Railway applications - Rolling stock - Batteries for auxiliary power supply systems - Part 2: Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries

IEC 62973-2:2020 applies to NiCd rechargeable batteries for auxiliary power supply systems used on railway vehicles. It is an extension of IEC 62973-1:2018 which specifies common requirements for all battery technologies of other parts of IEC 62973. Unless otherwise specified, the requirements of IEC 62973-1:2018 apply.
Battery systems described in this document are used in conjunction with charging systems onboard rolling stock, as described in IEC 62973-1:2018. Charging systems (e.g. LVPS, converters, etc.) are excluded from the scope of this document.
This document also specifies the design, operation parameters, safety recommendations, routine and type tests, as well as marking and designation. This document is used in addition to IEC 60623:2017 or IEC 62259:2003 for NiCd Cells.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
26-May-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
27-May-2020
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IEC 62973-2
Edition 1.0 2020-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Railway applications – Rolling stock – Batteries for auxiliary power supply
systems –
Part 2: Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries
IEC 62973-2:2020-05(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62973-2
Edition 1.0 2020-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Railway applications – Rolling stock – Batteries for auxiliary power supply
systems –
Part 2: Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 45.060.01; 29.220.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-8234-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62973-2:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 9

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 9

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 11

4 General requirements .................................................................................................... 12

4.1 Definitions of components of a battery system, refer to Figure 1 (images are

examples) ............................................................................................................. 12

4.2 Definitions of NiCd battery type ............................................................................. 12

4.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 12

4.2.2 Sintered/PBE plate/electrode technology ....................................................... 13

4.2.3 Sintered/sintered plate/electrode technology ................................................. 13

4.2.4 Fiber plate/electrode technology .................................................................... 13

4.2.5 Pocket plate/electrode technology ................................................................. 13

4.3 Environmental conditions ...................................................................................... 13

4.4 System requirements ............................................................................................ 13

4.4.1 System voltage .............................................................................................. 13

4.4.2 Charging requirements .................................................................................. 15

4.4.3 Discharging requirements .............................................................................. 17

4.4.4 Charge retention (self-discharge) ................................................................... 18

4.4.5 Requirements for battery capacity sizing........................................................ 18

4.5 Safety and protection requirements ....................................................................... 19

4.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 19

4.5.2 Deep discharge of batteries ........................................................................... 19

4.5.3 Temperature compensation during charging .................................................. 20

4.6 Fire protection ...................................................................................................... 20

4.7 Maintenance ......................................................................................................... 20

4.8 Charging characteristics ....................................................................................... 20

4.9 Optional additional components to battery system ................................................. 20

4.9.1 General ......................................................................................................... 20

4.9.2 Battery information system ............................................................................ 21

4.9.3 Battery heater ................................................................................................ 21

4.9.4 Thermostat or cut-off switch........................................................................... 21

5 Mechanical design of battery system ............................................................................. 21

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 21

5.2 Interface mechanism ............................................................................................. 21

5.3 Location of battery system on the vehicle .............................................................. 21

5.4 Accessibility to the battery .................................................................................... 22

5.5 Shock and vibration .............................................................................................. 22

5.6 Ventilation of battery box ...................................................................................... 22

5.7 Water filling system ............................................................................................... 22

6 Electrical interface ......................................................................................................... 22

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 22

6.2 External electrical connections interface ............................................................... 23

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IEC 62973-2:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –

7 Markings........................................................................................................................ 23

7.1 Safety signs .......................................................................................................... 23

7.1.1 Outside the box ............................................................................................. 23

7.1.2 Tray, crate or other places inside the box ...................................................... 23

7.1.3 Cells or monobloc batteries ........................................................................... 23

7.2 Nameplate ............................................................................................................ 24

7.2.1 Battery box .................................................................................................... 24

7.2.2 Nameplates on tray, crate or other nameplates inside the box ....................... 24

7.2.3 Cells or monoblocs ........................................................................................ 24

8 Storage and transportation conditions ............................................................................ 24

8.1 Transportation ...................................................................................................... 24

8.2 Storage of batteries .............................................................................................. 24

9 Testing .......................................................................................................................... 25

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 25

9.2 Type test ............................................................................................................... 25

9.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 25

9.2.2 Parameter measurement tolerances .............................................................. 26

9.2.3 Electrical characteristic tests ......................................................................... 26

9.2.4 Dielectric test ................................................................................................ 26

9.2.5 Load profile test ............................................................................................. 26

9.2.6 Shock and vibration test ................................................................................ 26

9.3 Routine test .......................................................................................................... 27

9.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 27

9.3.2 Visual checks ................................................................................................ 27

9.3.3 Dielectric test ................................................................................................ 27

9.3.4 Electrical characteristics tests ....................................................................... 27

Annex A (informative) Examples of typical load profiles ....................................................... 28

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 28

A.2 Example of load profile – High speed train (Figure A.1) ........................................ 28

A.3 Example of load profile – Regional train/ EMU (Figure A.2) ................................... 29

Annex B (normative) NiCd load profile verification ............................................................... 30

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 30

B.2 General methodology ............................................................................................ 30

B.3 Battery sizing documentation ................................................................................ 31

B.4 Operational verification (load profile test) .............................................................. 31

B.5 Test report ............................................................................................................ 32

Annex C (informative) Declaration of cell model range representative of the testing ............. 33

C.1 Electrical performance declaration ........................................................................ 33

C.2 Shock and vibration declaration ............................................................................ 33

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 34

Figure 1 – Definition of NiCd cell(s), monobloc battery, crate, tray, and box .......................... 12

Figure 2 – Example of a NiCd cell discharge curve at various constant discharge

currents based on percentage of capacity ............................................................................. 14

Figure 3 – Example of a NiCd cell charge curves .................................................................. 15

Figure 4 – Typical NiCd battery charging characteristics ....................................................... 17

Figure 5 – Typical schematic of an electrical interface of a battery system ............................ 23

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– 4 – IEC 62973-2:2020 © IEC 2020

Figure A.1 – Example of load profile for high speed train (without starting up segment) ........ 28

Figure A.2 – Example of load profile for regional train/ EMU (without starting up

segment) .............................................................................................................................. 29

Table 1 – Requirements of the charging characteristics ........................................................ 15

Table 2 – Typical NiCd battery charging characteristics ........................................................ 16

Table 3 – Parameters and responsibility for battery capacity sizing ....................................... 19

Table 4 – Type test and routine test ...................................................................................... 25

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IEC 62973-2:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
RAILWAY APPLICATIONS – ROLLING STOCK –
BATTERIES FOR AUXILIARY POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS –
Part 2: Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62973-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 9:

Electrical equipment and systems for railways.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
9/2585/FDIS 9/2594/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

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– 6 – IEC 62973-2:2020 © IEC 2020

A list of all parts in the IEC 62973 series, published under the general title Railway

applications – Rolling stock – Batteries for auxiliary power supply systems, can be found on

the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
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IEC 62973-2:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

This document considers the requirements for vented or partial recombination Nickel

Cadmium (NiCd) batteries following IEC 62973-1:2018.

In this document the interface with a LVPS or charger is specified and the LVPS or charger

itself is out of scope.
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– 8 – IEC 62973-2:2020 © IEC 2020
RAILWAY APPLICATIONS – ROLLING STOCK –
BATTERIES FOR AUXILIARY POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS –
Part 2: Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62973 applies to NiCd rechargeable batteries for auxiliary power supply

systems used on railway vehicles. It is an extension of IEC 62973-1:2018 which specifies

common requirements for all battery technologies of other parts of IEC 62973. Unless

otherwise specified, the requirements of IEC 62973-1:2018 apply.

Battery systems described in this document are used in conjunction with charging systems

onboard rolling stock, as described in IEC 62973-1:2018. Charging systems (e.g. LVPS,

converters, etc.) are excluded from the scope of this document.

This document also specifies the design, operation parameters, safety recommendations,

routine and type tests, as well as marking and designation.

This document is used in addition to IEC 60623:2017 or IEC 62259:2003 for NiCd Cells.

Specific requirements on subcomponents within the battery systems are covered in this

document, e.g. temperature measurement components.

When there is an existing IEC standard specifying additional test conditions and requirements

for NiCd batteries used in specific railway applications and which conflicts with this document,

the latter takes precedence.

The main objective of this document is to achieve standardization of the electrical interfaces

by considering NiCd battery parameters to allow for calculating the NiCd battery capacity

required for a specific load profile.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60051 (all parts), Direct acting indicating analogue electrical measuring instruments and

their accessories

IEC 60077-1, Railway applications – Electric equipment for rolling stock – Part 1: General

service conditions and general rules

IEC 60623:2017, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid

electrolytes – Vented nickel-cadmium prismatic rechargeable single cells

IEC 61373:2010, Railway applications – Rolling stock equipment – Shock and vibration test

IEC 62259:2003, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid

electrolytes – Nickel cadmium prismatic secondary single cells with partial gas recombination

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62973-2:2020 © IEC 2020 – 9 –

IEC 62485-2:2010, Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations –

Part 2: Stationary batteries

IEC 62973-1:2018, Railway applications Rolling stock – Batteries for auxiliary power supply

systems – Part 1: General requirements
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
NOTE All typical battery related descriptions are defined in IEC 60050-482.
3.1.1
battery crate
container with frame walls for holding several cells or batteries
Note 1 to entry: Refer to 4.1 and Clause 5.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004/AMD1:2016, 482-05-10, modified – Note 1 to entry has been

added.]
3.1.2
battery tray
container with a base and walls for holding several cells or batteries
Note 1 to entry: Refer to 4.1 and Clause 5.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004/AMD1:2016, 482-02-35, modified – Note 1 to entry has been

added.]
3.1.3
cell

basic functional unit of NiCd battery, consisting of an assembly of electrodes, electrolyte,

container, terminals and usually separators, that is a source of electric energy obtained by

direct conversion of chemical energy

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004/AMD1:2016, 482-01-01, modified – Note has been deleted

and the specific use “of NiCd battery" has been added.]
3.1.4
monobloc battery

battery with multiple separate but electrically connected cell compartments each of which is

designed to house an assembly of electrodes, electrolyte, terminals or interconnections and

possible separators

Note 1 to entry: The cells in a monobloc battery can be connected in series or in parallel.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-02-17]
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– 10 – IEC 62973-2:2020 © IEC 2020
3.1.5
nickel cadmium battery

secondary battery with an alkaline electrolyte, a positive electrode containing nickel oxide and

a negative electrode of cadmium
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004/AMD1:2016, 482-05-02, modified – A synonym has been
removed.]
3.1.6
rated capacity,

capacity value of a battery determined under IEC 60623:2017 specified conditions and

declared by the battery manufacturer
3.1.7
state of charge
SOC

remaining capacity to be discharged, normally expressed as a percentage of the full battery

rated capacity as expressed in relevant standards

Note 1 to entry: Practical definitions of SOC are dependent upon chosen technologies.

3.1.8
depth of discharge
DOD

capacity removed from a battery during discharge in relation to its full rated capacity

expressed as a percentage
Note 1 to entry: It is the complement of SOC.
Note 2 to entry: As one increases, the other decreases by the same amount.
3.1.9
ageing factor,

quantitative factor expressing the degradation in the ability of the battery, due to usage, to

deliver electrical energy under specified operating conditions such as, but not limited to,

operating ambient temperature, cycling considering depth of discharge (DOD), and
maintenance practices
3.1.10
nickel cadmium battery information system

electronic system collecting and analyzing battery data to provide additional information, i.e.

information not necessary for battery operation

Note 1 to entry: Additional information can be information about e.g. condition-based maintenance.

3.1.11
battery system
battery

system that includes battery tray(s), battery crate(s), monobloc(s), electrical components

and/or equipment and associated electromechanical components and connections
3.1.12
end user
organization which operates the battery system

Note 1 to entry: The end user is normally an organization which operates the vehicle equipped with the battery

system, unless the responsibility is delegated to a main contractor or consultant.

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IEC 62973-2:2020 © IEC 2020 – 11 –
3.1.13
system integrator

organization which has the technical responsibility of the complete battery system and

charging system

Note 1 to entry: The system integrator can be the end user or the train manufacturer, or none of them.

3.1.14
manufacturer,
organization which has the technical responsibility for its scope of supply

Note 1 to entry: The manufacturer can be the train builder or the system integrator of a battery system, a cell

manufacturer, etc. If necessary to explicitly distinguish, “train manufacturer”, “battery system manufacturer” or “cell

manufacturer” is expressed.
3.2 Abbreviated terms
AC Alternating Current
C Capacity at the n-hour rate
CCCV Constant Current Constant Voltage
DC Direct Current
DOD Depth Of Discharge
EMU Electrical Multiple Unit
FEA Finite Element Analysis
LVPS Low Voltage Power Supply
NiCd Nickel Cadmium
PBE Plastic Bonded Electrode
SOC State Of Charge
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– 12 – IEC 62973-2:2020 © IEC 2020
4 General requirements
4.1 Definitions of components of a battery system, refer to Figure 1
(images are examples)
Figure 1 – Definition of NiCd cell(s), monobloc battery, crate, tray, and box

Some batteries may not include all the above components, e.g. single cells may be installed

in a tray without crates.
4.2 Definitions of NiCd battery type
4.2.1 General

A battery consists of several cells or monoblocs, and/or assembled in trays, crates, and then

assembled in a battery box. Internally, each cell has plate stacks consisting of several

positive and negative plates that are separated by a single or multilayer separator. These are

held by a supporting structure which in turn are connected to positive and negative terminals

that extend to the outside of the cell container.

The positive active material is nickel hydroxide, and the negative active material is cadmium-

hydroxide.
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IEC 62973-2:2020 © IEC 2020 – 13 –

The plate stacks are surrounded by alkaline electrolyte, an aqueous solution mainly of

potassium hydroxide (KOH), and distilled or deionized water. The electrolyte does not

participate in the electrochemical reaction, which takes place in the cell, but only acts as an

ion-carrying medium with its specific gravity remaining fairly
...

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