Eye and face protection - Protection against laser radiation - Part 1: Requirements and test methods

This document is applicable to protectors intended to provide protection against accidental exposure to laser radiation within the wavelength range 180 nm to 1 mm. It specifies the requirements, test methods and marking. Protectors intended for adjustment work on lasers are included in the scope of this document and are marked in the same way as other protectors, but selection of appropriate eyewear for a specific application is a choice of the user. Laser protective filters used as viewing windows in laser equipment machinery or incorporated into optical instruments such as operating microscopes and loupes that may be used for deliberate viewing of laser radiation as part of their function are outside the scope of this document.
Laser radiation in the wavelength range below 180 nm is absorbed in air, therefore eye and face protection should not be required.
This document is applicable to devices intended for patient protection during medical laser procedures except for treatment in the periorbital area. Guidance on eye protectors for patients (including those used for periorbital treatment) is given in ISO/TR 22463.

Protection des yeux et du visage - Protection contre le rayonnement laser - Partie 1: Exigences et méthodes d'essai

Le présent document est applicable aux protecteurs destinés à fournir une protection contre une exposition accidentelle à un rayonnement laser dans une gamme de longueurs d’onde comprise entre 180 nm et 1 mm. Il spécifie les exigences, les méthodes d’essai et le marquage. Les protecteurs destinés aux travaux de réglage sur les lasers sont inclus dans le domaine d’application du présent document et comportent le même marquage que les autres protecteurs, mais il incombe à l’utilisateur de choisir la lunette appropriée à une application spécifique. Les filtres de protection laser utilisés comme fenêtre d’observation dans les machines d’équipements laser ou incorporés dans les instruments optiques tels que des microscopes opératoires et des loupes qui peuvent être utilisés pour l’observation intentionnelle du rayonnement laser dans le cadre de leur fonctionnement n’entrent pas dans le domaine d’application du présent document.
Le rayonnement laser dont la gamme de longueurs d’onde est inférieure à 180 nm est absorbé dans l’air, par conséquent il convient que la protection des yeux et du visage ne soit pas exigée.
Le présent document s’applique aux dispositifs destinés à la protection du patient lors d’une intervention médicale au laser à l’exception des traitements dans la région périorbitaire. Des recommandations relatives aux protecteurs des yeux destinés aux patients (y compris ceux utilisés pour les traitements périorbitaires) sont données dans l’ISO/TR 22463.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Jun-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
22-Jun-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19818-1
First edition
2021-06
Eye and face protection — Protection
against laser radiation —
Part 1:
Requirements and test methods
Protection des yeux et du visage — Protection contre le rayonnement
laser —
Partie 1: Exigences et méthodes d'essai
Reference number
ISO 19818-1:2021(E)
ISO 2021
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ISO 19818-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19818-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Requirements for the protector............................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.1 Performance requirements .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1.1 Laser pulse and exposure duration ................................................................................................................. 3

4.1.2 Optical density (OD) ..................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1.3 Transmittance to short pulses ............................................................................................................................. 4

4.1.4 Resistance category (RC) .......................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1.5 Luminous transmittance ........................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1.6 Dynamic protection ....................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1.7 Field of view ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1.8 Refractive power of filters and protectors ................................................................................................. 5

4.2 Construction of protectors ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3 Robustness of protectors ............................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.3.1 Basic requirement .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.3.2 Optional requirements ............................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Quality of material and surface of filters .......................................................................................................................... 6

4.4.1 Material and surface defects .................................................................................................................................. 6

4.4.2 Scattered light .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.5 Environmental stability ................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.5.2 Filter and protector resistance to heat and humidity ...................................................................... 7

4.5.3 Stability to ultraviolet radiation ......................................................................................................................... 7

4.5.4 Resistance of filters and frames to ignition by contact with hot surfaces ...................... 7

4.6 Marking ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.6.1 Marking requirements ................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.6.2 Marking syntax and examples of marking ................................................................................................. 9

4.7 Manufacturer’s instruction and information .............................................................................................................12

4.8 Requirements not mandatory for protectors worn by patients during medical or

aesthetic treatment with lasers .............................................................................................................................................13

5 Test methods ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.2 Optical density ......................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.3 Transmittance of short pulses ................................................................................................................................................15

5.4 Resistance of filters and frames to laser radiation ......... .......................................................................................15

5.5 Luminous transmittance of filters .......................................................................................................................................17

5.6 Scattered light .......................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.7 Resistance to elevated temperature ..................................................................................................................................17

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 19818-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 94, Personal safety — Personal protective

equipment, Subcommittee SC 6, Eye and face protection, in collaboration with the European Committee

for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 85, Eye protective equipment, in accordance

with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement). The document

was developed as a joint project with IEC/TC 76, "Optical radiation safety and laser equipment".

This first edition of ISO 19818-1 cancels and replaces the first edition of ISO 6161:1981, which has been

technically revised.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19818-1:2021(E)
Introduction

This document was developed in response to the worldwide stakeholders' demand for minimum

requirements and test methods for laser eye and face protectors traded internationally.

Preparation of this document aimed to draw upon the best aspects of these preceding standards,

and offer improvements where appropriate. The document was developed by a Joint Working Group

involving experts from ISO/TC 94/SC 6 (Eye and Face Protection) and IEC/TC 76 (Optical Radiation

Safety and Laser Equipment), to bring together the two aspects of personal protection and laser safety.

In the general context of eye and face protection ISO 4007 gives the terms and definitions. The test

methods are given in the ISO 18526 series, while the requirements for occupational eye and face

protectors are given in the ISO 16321 series. Eye protectors for specific sports are mostly dealt with by

the ISO 18527 series. ISO 19734 is a guidance document for the selection, use and maintenance of eye

and face protectors.

A guidance document addressing selection and use of personal eye and face protection against lasers is

currently under development and will form a guide to users of protectors described in this document.

NOTE ISO 6161 was published in 1981 but was not widely adopted. The document was four pages in length.

No development of that document has taken place since 1981, although comparable regional standards have

[5] [6] [7]

since been developed (EN 207 and EN 208 in Europe; ANSI Z136.7 in the United States).

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19818-1:2021(E)
Eye and face protection — Protection against laser
radiation —
Part 1:
Requirements and test methods
1 Scope

This document is applicable to protectors intended to provide protection against accidental exposure

to laser radiation within the wavelength range 180 nm to 1 mm. It specifies the requirements, test

methods and marking. Protectors intended for adjustment work on lasers are included in the scope of

this document and are marked in the same way as other protectors, but selection of appropriate eyewear

for a specific application is a choice of the user. Laser protective filters used as viewing windows in laser

equipment machinery or incorporated into optical instruments such as operating microscopes and

loupes that may be used for deliberate viewing of laser radiation as part of their function are outside

the scope of this document.

Laser radiation in the wavelength range below 180 nm is absorbed in air, therefore eye and face

protection should not be required.

This document is applicable to devices intended for patient protection during medical laser procedures

except for treatment in the periorbital area. Guidance on eye protectors for patients (including those

used for periorbital treatment) is given in ISO/TR 22463.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 4007, Personal protective equipment — Eye and face protection — Vocabulary

ISO 16321-1:2021, Eye and face protection for occupational use — Part 1: General requirements

ISO 16321-2:2021, Eye and face protection for occupational use — Part 2: Additional requirements for

protectors used during welding and related techniques

ISO 18526-1:2020, Eye and face protection — Test methods — Part 1: Geometrical optical properties

ISO 18526-2:2020, Eye and face protection — Test methods — Part 2: Physical optical properties

ISO 18526-3:2020, Eye and face protection — Test methods — Part 3: Physical and mechanical properties

ISO 18526-4:2020, Eye and face protection — Test methods — Part 4: Headforms
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 4007 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 19818-1:2021(E)
3.1
resistance category

rating for a protector that specifies its ability to withstand a given level of irradiance or radiant

exposure without compromise to its protective properties

Note 1 to entry: Laser filters and frames may provide different resistance categories for different laser modes,

wavelengths or wavelength ranges.
3.2
optical density (spectral)
D(λ)
logarithm to the base 10 of the reciprocal of the (spectral) transmittance
Note 1 to entry: Optical density is therefore expressed by the formula:
D(λ) = −log τ(λ)
where τ(λ) is the spectral transmittance.

Note 2 to entry: Practically OD can be considered a measure of the orders of magnitude of attenuation experienced

by laser energy passing through a filter.

[SOURCE: ISO 4007:2018, 3.10.1.21 – Note 1 to entry and Note 2 to entry have been modified.]

3.3
pulse duration

time interval between the half-peak power points at the leading and trailing edges of a pulse

Note 1 to entry: For ultrashort pulses, pulse duration is linked to spectral bandwidth.

[SOURCE: IEC 60825-1:2014, 3.69 modified – "increment" changed to "interval" in the definition, Note 1

to entry added and "measured" removed from the definition.]
3.4
reference points (for testing)
visual centres

mounted lenses points on each lens corresponding to the intersection of the horizontal and vertical

planes through the pupils of the appropriate headform when the protector is correctly fitted on it

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.

[SOURCE: ISO 4007:2018, 3.8.7 modified – internal references in ISO 4007 have been removed from the

definition.]
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19818-1:2021(E)
Key
V reference points (for testing)
Figure 1 — Reference points for mounted lenses
4 Requirements for the protector
4.1 Performance requirements
4.1.1 Laser pulse and exposure duration

The laser pulse and exposure duration for which the protector is designated shall be determined in

accordance with Table 1.
Table 1 — Laser type classification
Pulse/exposure duration Laser type
-1 ab
≥10 C
-5 -1 a
≥10 to <10 P
-10 -5 a
≥10 to <10 S
-10
<10 U

If the protector is intended for more than one type of laser emission, all intended

pulse and exposure durations shall be stated. If the protector is used for all the laser

pulse and exposure durations C, P and S for the same wavelength range and resistance

category (see 4.1.4), the symbol A shall be used.
C includes long-pulsed lasers and continuous wave lasers.
C = Continuous
P = Pulsed
S = Short Pulsed
U = Ultra Short Pulsed

1) For the purposes of this document, “protector” is used as a general term for eye protector and/or eye and face

protectors used for laser protection.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 19818-1:2021(E)
4.1.2 Optical density (OD)

The optical density shall be defined for each wavelength of intended use of the protector.

In the case of protectors intended for use at more than one wavelength, the value of the optical density

shall be specified for each wavelength and/or wavelength range.

Where the optical density is defined for a continuous range of wavelengths, the minimum value of the

optical density in the wavelength range shall be specified.

For optical densities greater than 2,9, the optical density shall be expressed as a whole number that

is no greater than the actual optical density minus the uncertainty of measurement and no greater

than 8. For optical densities of 2,9 or less, the optical density shall be expressed to a maximum of one

decimal place and indicate the rounded down value of the actual optical density minus the uncertainty

of measurement.

The optical density shall be measured in accordance with 5.2. The optical density of any part of the

filters or frames through which exposure to incident laser radiation could occur to the eyes (in the

case of eye protectors) or the face (in the case of face protectors) shall not be less than the minimum

value defined by the manufacturer, taking into account the uncertainty of measurement. See

ISO 18526-2:2020, Annex A.

Special filters, for example filters with dielectric coatings, show an angle-dependent spectral

transmittance. For these filters, the spectral transmittance shall be measured for the entire angular

range from 0° to 30° angle of incidence at intervals no more than 5° (see 5.2). Where the specified optical

density is limited to this range of angles, a written warning shall be included in the user information

supplied with the protector (see 4.7).
4.1.3 Transmittance to short pulses

The spectral transmittance of the protectors intended for use with S and/or U pulse and exposure

durations (see Table 1) shall be tested for saturable absorption using a laser with pulse or exposure

duration corresponding to S and/or U (see Table 1) in accordance with 5.3.
4.1.4 Resistance category (RC)

For the intended use of the protector, the resistance category for the specified individual wavelength

or wavelength range shall be determined. For protectors with multiple specified wavelengths or

wavelength ranges, the resistance categories of each of the specified multiple wavelengths or each

of the specified wavelength ranges shall be determined. The resistance category/categories shall be

tested in accordance with 5.4.

The filter(s), side-shields and other parts of the frame or support that have a protective function shall

maintain at least the specified optical density under the level of exposure specified in 5.4 for at least

five seconds or at least 50 pulses, whichever is the longer period, delivered, if possible, within no more

than 10 s.

Failure or decrease of protective properties could be due to burn, cracks, structural melting,

photobleaching including reversible photobleaching, delamination of coatings, saturable absorption.

This list is not exhaustive. Visible damage to the filter or the frame is permitted provided this does not

affect its protective properties.
4.1.5 Luminous transmittance

The photopic luminous transmittance of the protective filters shall be specified and determined in

accordance with 5.5. Where the luminous transmittance is less than 20 %, a warning shall be included

in the information supplied with the protector [see 4.7 i)] that it has a low luminous transmission that

may affect the wearer’s awareness of other hazards.
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19818-1:2021(E)
4.1.6 Dynamic protection

For filters that exhibit an increase in optical density in response to an exposure to incident laser

radiation, the time taken for the optical density to reach its full specified protective level should be

determined and specified. Dynamic protectors should provide protection whenever laser radiation is

incident on any protective part of the protector.
4.1.7 Field of view

When measured in accordance with ISO 18526-3:2020, 6.2, protectors, in the as-worn position, shall

have a minimum unobstructed field of view in front of each eye of 40° temporally and 20° nasally in the

horizontal meridian, and 30° superiorly and inferiorly in the vertical meridian.
4.1.8 Refractive power of filters and protectors

When assessed in accordance with ISO 18526-1:2020, Clause 6, the maximum refractive power of filters

and protectors with no corrective effect shall be as given in Table 2.

Table 2 — Maximum refractive power of filters and protectors with no corrective effect

Spherical power Cylindrical power Prism imbalance
horizontal vertical
Mean value of the Absolute difference
focal powers (F , F ) between the focal
1 2
in the two principal powers (F , F ) in
1 2
meridians the two principal
base out base in
meridians
(F + F )/2
1 2
|F − F |
1 2

dioptres (D) dioptres (D) prism dioptres (Δ) prism dioptres (Δ) prism dioptres (Δ)

±0,09 0,09 0,75 0,25 0,25

The tests for determining the refractive power and prism imbalance of filters and protectors shall be

carried out in accordance with ISO 18526-1:2020, Clause 6.
4.2 Construction of protectors

All parts of the protector shall be designed so that no hazardous laser radiation can penetrate from

the sides, or from above or below the horizontal plane. This requirement is met if, for a horizontal

angular range α from –50° (nasal side) to +90° (temporal side), the specified level of protection is

provided within the vertical angular range β, where β is subtended at the corneal vertex and satisfies

the following two conditions.

The upward limit of β (measured upwards from the horizontal plane), in degrees (°), shall be at least,

as given by Formula (1):
2 4
βα=−55 0,,0013⋅−()12 −×13 10 ⋅()α−12 (1)

The downward limit of β (measured downwards from the horizontal plane), in degrees (°), shall be at

least, as given in Formula (2):
2 4
−−5 6
βα=−70+−10 ⋅⋅()22 +×23, 10 ()α−22 (2)

NOTE The protected area does not apply to filters having limited angular coverage, e.g. dielectric

interference coatings.

The filter and frame shall meet the requirements of ISO 16321-1:2021, 6.6, for frame transmittance,

paying particular attention to air vents or gaps in the protector.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 19818-1:2021(E)

Testing shall take place on each of the headforms, in accordance with ISO 18526-4, specified by the

manufacturer for which a conformity claim is intended. If a headform is not specified, then testing shall

be carried out on the 1-M headform of ISO 18526-4.
4.3 Robustness of protectors
4.3.1 Basic requirement

Filters shall satisfy the requirement for minimum robustness as specified in ISO 16321-2:2021, 4.3.4.

4.3.2 Optional requirements

For applications where mechanical strength of filters and protectors is required, the basic impact

requirement of ISO 16321-1:2021, 7.4 or one of the high speed impact resistance requirements specified

in ISO 16321-1:2021, 7.10 shall be met.

It is sometimes necessary to have a lens to provide the mechanical protection behind the filter for

protection against laser radiation. In ISO 16321-1, the mechanical requirements apply to the element

nearer the eye.
4.4 Quality of material and surface of filters
4.4.1 Material and surface defects

The tests for determining material and surface defects of filters shall be carried out in accordance

with ISO 18526-3:2020, 6.6, except for a 5 mm wide portion around the edge of the filter which shall

be excluded from the assessment area. Filters shall be free from any material or surface defects likely

to impair the intended use, such as bubbles, scratches, inclusions, dull spots, mould marks, scoring or

other defects originating from the manufacturing process. No holes are allowed anywhere in the filters.

4.4.2 Scattered light

Wide angle scatter of filters with luminous transmittance equal to or greater than 20 % shall not exceed

3 %.

If the luminous transmittance is equal to or greater than 20 %, measure the wide angle scatter in

accordance with ISO 18526-2:2020, 14.1.

If the luminous transmittance is less than 20 %, measure the narrow angle scatter in accordance with

ISO 18526-2:2020, 14.2.

The reduced luminance coefficient l (narrow angle scatter) of a filter with luminous transmittance

below 20 % shall be determined in accordance with ISO 18526-2:2020, 14.2 and shall not be greater

than:
l*,=05(cd/m )/lx (3)
4.5 Environmental stability
4.5.1 General

The following subclauses apply to both the filters and those parts of the frame that perform a laser

protection function.
6 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19818-1:2021(E)
4.5.2 Filter and protector resistance to heat and humidity

After exposing the protector to the conditions described in 5.7, the optical density, as described in 4.1.2,

shall not fall below the specified value. The luminous transmittance of the filter, as described in 4.1.5,

shall not fall by more than 10 % of the specified value, as given in Formula (4):

≤10% (4)
where
τ is the initial luminous transmittance;
Δτ is the change in luminous transmittance
4.5.3 Stability to ultraviolet radiation

After exposure to ultraviolet radiation in accordance with ISO 18526-3:2020, 6.8.2, the properties of

protectors shall not change to such an extent that they no longer satisfy the requirements of 4.1. The

relative change in the luminous transmittance of the filter, τ , shall be ≤10 % [see Formula (4)].

If the luminous transmittance of laser protective filters decreases by more than 10 % but the optical

density OD value(s) remain(s) within the range specified in 4.1.2, a second irradiation shall be

performed in accordance with ISO 18526-3:2020, 6.8.2, on the same sample. The relative change of

luminous transmittance due to the second irradiation shall not be greater than 10 % and the optical

density OD value(s) shall remain within the range specified in 4.1.2.

After exposure to ultraviolet radiation in accordance with ISO 18526-3:2020, 6.8.2, protectors shall

meet the requirements of 4.4.2 for narrow or wide angle scatter. Measurement of narrow or wide angle

scatter is carried out after the second irradiation, if that was needed, in other cases after the first

irradiation.
4.5.4 Resistance of filters and frames to ignition by contact with hot surfaces

The test shall be carried out on the frame and lenses in accordance with ISO 18526-3:2020, 6.10. In the

test, the filters and frames shall not ignite or continue to glow.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 19818-1:2021(E)
4.6 Marking
...

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