Transmitting and receiving equipment for radiocommunication - Radio-over-fibre technologies for electromagnetic-field measurement - Part 3: Antenna near-field pattern measurement using optical techniques in terahertz-wave bands

IEC TR 63099-3:2022 provides technical information about the methods for an antenna near-field measurement in the terahertz-wave band. The methods are applied to the frequency bands above 100 GHz, which has potential for use in terahertz wireless communication. The methods consist in measuring the amplitude and phase distributions of the electromagnetic field at the near-field range of on-chip antenna devices which integrate RF and IF components. This document also gives examples of the far-field pattern calculated from the measured near-field pattern.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Mar-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
29-Mar-2022
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IEC TR 63099-3:2022 - Transmitting and receiving equipment for radiocommunication - Radio-over-fibre technologies for electromagnetic-field measurement - Part 3: Antenna near-field pattern measurement using optical techniques in terahertz-wave bands
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IEC TR 63099-3
Edition 1.0 2022-03
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Transmitting and receiving equipment for radiocommunication – Radio-over-
fibre technologies for electromagnetic-field measurement –
Part 3: Antenna near-field pattern measurement using optical techniques in
terahertz-wave bands
IEC TR 63099-3:2022-03(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TR 63099-3
Edition 1.0 2022-03
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Transmitting and receiving equipment for radiocommunication – Radio-over-
fibre technologies for electromagnetic-field measurement –
Part 3: Antenna near-field pattern measurement using optical techniques in
terahertz-wave bands
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33,060,20 ISBN 978-2-8322-1090-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 63099-3:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 7

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 7

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 8

4 Practical examples of antenna near-field measurement using optical techniques in

terahertz-wave bands ...................................................................................................... 8

4.1 Overview................................................................................................................. 8

4.2 Non-polarimetric EO frequency down-conversion technique .................................... 9

4.3 Synchronous system based on a self-heterodyne technique .................................. 10

4.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 10

4.3.2 Principle and system configuration ................................................................ 10

4.3.3 Example of near-field measurement ............................................................... 10

4.3.4 Near-to-far field transformation results ........................................................... 11

4.4 Asynchronous system based on a phase-noise cancelling technique .................... 13

4.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 13

4.4.2 Principle and system configuration ................................................................ 13

4.4.3 Example of near-field measurement ............................................................... 14

4.4.4 Near-to-far field transformation results ........................................................... 14

4.5 Comparison between results obtained from synchronous and asynchronous

systems ................................................................................................................ 15

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 17

Figure 1 – Proposed measurement system ............................................................................. 8

Figure 2 – Schematic diagram and photograph of EO probe.................................................... 9

Figure 3 – Principle of the non-polarimetric EO frequency down-conversion technique ........... 9

Figure 4 – Schematic diagram of the synchronous system based on the self-

heterodyne technique ........................................................................................................... 10

Figure 5 – Near-field of the terahertz wave (310 GHz) measured by the synchronous

system based on the self-heterodyne technique .................................................................... 11

Figure 6 – Measured rectangular-type horn antenna and EO probe ....................................... 11

Figure 7 – Far-field pattern calculated from the near-field measured by the

synchronous system ............................................................................................................. 12

Figure 8 – Far-field pattern in the E-plane and H-plane ......................................................... 12

Figure 9 – Schematic diagram of the asynchronous system based on the phase noise

cancelling technique ............................................................................................................. 14

Figure 10 – Near-field pattern measured using the asynchronous system ............................. 14

Figure 11 – Far-field pattern calculated from the near-field measured by the

asynchronous system ........................................................................................................... 15

Figure 12 – Far-field pattern in the E-plane and H-plane ....................................................... 15

Figure 13 – Far-field pattern calculated from the near-field measured by the

synchronous system (a) and asynchronous system (b) ......................................................... 15

Figure 14 – Far-field pattern calculated from the near-field measured by the

asynchronous system ........................................................................................................... 16

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IEC TR 63099-3:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –

Table 1 – Radiation pattern characteristics measured by the synchronous system ................ 13

Table 2 – Radiation pattern characteristics measured by the synchronous and

asynchronous systems .......................................................................................................... 16

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC TR 63099-3:2022 © IEC 2022
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING EQUIPMENT FOR
RADIOCOMMUNICATION – RADIO-OVER-FIBRE TECHNOLOGIES
FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC-FIELD MEASUREMENT –
Part 3: Antenna near-field pattern measurement using
optical techniques in terahertz-wave bands
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

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9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC TR 63099-3 has been prepared by of IEC technical committee 103: Transmitting and

receiving equipment for radiocommunication. It is a Technical Report.
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
103/207/DTR 103/224/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this Technical Report is English.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC TR 63099-3:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/publications.

A list of all parts in the IEC 63099 series, published under the general title Transmitting and

receiving equipment for radiocommunication – Radio-over-fibre technologies for
electromagnetic-field measurement, can be found on the IEC website.

Future documents in this series will carry the new general title as cited above. Titles of existing

documents in this series will be updated at the time of the next edition.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC TR 63099-3:2022 © IEC 2022
INTRODUCTION

This document provides technical information on the antenna near-field pattern measurement

in terahertz-wave bands above 100 GHz, using optical techniques such as electro-optic (EO)

frequency down-conversion. Two techniques are covered: a synchronous system based on a

self-heterodyne technique, and an asynchronous system based on a phase noise-cancellation

technique. The synchronous system is the vector network analyser (VNA) type system, which

provides the RF signal to the antenna under test (AUT) and measures the amplitude and phase

distributions of its radiation. In this system, the radio frequency (RF) and local oscillator (LO)

signals are optically generated based on the self-heterodyne technique to realize the wide

frequency tunability and precise phase measurements simultaneously. On the other hand, the

asynchronous system applies to the AUT which integrates the transmitters where the

measurement system cannot provide the RF signal to the AUT for the measurements. In this

system, an optical frequency comb is used for the LO signal, and the electronics cancel residual

frequency and phase noise between the RF and LO signals. Both systems employ the EO

sensors for the field mapping which reduces the disturbance to the field compared with the

waveguide-type probes employed in the conventional VNA-based measurement system.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC TR 63099-3:2022 © IEC 2022 – 7 –
TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING EQUIPMENT FOR
RADIOCOMMUNICATION – RADIO-OVER-FIBRE TECHNOLOGIES
FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC-FIELD MEASUREMENT –
Part 3: Antenna near-field pattern measurement using
optical techniques in terahertz-wave bands
1 Scope

This part of IEC 63099 provides technical information about the methods for an antenna near-

field measurement in the terahertz-wave band. The methods are applied to the frequency bands

above 100 GHz, which has potential for use in terahertz wireless communication. The methods

consist in measuring the amplitude and phase distributions of the electromagnetic field at the

near-field range of on-chip antenna devices which integrate RF and IF components. This

document also gives examples of the far-field pattern calculated from the measured near-field

pattern.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.
IEEE Std 145 -2013, IEEE Standard for Definitions of Terms for Antennas
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEEE Std 145-2013 and

the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
EO probe
probe in which an electro-optic (EO) crystal is attached to
...

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