Grid integration of renewable energy generation - Terms and definitions

IEC 62934:2021 provides terms and definitions in the subject area of grid integration of renewable energy generation. The technical issues of grid integration mainly focus on the issues caused by renewable energy generation with variable sources and/or converter based technology, such as wind power and photovoltaic power generation. Some renewable energy generations such as hydro power and biomass power with a relatively continuously available primary energy source and a rotating generator are conventional sources of generation, and are therefore not covered in this document.
The intention of this document is to answer the question "what do the words mean" and not "under what conditions do the terms apply".

Intégration de la production d’énergie renouvelable aux réseaux électriques - Termes et définitions

IEC 62934:2021 fournit des termes et définitions relatifs au domaine de l’intégration de la production d’énergie renouvelable aux réseaux électriques. Les questions techniques de l’intégration aux réseaux électriques portent principalement sur les problèmes causés par la production d’énergie renouvelable (par exemple, l’énergie éolienne et l’énergie photovoltaïque) à partir de sources variables et/ou de technologies à base de convertisseurs. Certaines productions d’énergie renouvelable telles que l’énergie hydraulique et la biomasse obtenues à partir d’une source d’énergie primaire disponible de manière relativement continue et d’une génératrice tournante, constituent des sources de production conventionnelles et ne sont donc pas couvertes par le présent document.
Le présent document est destiné à répondre à la question "que signifient les termes?" et non "dans quelles conditions les termes s’appliquent?"

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
25-Apr-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
26-Apr-2021
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IEC 62934
Edition 1.0 2021-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Grid integration of renewable energy generation – Terms and definitions
Intégration de la production d’énergie renouvelable aux réseaux électriques –
Termes et définitions
IEC 62934:2021-04(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62934
Edition 1.0 2021-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Grid integration of renewable energy generation – Terms and definitions
Intégration de la production d’énergie renouvelable aux réseaux électriques –
Termes et définitions
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 27.010; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-9621-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62934:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

3.1 Terms and definitions for renewable energy generation .......................................... 6

3.2 Terms and definitions for grid aspects and requirements......................................... 8

3.3 Terms and definitions for modelling, analysis and planning ................................... 15

3.4 Terms and definitions for control and protection .................................................... 17

3.5 Terms and definitions for forecasting .................................................................... 20

3.6 Terms and definitions for grid compliance test and assessment ............................ 21

3.7 Terms and definitions for scheduling, dispatching and market ............................... 22

3.8 Miscellaneous terms and definitions ...................................................................... 25

4 Acronyms and abbreviations .......................................................................................... 27

Annex A (informative) Illustration of unit, plant, cluster and kinds of points .......................... 28

Index of terms ....................................................................................................................... 32

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 37

Figure 1 – Examples of basic electronic power converters .................................................... 26

Figure A.1 – Typical forms of renewable energy generating units .......................................... 28

Figure A.2 – Typical forms of renewable energy power plants ............................................... 30

Figure A.3 – Cluster of renewable energy power plants ........................................................ 31

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62934:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
GRID INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATION –
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

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Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 62934 has been prepared by subcommittee 8A: Grid Integration of Renewable Energy

Generation, of IEC technical committee 8: System aspects of electrical energy supply. It is an

International Standard.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
8A/75/FDIS 8A/79/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62934:2021 © IEC 2021

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62934:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this terminology document is to provide terms and definitions for all publications

under the responsibility of SC 8A. In this document, renewable energy generation is the electric

power generation which uses renewable energy as its primary source for the conversion into

electricity.

All SC 8A normative documents to be published should keep consistency with this International

Standard (IS). This IS will be revised together with other SC 8A publications in order to avoid

mismatches when necessary.

From the technical point of view, grid integration of renewable energy generation is a

interdisciplinary complex technical field which is concerned with basic equipment, system

integration, control and protection, operation and dispatch, market and trade and so on. Without

a strong standardization of terminology, focal terms can have a different understanding by

different countries, parties, and technical areas. Harmonised vocabulary is critical also from the

market point of view. It impacts economics and this can become a barrier to commerce. The

correct comparison among different options is fundamental, therefore basic terms and

definitions impact economic decisions.

Several IEC product standards give definitions of certain terms which are necessary for the

understanding of how to design, manufacture and use of those products. The International

Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV, IEC 60050, http://www.electropedia.org) and the IEC

Glossary (http://std.iec.ch/glossary) allow on-line access to this information.

Terms and definitions of this document have been harmonized with the IEV, the IEC Glossary

and other IEC documents as far as possible. Definitions not included in this terminology

standard may be found elsewhere in other IEC documents.

The use of abbreviations has been optimized, on the one hand to avoid tedious repetition and,

on the other hand, to avoid confusion. A minimum set of abbreviations is identified in Clause 4

of this document; the other terms are written out in full spelling when needed.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62934:2021 © IEC 2021
GRID INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATION –
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
1 Scope

This terminology document provides terms and definitions in the subject area of grid integration

of renewable energy generation. The technical issues of grid integration mainly focus on the

issues caused by renewable energy generation with variable sources and/or converter based

technology, such as wind power and photovoltaic power generation. Some renewable energy

generations such as hydro power and biomass power with a relatively continuously available

primary energy source and a rotating generator are conventional sources of generation, and

are therefore not covered in this document.

The intention of this document is to answer the question "what do the words mean" and not

"under what conditions do the terms apply".
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1 Terms and definitions for renewable energy generation
3.1.1
renewable energy

primary energy, the source of which is constantly replenished and will not become depleted

Note 1 to entry: Examples of renewable energy are: wind, solar, geothermal, hydropower, etc.

Note 2 to entry: Fossil fuels are non renewable.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-617:2009, 617-04-11 modified, examples of renewable energy are added

in Note 1 to entry.”]
3.1.2
variable renewable energy
VRE

subset of renewable energy, the source of which is not continuously available and cannot be

stored or controlled
EXAMPLE Wind energy, solar energy, wave energy.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62934:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
3.1.3
renewable energy generation

generation of electrical energy, which uses renewable energy as the primary energy source for

the conversion into electricity
3.1.4
variable renewable energy generation

subset of renewable energy generation, which uses variable renewable energy as the primary

energy source for the conversion into electricity

EXAMPLE Wind power generation, photovoltaic power generation, concentrated solar power generation, wave

power generation.

Note 1 to entry: The primary energy from variable renewable energy sources is in most cases not able to be stored

and therefore the electricity generated is constrained by the availability of the energy source.

3.1.5
renewable energy generating unit
REGU

smallest set of equipment which can generate electricity from renewable energy and can feed

the electricity into an electric power network

Note 1 to entry: Several typical forms of renewable energy generating unit are shown in Annex A.

3.1.6
renewable energy power plant

collection of renewable energy generating units connected to an electric power network through

one or more points of connection, including auxiliaries and connection equipment

Note 1 to entry: Two typical forms of renewable energy power plant are shown in Annex A.

3.1.7
power collection system

electrical system that collects the electricity from at least one

renewable energy generating unit and feeds this electricity into an electric power network,

usually comprising transformers and overhead lines or cables
3.1.8
substation
plant substation

transformer substation or switching substation of a renewable

energy power plant through which the output power of all generating units is transmitted to the

electric power network
3.1.9
point of generating unit connection
PGUC

point that is part of the generating unit and identified by the manufacturer as a reference point

at which the generating unit is connected to the power collection system
3.1.10
point of connection
POC

reference point on the electric power network where the user’s electrical facility is connected

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-617:2009, 617-04-01]
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62934:2021 © IEC 2021
3.1.11
point of common coupling
PCC

point in an electric power system, electrically nearest to a particular load or the POC of a power

plant, at which other loads/power plants are, or may be, connected

Note 1 to entry: These loads can be either devices, equipment or systems, or distinct customer's installations.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-614:2016, 614-01-12, modified – "or the POC of a power plant" is added

and "network users' installations" is changed to "customer's installations"]
3.1.12
cluster

two or more neighboring renewable energy power plants which

are connected to the electric power network via a common substation
Note 1 to entry: Typical form of cluster is shown in Annex A.
3.1.13
distributed energy resources
DER

generators (with their auxiliaries, protection and connection equipment), including loads having

a generating mode (such as electrical energy storage systems), connected to a low-voltage or

a medium-voltage network
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-617:2017,617-04-20]
3.1.14
distributed generation

generation of electric energy by multiple sources which are connected to the power distribution

system
[SOURCE: IEC-60050-617:2009, 617-04-09]
3.1.15
virtual power plant
VPP

group of distributed energy resources and controllable loads which combine to function as a

dispatchable unit

Note 1 to entry: A virtual power plant can be used for the purpose of participating in the electricity market or

aggregating ancillary services.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-617:2017, 617-04-27, modified − controllable loads are included in the

definition since they form an essential part of virtual power plant]
3.2 Terms and definitions for grid aspects and requirements
3.2.1
power system
3.2.1.1
electric power system
electricity supply system

< broad sense> all installations and plant provided for the purpose of generating, transmitting

and distributing electricity
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-601:1985, 601-01-01]
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62934:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –
3.2.1.2
electric power network

particular installations, substations, lines or cables for the transmission and distribution of

electricity

Note 1 to entry: The boundaries of the different parts of this network are defined by appropriate criteria, such as

geographical situation, ownership, voltage, etc.
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-601:1985, 601-01-02]
3.2.1.3
bulk power system
BPS
bulk electricity system

portion of the electric power system comprising the facilities used for the generation and

transmission of electric energy

Note 1 to entry: The extent of the bulk power system is usually limited to the means for production and transmission

of electric energy to major industrial and distribution centers.

Note 2 to entry: In English, the term "composite system" is also used for this concept.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-601:1985, 601-01-33]
3.2.2
electrical quantities
3.2.2.1
nominal voltage

value of the voltage (line to line) by which a power plant is designated and

identified, usually defined at the POC

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-826:2004, 826-11-01, modified − supplementary information is added to

indicate that the nominal voltage of a power plant is usually defined at the point of connection]

3.2.2.2
rated power
rated active power

maximum continuous power output which a renewable energy generating unit or plant is

designed to achieve under normal operating conditions

Note 1 to entry: In some standards and grid codes this term is referred as "rated capacity".

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-415:1999, 415-04-03, modified – "wind turbine" is changed to "renewable

energy generating unit or plant" to adapt the scope of this standard]
3.2.2.3
nominal active power

nominal value of the active power generation of a renewable energy generating unit or power

plant, which must be stated by the manufacturer or the designer

Note 1 to entry: It is used as a base for calculating quantities in relation to that generating unit or power plant.

3.2.2.4
nominal apparent power

apparent power from a renewable energy generating unit or power plant while operating at

nominal current and nominal voltage and frequency within the maximum permissible reactive

power
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62934:2021 © IEC 2021
Note 1 to entry:
S = 3UI (1)
n nn
3.2.2.5
nominal current

nominal value of the current from a renewable energy generating unit or power plant, which

must be calculated from nominal active power and nominal voltage at specified or designed

power factor
Note 1 to entry:
(2)
I =
3U ⋅ PF
3.2.2.6
registered power

active/apparent power of a power plant registered by the plant owner at the network operator's

or regulator's registry
3.2.2.7
active power ramp rate
rate of change of active power during a specified period
3.2.3
type of generator
3.2.3.1
synchronous machine type of generator

generating unit connected to an electric power network via a synchronous generator

3.2.3.2
asynchronous machine type of generator

generating unit connected to an electric power network via an asynchronous generator

3.2.3.3
converter type of generator

generating unit connected to an electric power network via a power electronic converter

3.2.4
short-circuit

accidental or intentional conductive path between two or more conductive parts forcing the

electric potential differences between these conductive parts to be equal or close to zero

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-614:2016, 614-02-02]
3.2.5
short-circuit current

current that a renewable energy power plant delivers to the

point of connection resulting from a short-circuit in the external electric power system

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 62934:2021 © IEC 2021 – 11 –
3.2.6
short-circuit power

the product of the current in the short-circuit at a point of a system and a conventional voltage,

generally the operating voltage

Note 1 to entry: Using physical units for line current (A) and nominal voltage (V), the product should also include

the factor √3.
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-601:1985, 601-01-14, modified − Note 1 to entry is added]
3.2.7
short-circuit ratio
SCR

ratio of the three-phase short-circuit power at POC/PGUC to the nominal active power of a

renewable energy power plant or generating unit

Note 1 to entry: SCR is a common analytical indicator used in the industry to quantify system strength.

Note 2 to entry: There is no industry consensus on the exact definition and methodology for calculating the SCR,

particularly for applications with several adjacent renewable energy power plants, or for a renewable energy power

plant adjacent to HVDC terminals, see CIGRE TB 671.
3.2.8
weighted short-circuit ratio
WSCR

index based on short-circuit ratio to assist in defining operational limits for total

transmission of active power from inverter-based generators across key power system

interfaces
Note 1 to entry:
SP⋅
∑ knii
i=1
WSCR= (3)
(∑ )
i=1

Note 2 to entry: S is the short-circuit power at bus i without current contribution from renewable energy power

plants, P is the nominal power of renewable energy power plant to be connected at bus i, N is the number of power

plants fully interacting with each other, i is the summation index of the renewable energy power plants.

3.2.9
composite short-circuit ratio
CSCR

index based on short-circuit ratio, which calculates an aggregate SCR for multiple renewable

energy power plants by creating a common bus and tying all renewable energy power plants of

interest together at that common bus
Note 1 to entry:
CSCR= (4)
i=1

Note 2 to entry: S is the short-circuit power at the virtual common bus without current contribution from the

renewable energy power plants. P is the nominal power of renewable energy power plant i, N is the number of

renewable energy power plants to be considered.

Note 3 to entry: Composite short-circuit ratio is used to estimate the equivalent system impedance seen by multiple

renewable energy power plants.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 62934:2021 © IEC 2021
3.2.10
short-circuit ratio with interaction factors
SCRIF

index based on short circuit ratio, which considers interaction voltage sensitivity between

electrically close renewable energy power plants
Note 1 to entry:
SCRIF= (5)
P + IF ⋅P
( )
nni ∑ ji j
jj()≠i

Note 2 to entry: S is the short-circuit power at the POC of renewable energy power plant i without current

contribution from the other renewable energy power plants, P is the nominal power of renewable energy power plant

i, IF is the voltage change at bus j (ΔU ) for a voltage change at bus i (ΔU ), as follows:

ji j i
IF = (6)

Note 3 to entry: SCRIF is proposed to capture the voltage change at one bus resulting from a voltage change at

another bus. When multiple renewable energy power plants are located very close to each other, they share the grid

strength and short circuit level; hence, the grid strength is actually much lower than the overall short-circuit level

calculated at that bus or buses.
3.2.11
power quality

characteristics of the electric current, voltage and frequencies at a given point in an electric

power system, evaluated against a set of reference technical parameters

Note 1 to entry: These parameters might, in some cases, relate to the compatibility between electricity supplied in

an electric power system and the loads connected to that electric power system.
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-617:2009, 617-01-05]
3.2.12
harmonic
harmonic component
sinusoidal component of the Fourier series of a periodic quantity, the harmonic
...

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