Wearable electronic devices and technologies - Part 201-1: Electronic textile - Measurement methods for basic properties of conductive yarns

IEC 63203-201-1:2022 specifies provisions and test methods for measurement of properties of conductive yarns. Conductive yarns covered in this document have conductivity of a level that can be used for transmission of electric signals, supply of electric power and electromagnetic shield. They do not include high-resistance conductive yarn used for anti-static and heating use. Conductive yarns are the basic material in electronic textiles and are mainly used as conductive traces in clothes-type wearable devices, as well as with secondary processing (woven, knitted, embroidered, nonwoven, etc.) to provide conductive fabrics.
This document does not define the required characteristics of the conductive yarn; rather, it specifies the handling and measurement methods for general and electrical properties of conductive yarn.

Technologies et dispositifs électroniques prêts-à-porter - Partie 201-1: Textile électronique - Méthodes de mesure des propriétés fondamentales des fils conducteurs

L’IEC 63203-201-1:2022 spécifie les dispositions applicables aux fils conducteurs et les méthodes d’essai pour le mesurage de leurs propriétés. Les fils conducteurs traités dans la présente norme présentent un niveau de conductivité qui peut être utilisé pour la transmission des signaux électriques, ou la fourniture de puissance électrique et d’un écran électromagnétique. Ces fils ne comportent pas de fil conducteur à haute résistance utilisé pour une utilisation antistatique et à des fins de chauffage. Les fils conducteurs constituent le matériau de base des textiles électroniques et sont utilisés principalement comme traces conductrices dans les dispositifs prêts-à-porter de type vêtements, ainsi qu’avec un traitement secondaire (en modes tissé, tricoté, brodé, non tissé, etc.), afin de fournir des étoffes conductrices.
Le présent document ne définit pas les caractéristiques exigées du fil conducteur, mais spécifie les méthodes de manipulation et de mesurage liées aux propriétés générales et électriques du fil conducteur.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
25-Apr-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
26-Apr-2022
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IEC 63203-201-1
Edition 1.0 2022-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Wearable electronic devices and technologies –
Part 201-1: Electronic textile – Measurement methods for basic properties of
conductive yarns
Technologies et dispositifs électroniques prêts-à-porter –
Partie 201-1: Textile électronique – Méthodes de mesure des propriétés
fondamentales des fils conducteurs
IEC 63203-201-1:2022-04(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 63203-201-1
Edition 1.0 2022-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Wearable electronic devices and technologies –
Part 201-1: Electronic textile – Measurement methods for basic properties of
conductive yarns
Technologies et dispositifs électroniques prêts-à-porter –
Partie 201-1: Textile électronique – Méthodes de mesure des propriétés
fondamentales des fils conducteurs
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 59.080.80; 59.080.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-1103-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63203-201-1:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Materials and structure .................................................................................................... 7

4.1 Classifications of conductive fibres .......................................................................... 7

4.1.1 Structure ......................................................................................................... 7

4.1.2 Length ............................................................................................................. 7

4.1.3 Basic materials for non-conductive components of fibre ................................... 8

4.1.4 Conductive components for conductive fibres .................................................. 8

4.2 Structure of conductive yarns .................................................................................. 8

5 Atmospheric conditions for measurement and conditioning .............................................. 9

6 Measurement methods for characteristics of conductive yarn ........................................... 9

6.1 Electrical properties ................................................................................................ 9

6.1.1 Resistance of conductive yarn .......................................................................... 9

6.1.2 Fusing current.................................................................................................. 9

6.2 Perspiration resistance ......................................................................................... 10

6.2.1 Specimens ..................................................................................................... 10

6.2.2 Artificial perspiration ...................................................................................... 10

6.2.3 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 10

6.2.4 Report of the results ...................................................................................... 10

6.3 Detergent resistance ............................................................................................. 11

6.3.1 Specimens ..................................................................................................... 11

6.3.2 Detergent ...................................................................................................... 11

6.3.3 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 11

6.3.4 Report of the results ...................................................................................... 11

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 12

Table 1 – Typical cross-sectional diagrams of conductive fibres ............................................. 7

Table 2 – Constructions of conductive yarns ........................................................................... 8

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IEC 63203-201-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
WEARABLE ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND TECHNOLOGIES –
Part 201-1: Electronic textile –
Measurement methods for basic properties of conductive yarns
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

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Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 63203-201-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 124: Wearable electronic

devices and technologies. It is an International Standard.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
124/175/FDIS 124/180/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 63203-201-1:2022 © IEC 2022

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

A list of all parts in the IEC 63203 series, published under the general title Wearable electronic

devices and technologies, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 63203-201-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

This document contains provisions for conductive yarns and defines measurement methods of

properties of conductive yarns used in electronic textile (e-textile) in wearable electronics. A

conductive yarn can be incorporated into the fabric which, in turn, can be used to manufacture

a wearable electronics product. The conductive yarn can transmit electric signals and/or supply

electric power. Therefore, measurement methods are defined for the characteristics of

conductive yarns.

The IEC 63203-2 series relates mainly to measurement methods for electronic textile (e-textile)

in wearable electronics.

The IEC 63203-2 series is divided into parts according to each category of electronic textile.

Each part is prepared as a generic specification containing fundamental information for the area

of printed electronics.
The IEC 63203-2 series consists of the following parts:
IEC 63203-201: E-textile materials
IEC 63203-201-1: E-textile materials – Conductive yarn

IEC 63203-201-2: E-textile materials – Conductive fabrics and insulation materials

IEC 63203-202: Passive electric parts for e-textiles
IEC 63203-202-1: Passive e-textile parts – Connectors for e-textile applications
IEC 63203-203: E-textile functional elements

IEC 63203-204: E-textile systems (Evaluation method for garment-type wearable systems)

IEC 63203-204-1: E-textile systems – Test method for assessing washing durability of

leisurewear and sportswear e-textile systems
(Subsequent parts will be prepared according to other categories.)

Furthermore, sectional specifications, blank detail specifications, and detail specifications of

each category will follow these parts.
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– 6 – IEC 63203-201-1:2022 © IEC 2022
WEARABLE ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND TECHNOLOGIES –
Part 201-1: Electronic textile –
Measurement methods for basic properties of conductive yarns
1 Scope

This part of IEC 63203-201 specifies provisions and test methods for measurement of

properties of conductive yarns. Conductive yarns covered in this document have conductivity

of a level that can be used for transmission of electric signals, supply of electric power and

electromagnetic shield. They do not include high-resistance conductive yarn used for anti-static

and heating use. Conductive yarns are the basic material in electronic textiles and are mainly

used as conductive traces in clothes-type wearable devices, as well as with secondary

processing (woven, knitted, embroidered, nonwoven, etc.) to provide conductive fabrics.

This document does not define the required characteristics of the conductive yarn; rather, it

specifies the handling and measurement methods for general and electrical properties of

conductive yarn.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.
IEC 60468:1974, Method of measurement of resistivity of metallic materials

ISO 105-E04, Textiles – Tests for colour fastness – Part E04: Colour fastness to perspiration

ISO 139, Textiles – Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
ISO 6330, Textiles – Domestic washing and drying procedures for textile testing

EN 16812:2016, Textiles and textile products – Electrically conductive textiles – Determination

of the linear electrical resistance of conductive tracks
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
conductive fibre
fibre, such as staple or filament, having electrical conductivity

Note 1 to entry: Conductive fibre can be used for signal line, power transmission line, and electromagnetic shield.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 63203-201-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 7 –
Note 2 to entry: The conductive fibres can constitute conductive yarns.
[SOURCE: IEC 63203-101-1:2021, 3.16]
3.2
conductive yarn
yarn having electrical conductivity

Note 1 to entry: Conductive yarn can be used for signal line, power transmission line, and electromagnetic shield.

[SOURCE: IEC 63203-101-1:2021, 3.17]
3.3
conductive fabric

fabric, such as woven fabric, knitted fabric, nonwoven fabric, having electrical conductivity

Note 1 to entry: Conductive fabric can be used at the level of signal line, power transmission line, and

electromagnetic shield.
[SOURCE: IEC 63203-101-1:2021, 3.18]
4 Materials and structure
4.1 Classifications of conductive fibres
4.1.1 Structure
Conductive fibres are typically classified as follows:
a) monolithic (conductive polymer and metal);

b) coated (conductive coating on non-conductive fibre, non-conductive coating on conductive

fibre);
c) bi-component (conductive and non-conductive polymer);
d) conductive filler/composite.
These typical cross-sectional diagrams are shown in Table 1.
Table 1 – Typical cross-sectional diagrams of conductive fibres
Typical cross-sectional diagrams of conductive fibres
Monolithic Coated Bi-component Conductive filler
(conductive (conductive coating on non- (combination of conductive and composite
polymer and conductive fibre, non-conductive polymer)
metal) non-conductive coating
on conductive fibre)
4.1.2 Length

Conductive fibres are categorized into filament or staple fibres. Staple refers to a fibre of

discrete length. Filament refers to a continuous length.
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– 8 – IEC 63203-201-1:2022 © IEC 2022
4.1.3 Basic materials for non-conductive components of fibre

The following materials are used for the non-conductive core, sheath and coating of the

conductive fibres:

a) man-made polymer, for example, polyester, aliphatic polyamide, aromatic polyamide,

polyacrylamide, elastomer, and others;
b) natural fibres, such as silk, wool, cotton, and others.
4.1.4 Conductive components for conductive fibres

Conductive materials are classified into metallic materials and non-metallic materials:

a) metallic materials, for example, silver, gold, copper, aluminium, stainless steel, other

metals;

b) non-metallic materials, for example, carbon-based materials, conductive polymers, and

others. Carbon-based materials include conductive carbon powder such as graphite, carbon

nanotube and graphene.
4.2 Structure of conductive yarns

Conductive yarns are classified according to the type of their composing fibres as shown in

Table 2.
Table 2 – Constructions of conductive yarns
Construction of conductive yarns (schematic cross section)
Filament
yarn
Mono-filament yarn Multi-filament yarn Multi-filament yarn consisting of

consisting of one consisting of conductive conductive and non-conductive filament

filament fibre filament fibre fibre
Spun
yarn

Spun yarn consisting of conductive Spun yarn consisting of conductive and non-conductive

staple fibre staple fibre
Mixed yarn consisting of filament fibre and staple fibre.

Some or all of filament is conductive, and/or some or all of staple is conductive.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 63203-201-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 9 –
5 Atmospheric conditions for measurement and conditioning

Preparation, conditioning and measurement of the test specimens shall be carried out in

accordance with the standard atmosphere of ISO 139 (i.e., 20 °C, 65 % RH).
6 Measurement methods for characteristics of conductive yarn
6.1 Electrical properties
6.1.1 Resistance of conductive yarn
6.1.1.1 General

The electrical resistance of conductive yarn is determined using the four-wire method as

specified in IEC 60468:1974 and EN 16812:2016. The electrical resistance of conductive yarn

is defined as the electrical resistance per unit length of the conductive yarn Ω / m. Yarns may

be straightened by applying a weight to one end of the yarn. A pre-tension of 0,5 cN/tex is

recommended, but other values can be agreed upon by the interested parties or in function of

the tensile properties of the yarn. This can be important for yarns containing high amounts of

metal according to EN 16812:2016.
6.1.1.2 Specimens

Prepare five specimens with an effective length of 0,5 m each according to EN 16812:2016.

6.1.1.3 Procedure
a) Measure the electrical resistance value of each five specimens according to
IEC 60468:1974.
b) Calculate the average of five specimen’s resistance values.
6.1.1.4 Report of results
The report shall include the following items:
a) identification of the measured conductive yarn;
b) test conditions (room temperature and humidity);
c) number of measured yarns;
d) average of measured resistance values;
e) standard deviation of measured resistance values.
6.1.2 Fusing current
6.1.2.1 General

In this Subclause 6.1.2, it is described how to obtain the minimum value when a conductive

yarn melts or ignites by heat developed when current is passed through each conductive fibre.

The fusing current is a fundamental measurement value for obtaining the maximum permissible

current for the conductive yarn. It should be noted that the safety factor for determining the

maximum permissible current is determined on a case-by-case basis, since the surrounding

condition of the conductive yarns in the situations in which the conductive yarns are used,

depends on each application.
6.1.2.2 Procedure

a) Both ends of the conductive yarn are clamped with electrodes such that the effective length

is 100 mm. Position and mount the conductive yarn such that it does not loosen in the

windless air.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 63203-201-1:2022 © IEC 2022

b) Apply a gradually increasing DC voltage until an initial current of 1 mA is reached.

c) 10 s after applying the voltage, gradually increase the voltage such that the current increase

rate becomes 1 mA/s. The electrical current at the time when the conductive yarn melts or

ignites is recorded, and this value is registered as the fusing current. When the fusing

current is as low as 10 mA, several conductive yarns are arranged in parallel and clamped,

and the obtained measurement value is divided by the number of yarns. Measure the fusing

current value of at least 10 conductive yarns and calculate the average value and the

standard deviation.
6.1.2.3 Report of the results
The report shall include the following items:
a) identification of the measured conductive yarn;
b) test conditions (room temperature and humidity);
c) number of measured yarns;
d) average of all fusing current (A) measurements;
e) standard deviation of all fusing current measurements.
6.2 Perspiration resistance
6.2.1 Specimens

Prepare five specimens with an effective length of 0,5 m each according to EN 16812:2016.

The outside of the effective length may be tied to prevent untwisting when immersed in a liquid.

6.2.2 Artificial perspiration

Artificial perspiration liquid (alkaline solution and acid solution) shall be prepared according to

ISO 105-E04.
6.2.3 Procedure

a) Measure the initial resistance R of the specimen using the method as described in 6.1.1.3.

b) Immerse the specimen in artificial perspiration alkaline solution adjusted to (37 ± 2) °C for

24 h. Spread out the specimen smoothly in a flat-bottomed dish and cover with the alkaline

solution. Thoroughly wet the specimen in this solution at an approximate liquor ratio of 50:1.

c) Remove the specimen from the artificial perspiration liquid and rinse it thoroughly with

running water.

d) Hang the specimen vertically for 24 h under standard environment (i.e., at (20 ± 2) °C and

(65 ± 4) % RH) to dry.

e) Measure the resistance R of the specimen using the method described in 6.1.1.3.

f) Calculate the resistance change ratio by applying following formula:
Resistance change ratio = 100 × (R – R ) / R [%]
pt p0 p0
Here, R is the resistance value before the test.
R is the resistance value after the perspiration treatment.

g) Repeat the above procedure (steps a) to f)) for five specimens and calculate the average

value.

h) Apply the procedure from steps a) to g) using the artificial perspiration acid solution.

6.2.4 Report of the results
The report shall include the following items:
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IEC 63203-201-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 11 –
a) identification of the measured conductive yarn;

b) test conditions (room temperature and relative humidity and type of artificial perspiration);

c) number of measured yarns;
d) average of resistance change ratio;
e) standard deviation of resistance change ratio.
6.3 Detergent resistance
6.3.1 Specimens
Prepare five specimens with an effective length of 0,5 m each.

The outside of the effective length may be tied to prevent untwisting when immersed in a liquid.

6.3.2 Detergent

Detergent shall be selected in consultation with user and supplier from standard detergents

specified in ISO 6330.

NOTE 1 The "user" can be any of the following: manufacturer of the yarn, manufacturer of the fabric, manufacturer

of the semi-finished or end product, or end-user.

NOTE 2 The "supplier" can be any of the following: manufacturer of the raw material, manufacturer of the yarn,

manufacturer of the fabric, manufacturer of the semi-finished or end product.
6.3.3 Procedure

a) Measure the initial resistance R of the specimen using the method described in 6.1.1.3.

b) Immerse the specimen in 2,0 g/l aqueous detergent solution adjusted to (25 ± 2) °C for 24 h.

c) Remove the specimen from the detergent solution and rinse thoroughly with running water,

and hang vertically for 24 h in a standard environment (at (20 ± 2) °C, (65 ± 4) % RH).

d) Determine the resistance R of the specimen using the method described in 6.1.1.3.

e) Calculate the resistance change ratio by applying following formula:
Resistance change ratio = 100 × (R – R ) / R [%]
dt d0 d0
Here, R is the resistance value before the test.
is the resistance value after the detergent treatment.

f) Repeat the above procedure (steps a) to e)) for five specimens, and calculate the average

value.
6.3.4 Report of the results
The report shall include the following items:
a) identification of the measured conductive yarn;
b) test conditions (room temperature and humidity and type of detergent);
c) number of measured yarns;
d) average of all resistance change ratio;
e) standard deviation of all resistance change ratio.
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...

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