal

point of interconnection of an electric circuit element, an electric circuit or a network with other

electric circuit elements, electric circuits or networks

Note 1 to entry: For an electric circuit element the terminals are the points at which or between which the related

integral quantities are defined. At each terminal, there is only one electric current from outside into the element.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-131:2002, 131-11-11, modified – Note 2 to entry omitted.]
3.1.2
two-terminal device

device having two terminals, or device having more than two terminals where only the

performance at two terminals forming a pair is of interest
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-151:2001, 151-12-13, modified – Note 1 to entry omitted.]
3.1.3
resistor
two-terminal device characterized essentially by its resistance
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-151:2001, 151-13-19, modified – Note 1 to entry omitted.]
3.1.4
four-terminal resistor
resistor fitted with two current terminals and two voltage terminals

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-313:2001, 313-09-06, modified – deletion of the words "injection" and

"measuring".]
3.1.5
single value resistor

device which provides a single definite resistance value between certain terminals

3.1.6
multiple value resistor

assembly comprising a number of resistors which are accessible either singly or in combination

and which provides definite resistance values between certain terminals
3.1.7
resistance dial

multiple resistor which, by means of a switching device, generally allows the selection of a

combination of resistance values rising in equal steps, each step corresponding to an increment

of an n-ary resistance value

Note 1 to entry: Resistance decade with each step corresponding to an increment of a decadic resistance value is

common (e.g. 0,1 Ω or 1 Ω or 10 Ω, etc.).

Note 2 to entry: A resistance decade generally allows a selection of 10, 11 or 12 resistance values (including zero).

3.1.8
multi-dial resistor

multiple resistor comprising a number of resistance dials which are generally connected in

series

Note 1 to entry: A resistor comprising a number of resistance decades is usually called a multi-decade resistor.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60477-1:2022 © IEC 2022
3.1.9
material measure

device intended to reproduce or supply, in a permanent manner during its use, one or more

known values of a given quantity
EXAMPLE: Standard electric resistor.
Note 1 to entry: The quantity concerned may be called the supplied quantity.

Note 2 to entry: The definition covers also those devices, such as signal generators and standard voltage or current

generators, often referred to as supply instruments.

Note 3 to entry: The identification of the value and uncertainty of the supplied quantity is given by a number tied to

a unit of measurement or a code term, called the nominal value or marked value of the material measure.

[SOURCE: IEC 60359:2001, 3.2.3, modified – The example has been added, as given in

IEC 60050-311:2001, 311-03-03.]
3.1.10
(measurement) standard

material measure, measuring instrument, reference material or measuring system intended to

define, represent physically, conserve or reproduce a unit of a quantity, or a multiple or sub-

multiple thereof (for example, standard resistance), or a known value of a quantity (for example,

standard cell), with a given uncertainty
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-311:2001, 311-04-01]
3.1.11
residual resistance

resistance value between the terminals of a multiple resistor having switching devices with a

zero position, when all switching elements are set to the zero position
3.1.12
screen
shield (US)

device intended to reduce the penetration of an electric, magnetic or electromagnetic field into

a given region
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-151:2001, 151-13-09]
3.1.13
local earth
local ground, US

part of the Earth that is in electric contact with an earth electrode and that has an electric

potential not necessarily equal to zero
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-01-03]
3.1.14
earth, verb
ground, verb US
to make an electric connection between a conductive part and a local earth
Note 1 to entry: The connection to local earth can be
– intentional, or
– unintentional or accidental
and can be permanent or temporary.
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-01-08]
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60477-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 9 –
3.1.15
earthing terminal
grounding terminal, US

terminal provided on equipment and intended for the electric connection with the earthing

arrangement
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-195:2021, 195-02-31]
3.1.16
working voltage

highest RMS value of the AC or DC voltage across any particular insulation which can occur

when the equipment is supplied at rated voltage

Note 1 to entry: Transients and voltage fluctuations are not considered to be part of the working voltage.

Note 2 to entry: Both open-circuit conditions and normal operating conditions are taken into account.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-581:2008, 581-21-19, modified – Note 1 and Note 2 to entry have been

added according to IEC 61010-1:2010, 3.3.3.]
3.1.17
measurement category

classification of testing and measuring circuits according to the type of mains to which they are

intended to be connected

Note 1 to entry: Measurement categories take into account overvoltage categories, short-circuit current levels, the

location in the building installation where the test or measurement is to be made, and some forms of energy limitation

or transient protection included in the building installation. See IEC 61010-2-30:2017, Annex AA for more information.

[SOURCE: IEC 61010-2-30:2017, 3.5.101]
3.1.18
insulation resistance

resistance under specified conditions between two conductive elements separated by the

insulating materials
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-151:2001, 151-15-43]
3.2 Characteristic values
3.2.1
nominal value

value of a quantity used to designate and identify a component, device, equipment, or system

Note 1 to entry: The nominal value is generally a rounded value.
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-151:2001, 151-16-09]
3.2.2
(measure-) value
mid element of the set assigned to represent the measurand

Note 1 to entry: The measure-value is no more representative of the measurand than any other element of the set.

It is singled out merely for the convenience of expressing the set in the format V ± U, where V is the mid element

and U the half-width of the set, rather than by its extremes. The qualifier "measure-" is used when deemed necessary

to avoid confusion with the reading-value or the indicated value.

Note 2 to entry: For a multiple resistor with switching devices having a zero position, the measure-value for a given

setting is the value obtained for that setting minus the residual resistance (see 3.1.11).

[SOURCE: IEC 60359:2001, 3.1.3, modified – Note 2 to entry has been added.]
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 60477-1:2022 © IEC 2022
3.2.3
indication
reading-value
output signal of the instrument

Note 1 to entry: The indicated value can be derived from the indication by means of the calibration curve.

Note 2 to entry: For a material measure, the indication is its nominal or stated value.

Note 3 to entry: The indication depends on the output format of the instrument:

– for analogue outputs it is a number tied to the appropriate unit of the display;

– for digital outputs it is the displayed digitized number;
– for code outputs it is the identification of the code pattern.

Note 4 to entry: For analogue outputs meant to be read by a human observer (as in the index-on-scale instruments)

the unit of output is the unit of scale numbering; for analogue outputs meant to be read by another instrument (as in

calibrated transducers) the unit of output is the unit of measurement of the quantity supporting the output signal.

Note 5 to entry: The indication is the assigned value for a resistor, the measure-value stated in this document

(see 9.1 p)) for a single or a multiple resistor of classes 0,00005 to 0,01, or the nominal value for a single or a

multiple resistor of classes 0,01 to 10.
[SOURCE: IEC 60359:2001, 3.1.5, modified – Note 5 to entry has been added.]
3.2.4
indicated value
value given by an indicating instrument on the basis of its calibration curve

Note 1 to entry: The indicated value is the measure-value of the measurand when the instrument is used in a direct

measurement under all the operating conditions for which the calibration diagram is valid.

[SOURCE: IEC 60359:2001, 3.1.9]
3.2.5
stability of a measuring instrument
stability

property of a measuring instrument, whereby its metrological properties remain constant in time

Note 1 to entry: Stability may be quantified in several ways.

EXAMPLE 1 In terms of the duration of a time interval over which a metrological property changes by a stated

amount.
EXAMPLE 2 In terms of the change of a property over a stated time interval.

Note 2 to entry: For a resistor, stability is quantified in the change of resistance measure-value over a year. In this

document, it is expressed in relative form divided by the resistance measure-value.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC GUIDE 99:2007, 4.19, modified – Note 2 to entry has been added.]

3.3 Accuracy class, class index
3.3.1
accuracy class

class of measuring instruments, all of which are intended to comply with a set of specifications

regarding uncertainty

Note 1 to entry: An accuracy class always specifies a limit of uncertainty (for a given range of influence quantities),

whatever other metrological characteristics it specifies.

Note 2 to entry: An instrument may be assigned to different accuracy classes for different

...

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