Magnetic resonance equipment for medical imaging - Part 2: Classification criteria for pulse sequences

IEC 62464-2:2010 specifies the description of pulse sequences of magnetic resonance imaging. The classification in this standard is suitable for:
- tender texts;
- image annotation;
- protocol definition;
- technical publications.
IEC 62464-2:2010 does not apply to magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The classification does not focus on image contrast (T1, T2, proton density), as this is defined by pulse sequence parameters (e.g. repetition time, echo time) and is not a property of the pulse sequence alone. The pulse sequence classification does not specify the k-space acquisition scheme, reconstruction algorithm or post-processing.

Appareils à résonance magnétique utilisés pour l'imagerie médicale - Partie 2: Critères de classification pour les séquences d'impulsions

La CEI 62464-2:2010 spécifie la description des sequences d'impulsions de l'imagerie par resonance magnetique. La classification utilisée dans la présente norme convient pour:
- les contenus d'appels d'offres;
- les annotations d'images;
- les définitions de protocoles;
- les publications techniques.
La CEI 62464-2:2010 ne s'applique pas à la spectroscopie par résonance magnétique. La classification ne se concentre pas sur le contraste de l'image (T1, T2, densité protonique), comme ceci est défini par les paramètres de sequences d'impulsions (par exemple temps de répétition, temps d'écho), et n'est pas une propriété de la sequence d'impulsions uniquement. La classification des séquences d'impulsions ne spécifie pas le schéma d'acquisition, l'algorithme de reconstruction ou le post-traitement de l'espace k.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Nov-2010
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
10-Nov-2010
Completion Date
10-Nov-2010
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IEC 62464-2
Edition 1.0 2010-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Magnetic resonance equipment for medical imaging –
Part 2: Classification criteria for pulse sequences
Appareils à résonance magnétique utilisés pour l’imagerie médicale –
Partie 2: Critères de classification pour les séquences d’impulsions
IEC 62464-2:2010
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62464-2
Edition 1.0 2010-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Magnetic resonance equipment for medical imaging –
Part 2: Classification criteria for pulse sequences
Appareils à résonance magnétique utilisés pour l’imagerie médicale –
Partie 2: Critères de classification pour les séquences d’impulsions
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 11.040.55 ISBN 978-2-88912-239-4
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – 62464-2 Ó IEC:2010
CONTENTS

FOREW ORD .................................................................................................................. 3

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 5

1 Sc o pe ...................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references ................................................................................................ 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................ 6

4 PULSE SEQUENCE classification ................................................................................... 7

4.1 Ge n eral ........................................................................................................... 7

4.2 PULSE SEQUENCE type ....................................................................................... 7

4.2.1 General ................................................................................................ 7

4.2.2 Notation ............................................................................................... 8

4.3 Magnetisation modification ................................................................................ 8

4.3.1 General ................................................................................................ 8

4.3.2 Notation ............................................................................................... 8

4.4 Dimensionality ............................................................................................... 10

4.4.1 General .............................................................................................. 10

4.4.2 Notation ............................................................................................. 10

4.5 Echo number ................................................................................................. 10

4.5.1 General .............................................................................................. 10

4.5.2 Notation ............................................................................................. 10

Annex A (informative) Examples of use of the PULSE SEQUENCE classification ..................... 11

Bibliography ................................................................................................................. 12

Index of defined terms used in this standard ................................................................... 13

Table 1 – Magnetisation modification techniques ............................................................... 9

Table A.1 – MANUFACTURER-specific classification examples ............................................. 11

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
62464-2 Ó IEC:2010 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
MAGNETIC RESONANCE EQUIPMENT FOR MEDICAL IMAGING –
Part 2: Classification criteria for pulse sequences
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62464-2 has been prepared by subcommittee 62B: Diagnostic

imaging equipment, of IEC technical committee 62: Electrical equipment in medical practice.

The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
62B/807/FDIS 62B/816/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – 62464-2 Ó IEC:2010
In this standard, the following print types are used:
– Requirements and definitions: roman type.
– Test specifications: italic type.

– Informative material appearing outside of tables, such as notes, examples and references: in smaller type.

Normative text of tables is also in a smaller type.

– TERMS DEFINED IN CAUSE 3 OF THE GENERAL STANDARD, IN THIS PARTICULAR STANDARD OR AS

NOTED: SMALL CAPITALS.

The verbal forms used in this standard conform to usage described in Annex H of the ISO/IEC

Directives, Part 2. For the purposes of this standard, the auxiliary verb:

– “shall” means that compliance with a requirement or a test is mandatory for compliance

with this standard;

– “should” means that compliance with a requirement or a test is recommended but is not

mandatory for compliance with this standard;

– “may” is used to describe a permissible way to achieve compliance with a requirement or

test.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
62464-2 Ó IEC:2010 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Presently the MANUFACTURERS of MR EQUIPMENT use names for PULSE SEQUENCES which are

adopted from the literature (e.g. SPIN-ECHO) or are defined by the MANUFACTURER (e.g. FISP:

fast imaging with steady state precession). In the absence of a classification standard for

PULSE SEQUENCES, the MANUFACTURER-specific terminology complicates comparison of PULSE

SEQUENCES.

The DICOM standard allows the inclusion of PULSE SEQUENCE information with digital

MAGNETIC RESONANCE (MR) images. This information helps with the interpretation of images.

However, the DICOM standard allows MANUFACTURER-specific terminology.

This International Standard specifies a concise MANUFACTURER-independent classification

scheme for MR imaging PULSE SEQUENCES.

In terms of MR imaging, the PULSE SEQUENCE is a chronology of RF-pulses, switching of

gradient fields and data acquisition with the intention to create one or more images. As the

exact chronology determines the image contrast, image artefacts and other properties of the

image, it is necessary to define a consistent and accurate PULSE SEQUENCE classification.

The proposed PULSE SEQUENCE classification notation could be implemented as a new DICOM

tag in addition to the existing MANUFACTURER-specific PULSE SEQUENCE name. This would

facilitate end users’ access to this information. Implementation as a new tag would ensure

backward compatibility.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – 62464-2 Ó IEC:2010
MAGNETIC RESONANCE EQUIPMENT FOR MEDICAL IMAGING –
Part 2 – Classification criteria for pulse sequences
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the description of PULSE SEQUENCES of MAGNETIC

RESONANCE imaging.
NOTE The classification in this standard is suitable for:
– tender texts;
– image annotation;
– protocol definition;
– technical publications.

This International Standard does not apply to MAGNETIC RESONANCE spectroscopy. The

classification does not focus on image contrast (T1, T2, proton density), as this is defined by

PULSE SEQUENCE parameters (e.g. repetition time, echo time) and is not a property of the

PULSE SEQUENCE alone. The PULSE SEQUENCE classification does not specify the K-SPACE

acquisition scheme, reconstruction algorithm or post-processing.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60601-2-33:2010, Medical electrical equipment – Part 2-33: Particular requirements for

the basic safety and essential performance of magnetic resonance equipment for medical

diagnosis
IEC 60788:2004, Medical electrical equipment – Glossary of defined terms
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60601-2-33:2010,

IEC 60788:2004 and the following apply.
3.1
pulse sequence

chronology of radiofrequency-pulses, switching of magnetic field gradients, and data

acquisition for the generation of one or more MAGNETIC RESONANCE images

NOTE The terms “imaging sequence” or “sequence” are sometimes used as synonyms for PULSE SEQUENCE.

3.2
transverse magnetisation

magnetisation component perpendicular to the direction of the static magnetic field

3.3
longitudinal magnetisation
magnetisation component parallel to the direction of the static magnetic field
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
62464-2 Ó IEC:2010 – 7 –
3.4
k-space

mathematical space in which the Fourier transform of the image data is represented

NOTE This is partially or totally filled with the sampled measurement data.
3.5
spin-echo

refocused TRANSVERSE MAGNETISATION arising at time T after an excitation RF pulse and an

additional RF-pulse at time T/2

NOTE The excitation pulse is typically a 90° RF pulse, and the additional refocusing pulse is typically a 180° RF

pulse. SE's can be refocused using a sequence of additional RF pulses.
3.6
gradient-echo

refocused TRANSVERSE MAGNETISATION after a RF pulse using re-phasing magnetic field

gradients
4 PULSE SEQUENCE classification
4.1 General

In an imaging PULSE SEQUENCE the LONGITUDINAL MAGNETISATION is partially or totally

converted into TRANSVERSE MAGNETISATION via a radio-frequency (RF) excitation pulse. The

TRANSVERSE MAGNETISATION is precessing with the Larmor frequency. The precessing

TRANSVERSE MAGNETISATION induces the MR signal. For spatial encoding the precessing

TRANSVERSE MAGNETISATION is phase-encoded with the help of gradients prior to the data

acquisition, and frequency encoding is utilised during the data acquisition. The acquired

signal is then stored in a so-called K-SPACE line of the raw data matrix.

The K-SPACE can be two- (2D) or three-(3D)-dimensional. There are several algorithms that

allow reconstructing images from incomplete K-SPACE data sets (half or partial Fourier,

parallel imaging techniques) – for the PULSE SEQUENCE classification these techniques are not

considered.
PULSE SEQUENCES are categorised according to the following classifiers:

a) magnetisation modification (optional): modification(s) of the LONGITUDINAL MAGNETISATION

or TRANSVERSE MAGNETISATION;

b) PULSE SEQUENCE type: SPIN-ECHO or GRADIENT-ECHO with the number repetitions (or shots)

and the number of K-SPACE lines per RF excitation;
c) dimensionality of data acquisition: 2D or 3D;

d) echo number (optional): number of different echoes that are used to calculate separate

images.
These classifiers are used in the following notation (without spaces):

– – type> –
4.2 PULSE SEQUENCE type
4.2.1 General

PULSE SEQUENCES create MR images whose signal behaviour is primarily determined by either

a SPIN-ECHO (SE) or a GRADIENT-ECHO (GR). The PULSE SEQUENCE type is defined at the centre

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – 62464-2 Ó IEC:2010

of the 2D or 3D K-SPACE: If the K-SPACE centre is acquired with a SPIN-ECHO, then the PULSE

SEQUENCE is classified as a SPIN-ECHO PULSE SEQUENCE in this International Standard. If the

centre of K-SPACE is not acquired with a SPIN-ECHO, then the PULSE SEQUENCE is classified as a

GRADIENT-ECHO PULSE SEQUENCE in this International Standard.

A more precise classification the PULSE SEQUENCE type is achieved by providing information

about the other K-SPACE lines. Therefore, the number of SPIN-ECHOES and GRADIENT-ECHOES

per RF excitation are given.

Some image characteristics are sensitive to whether K-SPACE is totally acquired after a single

RF excitation (single shot) or whether multiple RF excitations are required (multi-shot), so the

number of RF excitations (shots) is also given.
4.2.2 Notation
For a SPIN-ECHO PULSE SEQUENCE the following notation is used:
: (SE_ GR_)_
For a GRADIENT-ECHO PULSE SEQUENCE the following notation is used:
: (GR_ SE_)_

Here, and denote the number of SPIN-ECHOES and GRADIENT-ECHOES,

respectively. The values of and can be either integer numbers or formulas

of the variables N and M using the signs “+”, “-“, “/”, and “x”. Here, N describes the total

number of K-SPACE lines, and M is the number of K-SPACE lines per excitation. The part

“GR_“ or “SE_“ is omitted, if is zero.

denotes the number of required RF excitations and is given either as an integer

number or a formula of the variables N and M using the signs “+”, “-“, “/”, and “x”.

NOTE The sum of and is typically known as the echo train length, and is often

written as the number of shots.
4.3 Magnetisation modification
4.3.1 General

Optionally, the imaging characteristics of a PULSE SEQUENCE can be changed by adding

gradients and RF pulses or by replacing parts of the PULSE SEQUENCE. These added pulses

and gradients are used to prepare the magnetisation.

Different magnetisation modifications can be combined. The magnetisation modification is

either acting primarily on the LONGITUDINAL MAGNETISATION or the TRANSVERSE MAGNETISATION,

or is done during RF excitation.

For classification of the magnetisation modification, all parts of the PULSE SEQUENCES that

have an additional influence on the image characteristics and that are not included in the

classification of the PULSE SEQUENCE type are listed.
4.3.2 Notation

The magnetisation modification is written as a series of symbols as given in Table 1:

: – – ... –
If no magnetisation modification is used, this classifier is omitted.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
62464-2 Ó IEC:2010 – 9 –
Table 1 – Magnetisation modification techniques
Symbol Name Physical principle
IR Inversion recovery Inversion of the LONGITUDINAL MAGNETISATION
SR Saturation recovery Saturation of the LONGITUDINAL MAGNETISATION
T2P T2 preparation Storage of a T2 contrast in the LONGITUDINAL MAGNETISATION
using e.g. the pulses (90°)-(180°)-(-90°)
T2SP T2* preparation
Storage of a T2* contrast in the LONGITUDINAL MAGNETISATION
using e.g. the pulses (90°)-TE-(-90°)

SSAT Spectral (chemical) saturation Spectrally selective saturation of spins (e.g. fat, silicone,

water)

SIR Spectral (chemical) inversion Spectrally selective inversion of spins (e.g. fat, silicone,

water)

MTC Magnetisation transfer contrast Indirect saturation of the water signal using magnetisation

transfer of spins bound to macromolecules
RSAT (Regional) pre-saturation, tagging Spatially selective saturation

RLAB (Regional) labelling, spin labelling Spatially selective excitation or inversion for tagging of

moving spins
DE Driven equilibrium
RF pulse at the end of the echo train for restoring the
LONGITUDINAL MAGNETISATION

NS Non-spatially selective excitation RF pulse without slice selection gradient to excite all

magnetisation in the volume of the transmitting RF coil

NRRF Profiled (non-rectangular) RF pulse RF excitation pulse with a dedicated, non-rectangular slice

profile (e.g. to avoid saturation effects in TOF MR
angiographies or for simultaneous excitation of two slices)
2DRF 2D selective RF pulse RF pulse with a spatial selectivity in 2 dimensions

SSRF Spatial-spectral RF pulse Simultaneous spatially and spectrally selective excitation

DIFF Diffusion weighting Signal attenuation by additional gradients that induce a

signal dephasing for diffusing spins
FLOWCn Flow compensation
Compensation of the n gradient moment to suppress flow
related signal changes, where n is a positive integer

FLOWSn Flow sensitisation Amplification of the n gradient moment to enhance flow

related signal changes, where n is a positive integer
T1R Spin lock T1r contrast by additional RF pulses

SPOIL TRANSVERSE MAGNETISATION spoiling Spoiling by gradient and/or radio frequency

AREF Refocusing of all gradients
Refocusing of all gradients within one TR interval (balanced
steady state free precession)

PREF Partial refocusing of the gradients Refocusing of some gradients within one TR interval

NREF

Refocusing of the gradients in the Refocusing of the gradients so that an echo is acquired in

next TR interval the next TR interval
OFFSET Offset echo Time offset between the SPIN ECHO and acquisition of the
centre of K-SPACE

If the classifier FLOWCn is not explicitly given, the PULSE SEQUENCE does not utilise flow compensation.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – 62464-2 Ó IEC:2010
4.4 Dimensionality
4.4.1 General

With three-dimensional data acquisitions the spatial encoding of the signal from a volume is

performed in all three dimensions, and data are sorted into a 3D K-SPACE. In two-dimensional

data acquisitions encoding is performed only in the two in-plane dimensions of a selected

slice, and a 2D K-SPACE is filled.
4.4.2 Notation
The dimensionality for a two-dimensional data acquisition is given by
: 2D
For a three-dimensional data acquisition the following notation is used:
: 3D
4.5 Echo number
4.5.1 General

Following an RF excitation, data can be acquired at different echo times, which leads to MR

images with different contrasts. The number of reconstructed images with different contrasts

is classified by the echo number.
4.5.2 Notation
The following notation is used for the echo number:
: E_

is an integer number. If has a value of 1, the classifier is omitted.

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
62464-2 Ó IEC:2010 – 11 –
Annex A
(informative)
Examples of use of the PULSE SEQUENCE classification

Table A.1 shows examples of the application of this International Standard to MANUFACTURER-

specific PULSE SEQUENCE names.
Table A.1 – MANUFACTURER-specific classification examples
GE Hitachi Philips Siemens Toshiba This International
Standard
2D–(GR_N)_1
EPI GE EPI Single shot FID-EPI EPI
FFE-EPI
EPI SE EPI SE-EPI EPI 2D–(SE_1-GR_N-1)_1
Single shot
SE-EPI
FGRE-ET Multi shot EPI Multi shot EPI Segmented Multi-shot EPI 2D–(GR_M)_N/M
EPI
SPIN-ECHO SPIN-ECHO SPIN-ECHO SPIN-ECHO SPIN-ECHO 2D–(SE_1)_N
SS-FSE Single shot Single shot HASTE/RARE FASE 2D–(SE_N)_1
FSE TSE
fast SPIN-ECHO fast SPIN-ECHO turbo SPIN- turbo SPIN- FSE 2D–(SE_M)_N/M
ECHO ECHO
2D–(SE_M)_N/M–E_2
dual echo fast
SPIN ECHO
FLAIR/STIR FLAIR/STIR FLAIR/STIR FLAIR/STIR FLAIR/STIR IR–2D–(SE_M)_N/M
GRASE - GRASE TGSE Hybrid EPI 2D–(SE_1-GR_M-
1)_N/M
Spoiled RSSG T1-FFE FLASH FE SPOIL–2D–(GR_1)_N
GRASS
GRASS SARGE FFE FISP FE PREF–2D–(GR_1)_N
FIESTA BASG Balanced FFE True FISP True SSFP AREF–2D–(GR_1)_N
SSFP TRSG T2-FFE PSIF SSFP NREF–2D–(GR_1)_N
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – 62464-2 Ó IEC:2010
Bibliography

DICOM 2008 standard: Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) [viewed

2010-07-15]. Available from ftp://medical.nema.org/medical/dicom/2008/

RadLex Term Browser [viewed 2010-07-15]. Available from http://www.radlex.org/viewer

---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
62464-2 Ó IEC:2010 – 13 –
Index of defined terms used in this standard

NOTE The defined terms used in this International Standard may be looked up at http://std.iec.ch/glossary.

GRADIENT-ECHO (GR) ..................................................................................................... 3.6

K-SPACE ...................................................................................................................... 3.4

LONGITUDINAL MAGNETISATION ........................................................................................ 3.3

MAGNETIC RESONANCE (MR) .................................................. IEC 60601-2-33:2010, 201.3.217

MANUFACTURER ...............................................................................IEC 60601-1:2005, 3.55

MR EQUIPMENT.................................................................... IEC 60601-2-33:2010, 201.3.218

PULSE SEQUENCE .......................................................................................................... 3.1

SPIN-ECHO (SE) ............................................................................................................ 3.5

TRANSVERSE MAGNETISATION .......................................................................................... 3.2

___________
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
– 14 – 62464-2 Ó CEI:2010
SOMMAIRE

AVANT-PROPOS ......................................................................................................... 15

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 17

1 Domai
...

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