Fire hazard testing - Part 2-13: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods - Glow-wire ignition temperature (GWIT) test method for materials

IEC 60695-2-13:2010 specifies the details of the glow-wire test to be applied to test specimens of solid electrical insulating materials or other solid materials for ignitability testing to determine the glow-wire ignition temperature (GWIT). The GWIT is the temperature which is 25 K (or 30 K) higher than the maximum test temperature, determined during this standardized procedure, at which the tested material does not ignite, or if sustained and continuous flaming combustion does not occur for a time longer than 5 s for any single flame event and the specimen is not totally consumed. This second edition of IEC 60695-2-13 cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2000. It also constitutes a technical revision. The main changes with respect to the previous edition are:
- modified title;
- addition of an Introduction;
- clarification of Scope;
- expansion of Clause 2: Normative references;
- expansion of Clause 3;
- revision of Clause 4 to alignment with the IEC 60695-11 series to introduce guidance on test programs for material variations;
- clarification of Clause 8: Conditioning (now Clause 7);
- deletion of Clause 9: Initial measurement;
- expansion of Clause 10: Test procedures (now Clause 8);
- expansion of Clause 11: Observation and measurement (now Clause 9);
- clarification of Clause 12: Evaluation of test results (now Clause 10);
- expansion of Clause 13: Test report (now Clause 11).
This publication is to be read in conjunction with IEC 60695-2-10:2000. The contents of the corrigendum of February 2012 have been included in this copy.

Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 2-13: Essais au fil incandescent/chauffant - Méthode d'essai de température d'allumabilité au fil incandescent (GWIT) pour matériaux

La CEI 60695-2-13:2010 spécifie les détails de l'essai au fil incandescent quand il est appliqué à des éprouvettes d'essai de matériaux isolants électriques solides ou autres matériaux solides pour les essais d'allumabilité dans le but de déterminer la température d'allumage au fil incandescent (GWIT, glow-wire ignition temperature). La GWIT est la température qui est supérieure de 25 K (ou 30 K) à la température d'essai maximale, déterminée durant cette procédure normalisée, à laquelle le matériau essayé, ne s'enflamme pas, ou si une combustion d'inflammation entretenue et continue ne se produit pas pendant une durée supérieure à 5 s suite à un événement d'inflammation unique quelconque et si l'éprouvette d'essai n'est pas entièrement consumée. Cette deuxième édition de la CEI 60695-2-13 annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2000 dont elle constitue une révision technique. Les principales modifications par rapport à l'édition précédente sont:
- modification du titre;
- ajout d'une Introduction;
- clarification du Domaine d'application;
- extension de l'Article 2: Références normatives;
- extension de l'Article 3;
- révision de l'Article 4 pour alignement avec la série CEI 60695-11 afin d'introduire des lignes directrices concernant les programmes d'essai pour les variations de matériaux;
- clarification de l'Article 8: Conditionnement (désormais Article 7);
- suppression de l'Article 9: Mesures initiales;
- extension de l'Article 10: Méthodes d'essai (désormais Article 8);
- extension de l'Article 11: Observations et mesures (désormais Article 9);
- clarification de l'Article 12: Evaluation des résultats de l'essai (désormais Article 10);
- extension de l'Article 13: Rapport d'essai (désormais Article 11).
Cette publication doit être lue conjointement avec la CEI 60695-2-10:2000. Le contenu du corrigendum de février 2012 a été pris en considération dans cet exemplaire.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Oct-2010
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
11-Oct-2010
Completion Date
11-Oct-2010
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IEC 60695-2-13
Edition 2.0 2010-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Fire hazard testing –
Part 2-13: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods – Glow-wire ignition
temperature (GWIT) test method for materials
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 2-13: Essais au fil incandescent/chauffant – Méthode d’essai de
température d’allumabilité au fil incandescent (GWIT) pour matériaux
IEC 60695-2-13:2010
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60695-2-13
Edition 2.0 2010-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Fire hazard testing –
Part 2-13: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods – Glow-wire ignition
temperature (GWIT) test method for materials
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 2-13: Essais au fil incandescent/chauffant – Méthode d’essai de
température d’allumabilité au fil incandescent (GWIT) pour matériaux
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 13.220.40; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-88912-216-5
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – 60695-2-13 © IEC:2010
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................3

INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................5

1 Scope...............................................................................................................................6

2 Normative references........................................................................................................6

3 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................7

4 Test specimens ................................................................................................................8

4.1 Test specimen preparation.......................................................................................8

4.2 Test specimen dimensions.......................................................................................8

4.3 Testing ranges in formulations .................................................................................8

4.3.1 General .......................................................................................................8

4.3.2 Density, melt flow, and filler/reinforcement ...................................................8

4.3.3 Colour .........................................................................................................9

5 Apparatus.........................................................................................................................9

6 Temperature measuring system verification ......................................................................9

7 Conditioning and test conditions........................................................................................9

7.1 Conditioning of test specimens ................................................................................9

7.2 Testing conditions....................................................................................................9

8 Test procedure .................................................................................................................9

8.1 General ...................................................................................................................9

8.2 Initial test temperatures ...........................................................................................9

8.3 Test temperatures .................................................................................................10

9 Observations and measurements ....................................................................................10

9.1 General .................................................................................................................10

9.2 Initial observations.................................................................................................10

9.3 Test observations ..................................................................................................11

10 Evaluation of test results.................................................................................................11

10.1 Test criteria ...........................................................................................................11

10.2 Glow-wire ignition temperature...............................................................................11

11 Test report......................................................................................................................12

Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................13

Table 1 – Initial test temperatures .........................................................................................10

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
60695-2-13 © IEC:2010 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 2-13: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods –
Glow-wire ignition temperature (GWIT) test method for materials
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60695-2-13 has been prepared by technical committee 89: Fire

hazard testing.

This second edition of IEC 60695-2-13 cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2000.

It also constitutes a technical revision.

It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104 and ISO/IEC

Guide 51.
This standard is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60695-2-10.
The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below:
– modified title;
– addition of an Introduction;
– clarification of Scope;
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – 60695-2-13  IEC:2010
– expansion of Clause 2: Normative references;
– expansion of Clause 3;

– revision of Clause 4 to alignment with the IEC 60695-11 series to introduce guidance on

test programs for material variations;
– clarification of Clause 8: Conditioning (now Clause 7);
– deletion of Clause 9: Initial measurement;
– expansion of Clause 10: Test procedures (now Clause 8);
– expansion of Clause 11: Observation and measurement (now Clause 9);
– clarification of Clause 12: Evaluation of test results (now Clause 10);
– expansion of Clause 13: Test report (now Clause 11).
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
89/1018/FDIS 89/1035/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 60695 series, under the general title Fire hazard testing can

be found on the IEC web site.
Part 2 consists of the following parts:

Part 2-10: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods – Glow-wire apparatus and common test

procedure

Part 2-11: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods – Glow-wire flammability test method for

end-products

Part 2-12: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods – Glow-wire flammability index (GWFI) test

method for materials

Part 2-13: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods – Glow-wire ignition temperature (GWIT)

test method for materials

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

The contents of the corrigendum of February 2012 have been included in this copy.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
60695-2-13 © IEC:2010 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

In electrotechnical equipment, overheated metal parts can act as ignition sources. In glow-wire

tests an electrically heated wire is used to simulate such an ignition source.

IEC 60695-2-10 describes a glow-wire test apparatus and common test procedure, IEC 60695-

2-11 describes a glow-wire flammability test for end products, and IEC 60695-2-12 describes a

glow-wire flammability index test method for materials.

In the design of any electrotechnical product, the risk of fire and the potential hazards

associated with fire need to be considered. In this respect the objective of component, circuit,

and product design, as well as the choice of materials, is to reduce to acceptable levels the

potential risks of fire during normal operating conditions, reasonable foreseeable abnormal

use, malfunction and/or failure. IEC/TC 89 has developed IEC 60695-1-10, together with its

companion, IEC 60695-1-11, to provide guidance on how this is to be accomplished.

The primary aims of IEC 60695-1-10 and IEC 60695-1-11 are to provide guidance on how:

a) to prevent ignition caused by an electrically energized component part, and

b) to confine any resulting fire within the bounds of the enclosure of the electrotechnical

product in the event of ignition.

Secondary aims of IEC 60695-1-10 and IEC 60695-1-11 include the minimization of any flame

spread beyond the product’s enclosure and the minimization of the harmful effects of fire

effluents such as heat, smoke, toxicity and/or corrosivity.

Fires involving electrotechnical products can also be initiated from external non-electrical

sources. Considerations of this nature should be dealt with in the overall fire risk assessment.

This part of IEC 60695 describes a glow-wire ignition temperature test method for materials. It

should be used to measure, describe, and rank the properties of materials in response to heat

caused by contact with an electrically heated wire under controlled laboratory conditions. This

may be useful for the evaluation of materials for use in products that may be exposed to

excess thermal stress such as a fault current flowing through a wire, overloading of components,

and/or bad connections. It should not be used to solely describe or appraise the fire hazard or

fire risk of materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions. However, results of

this test may be used as elements of a fire risk assessment which takes into account all of the

factors pertinent to a fire hazard assessment of a particular end use.

This International Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. It

does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the

responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices

and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – 60695-2-13 © IEC:2010
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 2-13: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods –
Glow-wire ignition temperature (GWIT) test method for materials
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60695 specifies the details of the glow-wire test to be applied to test

specimens of solid electrical insulating materials or other solid materials for ignitability testing

to determine the glow-wire ignition temperature (GWIT).
The GWIT is the temperature which is 25 K (or 30 K) higher than the maximum test

temperature, determined during this standardized procedure, at which the tested material

a) does not ignite, or

b) if sustained and continuous flaming combustion does not occur for a time longer than 5 s

for any single flame event and the specimen is not totally consumed.

This test is a materials test carried out on a series of standard test specimens. The data

obtained, along with data from the glow-wire flammability index (GWFI) test method for

materials, IEC 60695-2-12, can then be used in a preselection process in accordance with

IEC 60695-1-30 to judge the ability of materials to meet the requirements of IEC 60695-2-11.

NOTE As an outcome of conducting a fire hazard assessment, an appropriate series of preselection flammability

and ignition tests may allow a reduction of end product testing.

This basic safety publication is intended for use by technical committees in the preparation of

standards in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and ISO/IEC Guide 51.

One of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of

basic safety publications in the preparation of its publications. The requirements, test methods

or test conditions of this basic safety publication will not apply unless specifically referred to or

included in the relevant publications.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For

dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of

the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60695-1-30:2008, Fire hazard testing – Part 1.30: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard

of electrotechnical products – Preselection testing process – General guidelines

IEC 60695-2-10:2000, Fire hazard testing – Part 2-10: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods –

Glow-wire apparatus and common test procedure

IEC 60695-2-11:2000, Fire hazard testing – Part 2-11: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods –

Glow-wire flammability test method for end-products

IEC 60695-2-12, Fire hazard testing – Part 2-12: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods – Glow-

wire flammability index (GWFI) test method for materials

IEC Guide 104:1997, The preparation of safety publications and the use of basic safety

publications and group safety publications
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
60695-2-13 © IEC:2010 – 7 –
ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, Safety aspects – Guidelines for inclusion in standards
ISO/IEC 13943:2008, Fire safety – Vocabulary
ISO 291:2008, Plastics – Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing

ISO 293:2004, Plastics – Compression moulding of test specimens of thermoplastic materials

ISO 294 (all parts), Plastics – Injection moulding of test specimens of thermoplastic materials

ISO 295:2004, Plastics – Compression moulding of test specimens of thermosetting materials

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 13943, some of

which are reproduced below for the user’s convenience, as well as the following apply.

3.1
combustion
exothermic reaction of a substance with an oxidizing agent

NOTE Combustion generally emits fire effluent accompanied by flames and/or glowing.

[ISO/IEC 13943: 2008, definition 4.46]
3.2
flame, noun

rapid, self-sustaining, sub-sonic propagation of combustion in a gaseous medium, usually with

emission of light
[ISO/IEC 13943: 2008, definition 4.133]
3.3
flammability
ability of a material or product to burn with a flame under specified conditions
[ISO/IEC 13943: 2008, definition 4.151]
3.4
glowing, noun
luminosity caused by heat
[ISO/IEC 13943:2008, definition 4.168]
3.5
glowing combustion

combustion of a material in the solid phase without flame but with emission of light from the

combustion zone
[ISO/IEC 13943:2008, definition 4.169]
3.6
ignitability
ease of ignition

measure of the ease with which a test specimen can be ignited under specified conditions

[ISO/IEC 13943:2008, definition 4.182]
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – 60695-2-13 © IEC:2010
3.7
ignition
sustained ignition (deprecated)
initiation of combustion
[ISO/IEC 13943:2008, definition 4.187]
3.8
ignition
sustained ignition (deprecated)
initiation of sustained flame
[ISO/IEC 13943:2008, definition 4.188]
3.9
preselection

process of assessing and choosing candidate materials, components or sub-assemblies for

making an end-product
[IEC 60695-1-30:2008, definition 3.2]
4 Test specimens
4.1 Test specimen preparation

Test specimens shall be fabricated using the appropriate ISO method, e.g. casting and

injection moulding in accordance with the ISO 294 series, compression moulding in accordance

with ISO 293 or ISO 295, or transfer moulding to the necessary shape. Where this is not

possible, the test specimen shall be cut and/or sliced from a representative sample of the

material (for example, produced using the same fabrication process as would be used to mould

a part of a product).

After any fabrication or cutting operation, care shall be taken to remove all dust and any

particles from the surface; cut edges shall be fine sanded to a smooth finish.
4.2 Test specimen dimensions

The dimensions of the planar sections of the test specimens shall be at least 60 mm in length

and 60 mm in width (measured inside the clamping areas) and shall be provided in all

thicknesses under consideration. The preferred values include 0,1 mm ± 0,02 mm, 0,2 mm ±

0,02 mm, 0,4 mm ± 0,05 mm, 0,75 mm ± 0,1 mm, 1,5 mm ± 0,15 mm, 3,0 mm ± 0,2 mm, or

6,0 mm ± 0,4 mm.

NOTE A set of 15 test specimens per thickness will, in general, be adequate to concurrently establish the GWIT

and the GWFI (See IEC 60695-2-12).
4.3 Testing ranges in formulations
4.3.1 General

The results of tests carried out on test specimen sets of different colour, thickness, density,

molecular mass, anisotropic type/direction, additives, fillers, and/or reinforcements can vary.

When agreed between involved parties, the test programs outlined in 4.3.2 and 4.3.3 may be

employed in order to evaluate these variations.
4.3.2 Density, melt flow, and filler/reinforcement

Test specimens covering all combinations of minimum and maximum levels of density, melt

flows and filler/reinforcement content may be provided and considered representative of the

range if the test results yield the same GWIT. If the test results do not yield the same GWIT for

all test specimens representing the range, evaluation shall be limited to the materials with the

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
60695-2-13 © IEC:2010 – 9 –

specific levels of density, melt flows and filler/reinforcement tested. In addition, test specimens

with intermediate density, melt flows, and filler/reinforcement content shall be tested to

determine the representative range for each GWIT determination. However, as an alternative,

the least favourable performance of the specific levels of density, melt flows and

filler/reinforcement tested may be considered representative of intermediate levels without

additional testing.
4.3.3 Colour
When evaluating a range of colours, test specimens that
a) contain no colouring,

b) contain the highest level of organic pigments/colorants/dyes and/or carbon black,

c) contain the highest level of inorganic pigments, and

d) contain pigments/colorants/dyes which are known to adversely affect flammability

characteristics

are considered representative of the colour range if the test results yield the same GWIT.

5 Apparatus

The description of the test apparatus is specified in Clause 5 of IEC 60695-2-10. The reference

to a specified layer does not apply.
6 Temperature measuring system verification

The method of verification of the temperature measuring system is specified in 6.2 of

IEC 60695-2-10.
7 Conditioning and test conditions
7.1 Conditioning of test specimens

The test specimens shall be conditioned for a minimum of 48 h at 23 °C ± 2 °C and at a

relative humidity between 40 % and 60 %. Once removed from the conditioning atmosphere,

the test specimens shall be tested within 4 h (see ISO 291, Clause 6, Table 2, Class 2).

7.2 Testing conditions

The test specimens shall be tested in a laboratory atmosphere having a temperature of 25 °C ±

10 °C and at a relative humidity between 45 % and 75 %.
8 Test procedure
8.1 General
The test specimens shall be identified and examined visually.
The general test procedure shall be as specified in Clause 8 of IEC 60695-2-10.
8.2 Initial test temperatures

The glow-wire is heated to one of the initial test temperatures specified in Table 1, which is

considered to be just high enough to cause ignition. If unknown, the initial test temperature

shall not exceed 650 °C.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – 60695-2-13  IEC:2010
Table 1 – Initial test temperatures
Initial test Tolerances
temperature
500
10
550
10
600
10
650
10
700
10
750
10
800
15
850
15
900
15
960
15
8.3 Test temperatures

A set of three test specimens shall be prepared for testing at a chosen test temperature.

If one of the three test specimens fails to withstand the test criteria as defined in 10.1, the

test shall be repeated with three new test specimens at a test temperature preferably 50 K

(60 K for 960 C) lower.

If the three test specimens withstands the test criteria as defined in 10.1, the test shall be

repeated with three new test specimens at a test temperature preferably 50 K (60 K for

900 C) higher.

Repeat the tests with three new test specimens each time and reduce the interval of test

temperatures to 25 K (30 K for 960 °C) in the final approach to determine the maximum test

temperature at which all three test specimen withstand the test criteria as defined in 10.1.

However, there is no need to go to the higher temperature if it has already been determined

that at least one of the three test specimen will not withstand the test criteria as defined in

10.1.

NOTE 1 The minimum test temperature is 500 °C and the maximum test temperature is 960 °C.

NOTE 2 It is recommended to start with a temperature of 650 °C.
9 Observations and measurements
9.1 General
The following observations and measurements shall be recorded.
9.2 Initial observations
...

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