Aircraft batteries - Part 2: Design and construction requirements

IEC 60952-2:2013 defines the physical design, construction and material requirements for nickel-cadmium and lead-acid aircraft batteries containing vented or valve-regulated cells or monoblocs. The batteries are used for both general purposes and specific aerospace applications. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2004. This new edition includes those formats that can be standardized along with their connectors and electrical interfaces.

Batteries d'aéronefs - Partie 2: Exigences de conception et de construction

La CEI 60952-2:2013 définit les exigences de conception, de construction et de matériau des batteries au nickel-cadmium et au plomb d'aéronefs contenant des éléments ou monoblocs ouverts ou à soupape. Les batteries sont utilisées tant pour les usages généraux que pour des applications spécifiques aérospatiales. Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition parue en 2004. Cette nouvelle édition inclut des formats qui peuvent être normalisés au même titre que leurs connecteurs et leurs interfaces électriques.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Jul-2013
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
09-Jul-2013
Completion Date
09-Jul-2013
Ref Project

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IEC 60952-2
Edition 3.0 2013-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Aircraft batteries –
Part 2: Design and construction requirements
Batteries d’aéronefs –
Partie 2: Exigences de conception et de construction
IEC 60952-2:2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60952-2
Edition 3.0 2013-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Aircraft batteries –
Part 2: Design and construction requirements
Batteries d’aéronefs –
Partie 2: Exigences de conception et de construction
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX W
ICS 29.220.20; 49.060 ISBN 978-2-8322-0945-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – 60952-2 © IEC:2013
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................ 6

3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................... 6

4 General construction requirements .................................................................................... 6

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 6

4.2 Safety ...................................................................................................................... 7

4.3 Safety philosophy .................................................................................................... 7

4.4 Factors influencing safety ........................................................................................ 8

4.5 Regulatory information ............................................................................................. 8

4.6 Configuration control................................................................................................ 9

4.7 General requirements ............................................................................................ 10

4.8 Installation considerations ...................................................................................... 10

4.9 Workmanship ........................................................................................................ 10

5 Electrolytes ..................................................................................................................... 11

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

5.2 Electrolyte resistance ............................................................................................. 11

5.3 Electrolyte level ..................................................................................................... 11

5.4 Leakage ................................................................................................................ 11

6 Dissimilar metals ............................................................................................................ 11

7 Corrosion prevention – Vented nickel-cadmium batteries only.......................................... 12

8 Battery containers and components................................................................................. 12

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 12

8.2 Battery containers and covers ................................................................................ 12

8.3 Electrical bonding .................................................................................................. 12

8.4 Cell jars and monoblocs ......................................................................................... 12

9 Venting arrangements ..................................................................................................... 12

9.1 Battery requirements ............................................................................................. 12

9.2 Cell requirements .................................................................................................. 13

9.2.1 Vented filler cap for vented cell .................................................................. 13

9.2.2 Valve for valve regulated cell ..................................................................... 13

10 Inter-cell connectors for nickel-cadmium batteries ........................................................... 13

10.1 General ................................................................................................................. 13

10.2 Special purpose inter-cell connections – non-removable ......................................... 14

11 Handles .......................................................................................................................... 14

12 Latches .......................................................................................................................... 14

13 Materials and components for flooded nickel-cadmium batteries ...................................... 14

14 Gas barriers and thermal runaway – nickel-cadmium only ................................................ 14

15 Dimensions, mass, markings and identification requirements .......................................... 15

15.1 Dimensions and mass ............................................................................................ 15

15.2 Colour ................................................................................................................... 15

15.3 Marking ................................................................................................................. 15

15.3.1 Battery marking ......................................................................................... 15

15.3.2 Cell marking .............................................................................................. 15

15.3.3 Polarity marking ......................................................................................... 16

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60952-2 © IEC:2013 – 3 –

16 Heaters – Battery heating system .................................................................................... 16

17 Electrical connectors – Strength of receptacle ................................................................. 16

18 Temperature monitoring .................................................................................................. 16

19 Storage........................................................................................................................... 17

20 Transportation ................................................................................................................ 17

21 Disposal and recycling .................................................................................................... 17

Annex A (normative) Battery formats .................................................................................... 18

Annex B (normative) Connectors .......................................................................................... 31

Figure A.1 – Format A ........................................................................................................... 18

Figure A.2 – Format B ........................................................................................................... 19

Figure A.3 – Format C ........................................................................................................... 20

Figure A.4 – Format D ........................................................................................................... 21

Figure A.5 – Format E ........................................................................................................... 22

Figure A.6 – Format F ........................................................................................................... 23

Figure A.7 – Format G ........................................................................................................... 24

Figure A.8 – Format H ........................................................................................................... 25

Figure A.9 – Format I ............................................................................................................ 26

Figure A.10 – Format J .......................................................................................................... 27

Figure A.11 – Format K ......................................................................................................... 28

Figure A.12 – Format L ......................................................................................................... 29

Figure A.13 – Format M ......................................................................................................... 30

Figure B.1 – Connector Type A .............................................................................................. 32

Figure B.2 – Connector Type B .............................................................................................. 33

Figure B.3 – Connector Type C ............................................................................................. 34

Figure B.4 – Connector Type Q ............................................................................................. 35

Figure B.5 – Connector Type R ............................................................................................. 36

Figure B.6 – Connector Type S .............................................................................................. 37

Table 1 – Workmanship requirements ................................................................................... 11

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– 4 – 60952-2 © IEC:2013
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
AIRCRAFT BATTERIES –
Part 2: Design and construction requirements
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

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governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

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3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60952-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 21:

Secondary cells and batteries.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2004. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition: the inclusion of those formats that can be standardized along with their connectors and

electrical interfaces
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
21/804/FDIS 21/815/RVD
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
60952-2 © IEC:2013 – 5 –

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 60952 series, published under the general title Aircraft batteries

can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – 60952-2 © IEC:2013
AIRCRAFT BATTERIES –
Part 2: Design and construction requirements
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60952 series defines the physical design, construction and material

requirements for nickel-cadmium and lead-acid aircraft batteries containing vented or valve-

regulated cells or monoblocs. The batteries are used for both general purposes and specific

aerospace applications.

The specific topics addressed in this part serve to establish acceptable quality standards

required to qualify a battery as airworthy as defined in Clause 3 of IEC 60952-1:2013.

A preferred range of aircraft batteries is specified in Annex A, but this part of IEC 60952 series

may be used for other battery sizes, arrangements and ratings. For particular applications,

other design requirements may be stipulated. These will be in addition to the requirements of

this part and will be covered by specific documents.

It is recognised that additional data may be required by other organisations (national standards

bodies, AECMA, SAE, etc.). The present standard can be used as a framework to devise tests

for generation of the required data.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

IEC 60952-1:2013, Aircraft batteries – Part 1: General test requirements and performance

levels
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60952-1:2013 apply.

4 General construction requirements
4.1 General

Batteries complying with this standard shall be capable of meeting the requirements of

IEC 60952-1 upon commissioning in accordance with manufacturer instructions or as specified

in the product specification. Batteries designed for utilisation in the aerospace environment

shall be sufficiently robust and shall withstand the rigors of normal application, handling,

manoeuvres and the full range of operating conditions permitted for the aircraft concerned.

Proper integration of nickel-cadmium, and lead-acid batteries into aviation-related equipment

requires cooperation between the battery supplier, aircraft designer, and the avionic equipment

designer. Only through this cooperative exchange of the aircraft performance requirements and

the battery's capabilities and limitations can an effective pairing of aircraft, avionics equipment

and battery be realised.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
60952-2 © IEC:2013 – 7 –

Overall, the stated requirements and guidelines contained in this document are generic in

nature, and serve only as a baseline for the design and test for specific battery and equipment

pairings.

Below are general requirements pertinent to the safety, quality control, configuration control,

qualification, storage, shipping, and disposal of nickel-cadmium, nickel metal-hydride, and

lead-acid aircraft batteries.
4.2 Safety

Safety is the prime consideration in the use of nickel-cadmium, and lead acid batteries on

aircrafts. The training of installers, end users and personnel involved in the assembly,

handling, installation, maintenance and disposal of nickel-cadmium, nickel metal hydride, and

lead-acid batteries with respect to their special characteristics is a necessary safety element.

Extreme care shall be taken in the handling, shipping, and storage of nickel-cadmium, nickel

metal-hydride, and lead-acid aircraft batteries. Safety concerns include the possibility of fire,

explosion, and corrosive nature of the electrolyte and the venting of toxic or flammable gases.

The battery shall be constructed so as to avoid the occurrence of short-circuiting of the battery

and its components.

Terminals of batteries should be covered with non-conductive protection to avoid possibility of

shorting during handling, shipping, and storage.

The battery shall be constructed such that there will be no ignition source inside the battery

sufficient to cause ignition of hydrogen/oxygen mixtures in the event of failure of the venting

system. All auxiliary equipment such as thermal sensors, thermostats, heaters and switching

devices shall be so designed that they cannot be the source of an explosion. The current-

carrying components of the battery shall be dimensioned and constructed so as to provide no

ignition source under any external short circuit conditions.

The battery shall be so constructed that any debris due to any internal explosion failure shall be

contained within the casing.

The battery should be constructed of materials that, in the absence of externally supplied

energy, will not support combustion.
4.3 Safety philosophy

Aircraft designers must ensure that operational parameters and the environment in which the

battery is to be used are not more severe than that to which it has been designed and tested.

Operation at discharge rates and temperatures exceeding design limits, improper maintenance,

and improper storage may result in dangerous battery failure. Additionally, the improper

application of batteries may compromise the safety of the aircraft by it not being capable of

delivering adequate power during an emergency to support aircraft essential loads for the

design duration.

Nickel-cadmium, nickel metal-hydride, and lead-acid batteries and the aircraft equipment for

which they are the power source must be designed such that no single failure in either can

cause a safety hazard to the passengers or crew of the aircraft.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – 60952-2 © IEC:2013
4.4 Factors influencing safety

The battery application and design should be such to avoid the occurrence of short-circuiting of

the battery and its components. The battery shall be constructed to minimise ignition sources

inside the battery. The battery should be constructed of self-extinguishing materials.

Installers and users of nickel-cadmium, nickel metal-hydride, and lead-acid batteries must be

informed that cells and batteries other than those authorized/approved for a particular

application shall not be substituted even though they may be of the same physical dimensions,

capacity, and voltage.

Safe use of nickel-cadmium, nickel metal-hydride, and lead-acid batteries involves more than

battery selection and testing. Other design and operation factors can have a similar impact on

safe use. For example:

a) Multiple batteries – In general, the use of a single battery is preferred over the use of a

number of batteries in series and/or parallel. However, in many aircraft applications due to

either handling requirements (weight) or space restriction, separation into more than one

battery case may be necessary.

b) Mixing of cells or batteries – Mixing of cells or batteries from different manufacturers is not

an acceptable practice. Cells or batteries of different capacities in series connection will

result in the lower capacity battery(ies) being driven into deep discharge (forced discharge).

Cells or batteries may have different capacities on account of their differences in design,

manufacturing process, storage, use, age or history. Therefore, mixing cells or batteries

with different part numbers, made by different manufacturers or from different sources,

shall not be allowed. Refer to the OEM maintenance manuals for proper replacement of

each manufacturer's cells within a battery.

c) Battery polarity – Installing one or more batteries incorrectly, with the battery output

terminals reversed, will result in the reversed battery being charged by other batteries in the

circuit during discharge and discharged by the charging system during charge.

d) Exposed terminals – Batteries should be designed and/or packaged in such a way as to

prevent short circuits, and assure proper battery installation. Leaving battery output

terminals or leads exposed may result in external short-circuiting of the battery during

shipping, handling, testing and installation. Terminals of batteries should be covered with

non-conductive protective device to avoid any possibility of shorting during handling,

shipping, and storage. Aircraft vibration and/or contact oxidation may result in poor

electrical connections. Proper connector design and maintenance procedures are
necessary.

e) High terminal voltage – Batteries supplying 50 V or above present a personal safety hazard

due to the possibility of lethal shock and shall be labelled to clearly indicate the hazard.

4.5 Regulatory information

Regulation of equipment installed in aircraft, and component parts of that equipment, are the

responsibility of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the European Aviation Safety

Agency (EASA). In the case of equipment installed in aircraft at the time of manufacture of the

aircraft, the aircraft's Type Certificate (TC) specifies the approved aircraft type design including

any battery equipment. Amendments, Supplemental Type Certificates (STC) and Part

Manufacturer Approval (PMA) may be approved subsequent to the original issue of a TC. It is

also possible to obtain FAA regional or field approval for modification or addition of equipment

mounted in aircraft. It is to note that although PMA is acceptable for a complete OEM battery

replacement, it is not acceptable for individual cells.
___________
This subclause is non-normative and is added for information only.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
60952-2 © IEC:2013 – 9 –

The distinction should be made based on whether equipment containing nickel-cadmium, nickel

metal-hydride, and lead-acid batteries are installed as part of the aircraft's equipment or are

carried as cargo: in the former case, the FAA regulates, and in the latter case, regulation is by

the Office of Hazardous Materials Transportation.
The following references apply:
Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations for Aeronautics and Space, I, I, I-59 Fed
...

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