Nuclear power plants - Instrumentation and control important to safety - Use and selection of wireless devices to be integrated in systems important to safety

IEC TR 62918:2014 describes the state of wireless technology for industrial applications in fossil and chemical plants and discusses the specific issues to be addressed in order to apply wireless technologies to nuclear power plants.

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IEC TR 62918
Edition 1.0 2014-07
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Nuclear power plants – Instrumentation and control important to safety –
Use and selection of wireless devices to be integrated in systems
important to safety
IEC TR 62918:2014-07(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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IEC TR 62918
Edition 1.0 2014-07
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Nuclear power plants – Instrumentation and control important to safety –
Use and selection of wireless devices to be integrated in systems
important to safety
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
PRICE CODE
ICS 27.120.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-1750-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62918:2014  IEC 2014
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 9

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 9

4 Motivation ...................................................................................................................... 11

5 Generic applications ...................................................................................................... 13

6 Technology .................................................................................................................... 16

6.1 Wireless basics ..................................................................................................... 16

6.2 Industrial wireless sensor networks ....................................................................... 19

6.3 Radio frequency .................................................................................................... 20

6.3.1 Applications ................................................................................................... 20

6.3.2 802.11 (Wi-Fi), 802.15.1 (Bluetooth), 802.15.4 (sensors) ............................... 23

6.4 Satellite leased channels and VSAT ...................................................................... 25

6.5 Magnetic field communications ............................................................................. 26

6.6 Visual light communication (VLC) .......................................................................... 27

6.7 Acoustic communication........................................................................................ 27

6.8 Asset tracking utilizing IEEE 802.11 – Focus on received signal strength .............. 28

6.9 Asset tracking (RFID/RTLS): ISO 24730 ............................................................... 29

7 Current wireless technology implementations ................................................................ 30

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 30

7.2 Comanche Peak nuclear generating station .......................................................... 30

7.3 Arkansas Nuclear One (ANO) nuclear power plant ................................................ 31

7.4 Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant ....................................................................... 32

7.5 Farley nuclear power plant .................................................................................... 33

7.6 San Onofre nuclear generating station .................................................................. 33

7.7 South Texas project electric generating station ..................................................... 34

7.8 High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), Oak Ridge, TN ................................................ 34

8 Considerations .............................................................................................................. 36

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 36

8.2 Concerns regarding wireless technology ............................................................... 36

8.3 Wireless deployment challenges ........................................................................... 37

8.4 Coexistence of 802.11 and 802.15.4 ..................................................................... 38

8.5 Signal propagation ................................................................................................ 40

8.6 Lessons learned from wireless implementations .................................................... 41

8.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 41

8.6.2 Comanche Peak implementation .................................................................... 41

9 Concerns ....................................................................................................................... 42

9.1 Common reliability and security concerns for wired media and wireless

media.................................................................................................................... 42

9.2 Reliability and security concerns that are more of an issue for wired systems ....... 42

9.3 Reliability and security concerns that are more of an issue for wireless

systems ................................................................................................................ 42

10 Standards ...................................................................................................................... 43

10.1 Nuclear standards ................................................................................................. 43

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IEC 62918:2014  IEC 2014 – 3 –

10.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 43

10.1.2 IEEE Std. 603-1998 ....................................................................................... 43

10.1.3 IEEE Std. 7-4.3.2-2003 .................................................................................. 44

10.1.4 IEC 61500 ..................................................................................................... 44

10.2 Other safety-related standards and guidelines ...................................................... 45

10.2.1 IEC 61784-3 .................................................................................................. 45

10.2.2 VTT research notes 2265............................................................................... 46

10.2.3 European Workshop on Industrial Computer Systems – Technical

Committee 7 (EWICS TC7) ............................................................................ 47

11 Conclusions ................................................................................................................... 47

11.1 Issues for wireless application to NPP .................................................................. 47

11.2 Recommendations ................................................................................................ 48

Annex A (informative) Use of 5 GHz in the world .................................................................. 50

Annex B (informative) Synopses of wireless technologies .................................................... 51

B.1 802.11 .................................................................................................................. 51

B.2 ISO 14443 Near Field Communications (NFC) ...................................................... 56

B.3 Real details of mesh networking ........................................................................... 59

B.4 Not all mesh networks are created equal – Latency and indeterminism in

mesh networks ...................................................................................................... 62

B.5 ISA100.11a – “Mesh – When You Need It – Networking” ....................................... 63

B.6 Security by non-routing edge nodes ...................................................................... 66

B.7 Device and network provisioning methods ............................................................. 67

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 69

Figure 1 – Cost comparison – Wired versus wireless for an extensive building

automation system ................................................................................................................ 12

Figure 2 – Wireless use in nuclear power plants ................................................................... 12

Figure 3 – Possible application areas for wireless instrumentation in a nuclear power

plant ..................................................................................................................................... 13

Figure 4 – Bandwidth requirements for a variety of applications and the associated

wireless technology that can support such requirements ....................................................... 14

Figure 5 – Structured fabric design of layered wireless for an industrial facility .................... 15

Figure 6 – Inexpensive wireless sensors in a fossil-fuel plant ................................................ 16

Figure 7 – Functional hierarchy ............................................................................................. 18

Figure 8 – Simplified diagram of a generic wireless sensor design ........................................ 19

Figure 9 – Standard compliant network ................................................................................. 20

Figure 10 – 802.15.1 (Bluetooth) frequency channels in the 2 450 MHz range ...................... 23

Figure 11 – 802.15.4 frequency channels in the 2 450 MHz range ........................................ 24

Figure 12 – Overlapping channel assignments for 802.11 operation in the 2 400 MHz

range .................................................................................................................................... 24

Figure 13 – 802.11n dual stream occupies 44 MHz of bandwidth. Dual stream 802.11n

in the 2,4 GHz band .............................................................................................................. 25

Figure 14 – VSAT mini-hub network configuration ................................................................. 26

Figure 15 – Spatial resolution is provided in multiple axes only if the tag (target in this

Figure) is in communications with multiple APs ..................................................................... 28

Figure 16 – ISO 24730-2 architecture ................................................................................... 29

Figure 17 – Wireless vibration system at ANO ...................................................................... 32

Figure 18 – ANO wireless tank level system ......................................................................... 33

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– 4 – IEC 62918:2014  IEC 2014
Figure 19 – Installation of accelerometers on ORNL HFIR cold source expansion

engines (9-2010) ................................................................................................................... 35

Figure 20 – Cold source expansion engine monitoring system software ................................ 35

Figure 21 – Installation of permanent wireless monitoring system at ORNL HFIR

cooling tower (8-2011) .......................................................................................................... 36

Figure 22 – System commissioned in August 2011 ............................................................... 36

Figure 23 – Identification of containment in a nuclear facility ................................................ 38

Figure 24 – Non-overlapping 802.11b/g channels and 802.15.4 channels ............................. 39

Figure 25 – Spectral analysis of Wi-Fi traffic for the case where a) minimal wi-fi

channel “usage” and b) streaming video transfer across Wi-Fi channel 7 are analyzed ......... 39

Figure 26 – Multipath is exemplified in this indoor environment as the signal from

Source (S) to Origin (O) may take many paths ...................................................................... 41

Figure B.1 – The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model defines the end-to-end
communications means and needs for a wireless field transmitter to securely

communicate with a distributed control system (DCS) ........................................................... 57

Figure B.2 – Operating frequencies for an IEEE 802.15.4 radio are 868 MHz, 902-
926 MHz and 2 405-2 485 MHz. The worldwide license-free band at 2400 MHz is

shown ................................................................................................................................... 58

Figure B.3 – Networking topologies take many forms with associated levels of

complexity required for robust fault-tolerant data transport .................................................... 58

Figure B.4 – Typical mesh network diagram .......................................................................... 59

Figure B.5 – Requirement for mesh-networking communication of Figure B.4’s topology ....... 60

Figure B.6 – RF footprint map for a mesh network gateway and four nodes .......................... 61

Figure B.7 – The connectivity diagram for Figure B.6’s RF footprint coverage map ............... 61

Figure B.8 – Representation of the latency and indeterminism that it takes for a

message to be transported through a mesh network that relies on time synchronization ....... 63

Figure B.9 – The technical specifications associated with ISA100.11a end at the

gateway. The area shaded falls within the Backhaul Work Group, ISA100.15 ........................ 64

Figure B.10 – ISA100.11a utilizes the best topology for the application, in this case, a

star 64
Figure B.11 – ISA100.11a allows for the deployment of multiple “hub and spoke”

network elements with high speed interconnection to a gateway ........................................... 65

Figure B.12 – The ISA100.11a network deployed at Arkema was a logical mix of

wireless field transmitters and an ISA100.15 backhaul network ............................................. 65

Figure B.13 – Networks deployed at neighbouring facilities will not “cross-talk” if non-

routing nodes are deployed along the periphery of each facility ............................................ 66

Figure B.14 – State transition diagram showing various paths to joining a secured

network ................................................................................................................................. 68

Table 1 – List of “industrial” radio technology standards and their candidate

applications .......................................................................................................................... 21

Table 2 – Cellular telephony frequencies in the US ............................................................... 22

Table 3 – GSM frequency bands, channel numbers assigned by the ITU .............................. 23

Table 4 – Specific uses of wireless technologies in the nuclear industry ............................... 30

Table A.1 – Use of 5 GHz in America, Asia/Pacific, and Europe ............................................ 50

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IEC 62918:2014  IEC 2014 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS –
INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL IMPORTANT TO SAFETY –
USE AND SELECTION OF WIRELESS DEVICES TO BE
INTEGRATED IN SYSTEMS IMPORTANT TO SAFETY
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

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The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

technical committee may propose the publication of a technical report when it has collected

data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard, for

example "state of the art".

IEC TR 62918, which is a technical report, has been prepared by subcommittee 45A:

Instrumentation, control and electrical systems of nuclear facilities, of IEC technical

committee 45: Nuclear instrumentation.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62918:2014  IEC 2014
The text of this technical report is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
45A/947/DTR 45A/963/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – Le logo "colour inside" qui se trouve sur la page de couverture de cette

publication indique qu'elle contient des couleurs qui sont considérées comme utiles à

une bonne compréhension de son contenu. Les utilisateurs devraient, par conséquent,

imprimer cette publication en utilisant une imprimante couleur.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62918:2014  IEC 2014 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION
a) Technical background, main issues and organisation of the Standard

The ad hoc meeting of the IEC Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control

and Instrumentation, held in Yokohama in May 2009, resulted in the recommendation to

develop a technical report addressing the applicability of incorporating wireless technology

throughout nuclear power plant systems, regardless of the categorizations such as non-

safety, important to availability and important to safety.

This technical report addresses this recommendation and one of its main objectives is to

pave the way for the development of a standard on the topic. The technical report

addresses concerns regarding the application, safety and security of integrating wireless

technologies into the systems of nuclear power plants. It reviews the motivation for use of

wireless applications in nuclear power plants, wireless technology considerations, and the

feasibility of incorporating wireless technology in nuclear power plants.

It is intended that this Technical Report be used by operators of NPPs (utilities), systems

evaluators and by licensors.

b) Situation of the current Technical Report in the structure of the IEC SC 45A standard

series
IEC 62918 as a technical report is a fourth level IEC SC 45A document.

For more details on the structure of the IEC SC 45A standard series, see item d) of this

introduction.

c) Recommendations and limitations regarding the application of this Technical Report

It is important to note that a technical report is entirely informative in nature. It gathers

data collected from different origins and it establishes no requirements.

d) Description of the structure of the IEC SC 45A standard series and relationships

with other IEC documents and other bodies’ documents (IAEA, ISO)

The top-level document of the IEC SC 45A standard series is IEC 61513. It provides

general requirements for I&C systems and equipment that are used to perform functions

important to safety in NPPs. IEC 61513 structures the IEC SC 45A standard series.

IEC 61513 refers directly to other IEC SC 45A standards for general topics related to

categorization of functions and classification of systems, qualification, separation of

systems, defence against common cause failure, software aspects of computer-based

systems, hardware aspects of computer-based systems, and control room design. The

standards referenced directly at this second level should be considered together with

IEC 61513 as a consistent document set.

At a third level, IEC SC 45A standards not directly referenced by IEC 61513 are standards

related to specific equipment, technical methods, or specific activities. Usually these

documents, which make reference to second-level documents for general topics, can be

used on their own.

A fourth level extending the IEC SC 45A standard series, corresponds to the Technical

Reports which are not normative.

IEC 61513 has adopted a presentation format similar to the basic safety publication

IEC 61508 with an overall safety life-cycle framework and a system life-cycle framework.

Regarding nuclear safety, it provides the interpretation of the general requirements of

IEC 61508-1, IEC 61508-2 and IEC 61508-4, for the nuclear application sector, regarding

nuclear safety. In this framework IEC 60880 and IEC 62138 correspond to IEC 61508-3 for

the nuclear application sector. IEC 61513 refers to ISO as well as to IAEA GS-R-3 and

IAEA GS-G-3.1 and IAEA GS-G-3.5 for topics related to quality assurance (QA).

The IEC SC 45A standards series consistently implements and details the principles and

basic safety aspects provided in the IAEA code on the safety of NPPs and in the IAEA

safety series, in particular the Requirements SSR-2/1, establishing safety requirements

related to the design of Nuclear Power Plants, and the Safety Guide NS-G-1.3 dealing with

instrumentation and control systems important to safety in Nuclear Power Plants. The

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62918:2014  IEC 2014

terminology and definitions used by SC 45A standards are consistent with those used by

the IAEA.

NOTE It is assumed that for the design of I&C systems in NPPs that implement conventional safety functions (e.g.

to address worker safety, asset protection, chemical hazards, process energy hazards) international or national

standards would be applied, that are based on the requirements of a standard such as IEC 61508.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62918:2014  IEC 2014 – 9 –
NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS –
INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL IMPORTANT TO SAFETY –
USE AND SELECTION OF WIRELESS DEVICES TO BE
INTEGRATED IN SYSTEMS IMPORTANT TO SAFETY
1 Scope

This Technical Report describes the state of wireless technology for industrial applications in

fossil and chemical plants and discusses the specific issues to be addressed in order to apply

wireless technologies to nuclear power plants.

The review of the technology behind wireless communication and the status of existing

implementations are described in Clauses 7 and 8, respectively. Issues associated with

wireless implementations in nuclear facilities are discussed in Clause 10, and final

conclusions are presented in Clause 11 of this Technical Report.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, th
...

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