Electrical insulating materials used under severe ambient conditions - Test methods for evaluating resistance to tracking and erosion

IEC 60587:2022 describes two test methods for the evaluation of electrical insulating materials for use under severe ambient conditions at power frequencies (45 Hz to 65 Hz) by the evaluation of the resistance to tracking and erosion, using a liquid contaminant and inclined plane specimens. The two methods are:
- Method 1: test at constant voltage,
- Method 2: test at stepwise increased voltage.
Method 1 is the most widely used method as there is less need for continual inspection.
The test conditions are designed to accelerate the production of the effects, but do not reproduce all the conditions encountered in service.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) an improved description of the experimental methods has been implemented;
b) an improved description of the preparation of the test specimens has been implemented;
c) a more detailed description of the electrode material and of the electrode quality has been added;
d) evaluation criterion B (track length) has been removed for testing according to test method 2 (stepwise tracking voltage) as it is not applicable.

Matériaux isolants électriques utilisés dans des conditions ambiantes sévères - Méthodes d'essai pour évaluer la résistance au cheminement et à l'érosion

L'IEC 60587:2022 décrit deux méthodes d'essai pour évaluer les matériaux isolants électriques utilisés dans des conditions ambiantes sévères à des fréquences industrielles (comprises entre 45 Hz et 65 Hz), qui reposent sur l'évaluation de la résistance au cheminement et à l'érosion, à l'aide d'un contaminant liquide et d'éprouvettes plates inclinées. Les deux méthodes sont les suivantes:
- Méthode 1: essai à tension constante;
- Méthode 2: essai avec augmentation de tension par paliers.
La méthode 1 est la plus couramment utilisée, car elle nécessite moins de contrôles en continu.
Les conditions d'essai sont conçues pour accélérer la manifestation des effets, mais elles ne reproduisent pas toutes les conditions rencontrées en service.
Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
a) une description améliorée des méthodes expérimentales a été établie;
b) une description améliorée de la préparation des éprouvettes a été établie;
c) une description plus détaillée du matériau et de la qualité des électrodes a été ajoutée;
d) le critère d'évaluation B (longueur de la trace de cheminement) a été supprimé pour les essais selon la méthode d'essai 2 (tension de cheminement par paliers), car il ne s'applique pas.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Mar-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
30-Mar-2022
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IEC 60587
Edition 4.0 2022-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Electrical insulating materials used under severe ambient conditions –
Test methods for evaluating resistance to tracking and erosion
Matériaux isolants électriques utilisés dans des conditions ambiantes sévères –
Méthodes d'essai pour évaluer la résistance au cheminement et à l'érosion
IEC 60587:2022-03(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60587
Edition 4.0 2022-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Electrical insulating materials used under severe ambient conditions –
Test methods for evaluating resistance to tracking and erosion
Matériaux isolants électriques utilisés dans des conditions ambiantes sévères –
Méthodes d'essai pour évaluer la résistance au cheminement et à l'érosion
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 17.220.99; 29.035.01 ISBN 978-2-8322-1093-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60587:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 5

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 5

4 Test specimens ............................................................................................................... 6

4.1 Dimensions ............................................................................................................. 6

4.2 Preparation ............................................................................................................. 6

5 Apparatus ........................................................................................................................ 7

5.1 General ................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Electrical apparatus ................................................................................................ 7

5.3 Specimen assembly ................................................................................................ 8

5.3.1 General ........................................................................................................... 8

5.3.2 Electrodes ....................................................................................................... 9

5.3.3 Filter-paper stack ........................................................................................... 10

5.3.4 Mounting of the specimen assembly .............................................................. 11

5.4 Contaminant ......................................................................................................... 13

5.5 Timing device ....................................................................................................... 13

5.6 Depth gauge ......................................................................................................... 13

5.7 Ventilation............................................................................................................. 14

6 Test procedure .............................................................................................................. 14

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 14

6.2 Criterion A – evaluation of the current (preferred) ................................................. 14

6.3 Criterion B – evaluation of the length of the track .................................................. 14

6.4 Method 1 – test at constant voltage....................................................................... 14

6.5 Method 2 – test at stepwise increased voltage ...................................................... 15

6.6 Classification of the materials tested according to method 1 ................................. 16

6.7 Classification of the materials tested according to method 2 ................................. 16

7 Test report ..................................................................................................................... 17

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 18

Figure 1 – Test specimen with boreholes for mounting of electrodes ....................................... 6

Figure 2 – Schematic diagram of circuit .................................................................................. 8

Figure 3 – Example of typical circuit for an overcurrent delay relay (ODR) .............................. 8

Figure 4 – Schematic diagram of specimen assembly ............................................................. 9

Figure 5 – Top electrode ....................................................................................................... 10

Figure 6 – Bottom electrode .................................................................................................. 10

Figure 7 – Filter-paper .......................................................................................................... 11

Figure 8 – Schematic diagram of specimen assembly ........................................................... 11

Figure 9 – Schematic diagram of specimen support .............................................................. 12

Figure 10 – Example of specimen support............................................................................. 13

Table 1 – Specimen preparation sequence ............................................................................. 7

Table 2 – Test parameters .................................................................................................... 15

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60587:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTRICAL INSULATING MATERIALS USED
UNDER SEVERE AMBIENT CONDITIONS – TEST METHODS
FOR EVALUATING RESISTANCE TO TRACKING AND EROSION
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

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rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 60587 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 112: Evaluation and qualification of

electrical insulating materials and systems. It is an International Standard.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition published in 2007. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) an improved description of the experimental methods has been implemented;

b) an improved description of the preparation of the test specimens has been implemented;

c) a more detailed description of the electrode material and of the electrode quality has been

added;

d) evaluation criterion B (track length) has been removed for testing according to test method 2

(stepwise tracking voltage) as it is not applicable.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60587:2022 © IEC 2022
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
112/561/FDIS 112/564/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/publications.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60587:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –
ELECTRICAL INSULATING MATERIALS USED
UNDER SEVERE AMBIENT CONDITIONS – TEST METHODS
FOR EVALUATING RESISTANCE TO TRACKING AND EROSION
1 Scope

This document describes two test methods for the evaluation of electrical insulating materials

for use under severe ambient conditions at power frequencies (45 Hz to 65 Hz) by the

evaluation of the resistance to tracking and erosion, using a liquid contaminant and inclined

plane specimens. The two methods are:
– Method 1: test at constant voltage,
– Method 2: test at stepwise increased voltage.

Method 1 is the most widely used method as there is less need for continual inspection.

The test conditions are designed to accelerate the production of the effects, but do not

reproduce all the conditions encountered in service.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
track

partially conducting path created by localized deterioration on the surface of an insulating

material
3.2
tracking

progressive formation of conductive paths, which are produced on the surface or within a solid

insulating material, due to the combined effects of electric stress and electrolytic contamination

Note 1 to entry: Tracking usually occurs due to surface contamination.

Note 2 to entry: Remaining degraded materials need not necessarily remain conductive, especially after they have

cooled.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-212:2010, 212-11-56, modified – Note 2 to entry has been added.]

3.3
erosion
electrical loss of material by leakage current or electrical discharge
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60587:2022 © IEC 2022
4 Test specimens
4.1 Dimensions

Flat specimens with a size of at least (50 × 120) mm shall be used. The preferred thickness

should be 6 mm. Specimens with a different thickness may be used. Thickness shall be

mentioned in the test report.
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 1 – Test specimen with boreholes for mounting of electrodes
4.2 Preparation

The mechanical processing of the test specimens is as shown in Figure 1, to allow the

attachment of electrodes.

The specimens shall be washed with a suitable solvent (e.g. isopropyl alcohol) to remove

leftovers such as fatty residues from preparation and handling. The specimens shall then be

rinsed with distilled water.

Specimens used for evaluation with criterion B (see Clause 6) shall be marked with reference

marks on both long sides 25 mm above the upper edge of the lower electrode (Figure 1 and

Figure 8). Unless otherwise specified, the test specimens shall be conditioned for a minimum

of 24 h at (23 ± 2) °C, with (50 ± 10) % RH.

When mounting the cleaned and conditioned specimens, ensure they are not contaminated.

Good wettability of the specimen surface with the contaminant (see 5.4) is a crucial prerequisite

for this test method. The wettability shall be evaluated beforehand. If the contaminant does not

wet the surface, the specimens can be slightly abraded. Grinding should be done with a fine

(U.S. grade (CAMI): 400 mesh; European grade (FEPA): P800) aluminium-oxide- or zirconia-

alumina-abrasive, under water, until the whole surface wets. Specimens shall be properly rinsed

with distilled water after grinding. Grinding or any other type of changes of the surface shall be

mentioned in the test report.

An alternative to grinding is to increase the flow rate, temporarily, until the specimen’s surface

is properly wetted prior to switching on the test voltage.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60587:2022 © IEC 2022 – 7 –
The specimen preparation sequence is shown in Table 1.
Table 1 – Specimen preparation sequence
Step Activity
1 Mechanical processing
2 Cleaning
3 Marking if necessary
4 Conditioning
5 Mounting
6 Checking of the wettability

6.1 Improving wettability if necessary (either by grinding or by temporarily increasing the flow rate)

6.2 Rinsing with distilled water if the test specimens have been grinded followed by step 5

5 Apparatus
5.1 General

The test apparatus consists of the electrical apparatus and the specimen assemblies. These

contain a specimen each, optionally with a mounting support, the electrodes and the filter-paper

pad for feeding the contaminant.
5.2 Electrical apparatus

A schematic circuit diagram is given in Figure 2. As the test will be carried out at high voltage,

it is obviously necessary to use an earthed safety enclosure. The circuit comprises:

– a (45 to 65) Hz power supply with a sinusoidal voltage with total harmonic distortion of ≤ 5 %

and a crest factor of √2 (1 ± 0,05) which can be varied up to about 6 kV at a rated current not

less than 0,1 A for each specimen;
– the output voltage that shall be stabilized to ±5 % at rated current;
– a true RMS voltmeter with an accuracy of 1,5 % of reading;

– a 200 W resistor with ±10 % tolerance in series with each specimen at the high-voltage side

of the power supply. The resistance of the resistor shall be taken from Table 2;

– an overcurrent delay relay (see Figure 3) or any other device in series with each specimen,

which operates when (60 ± 6) mA has persisted in the high-voltage circuit for (3 ± 1) s.

If only one power supply is used for several specimens, each shall have a circuit-breaker or

similar device. This is to ensure that failures of a single specimen do not lead to a switch-off of

the test-voltage of all other specimens.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60587:2022 © IEC 2022
Key
S Power supply switch
VT Variable ratio transformer
T High voltage transformer
R Series resistor
V Voltmeter
Sp Specimen
ODR Overcurrent delay relay
Figure 2 – Schematic diagram of circuit
Key
Re Rectifier
Tr Transformer (winding 300/900 turns)
RI Relay (2 500 Ω/11 000 turns)
C Capacitor (200 µF)
Figure 3 – Example of typical circuit for an overcurrent delay relay (ODR)
5.3 Specimen assembly
5.3.1 General
A specimen assembly consists of (Figure 4):
– the test specimen, optionally with a mounting support,
– the electrodes with accessories such as screws, washers and nuts,
– a filter-paper stack for feeding the contaminant,
– a mounting.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60587:2022 © IEC 2022 – 9 –

All electrodes, fixtures and metallic assembly elements associated with the electrodes, such as

screws, shall be made of stainless steel, preferably of type 302 (18 % chromium, 8 % nickel

austenitic alloy).
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 4 – Schematic diagram of specimen assembly
5.3.2 Electrodes

Electrodes shall be made of stainless steel, preferably of type 302 (18 % chromium, 8 % nickel

austenitic alloy). The thickness of the electrode material shall be 0,5 mm. The top electrode is

shown in Figure 5. The bottom electrode is shown in Figure 6.

New electrodes shall be used for each test. For screening testing, used and reworked

electrodes can be utilized. The edges of the electrodes, especially those oriented towards the

stressed area of the specimen between the electrodes, shall be well deburred.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 60587:2022 © IEC 2022
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 5 – Top electrode
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 6 – Bottom electrode
5.3.3 Filter-paper stack

Eight layers of filter-paper with a thickness of (0,2 ± 0,02) mm, of the approximate dimensions

given in Figure 7, are clamped between the top electrode and the specimen to act as a reservoir

for the contaminant.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 60587:2022 © IEC 2022 – 11 –
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 7 – Filter-paper
5.3.4 Mounting of the specimen assembly

Mount the specimen with the surface that is to be exposed to the contaminant towards the lower

side of the specimen assembly, at an angle of (45 ± 2)° from the horizontal as shown in Figure 8,

with the electrodes (50 ± 0,5) mm apart.
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 8 – Schematic diagram of specimen assembly
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 60587:2022 © IEC 2022

The electrodes shall be mounted in such a way that there is neither a gap between the electrode

edges at the test specimen nor a deformation of the specimen surface.

The filter-paper stack acts as a reservoir for the contaminant as shown in Figure 8. The

mounting screws and the V-shaped cuts give the position of the sheets. For each test, use a

new filter-paper stack (see Figure 9). If the specimen is not self-supporting, an insulating

specimen support for the specimen shall be used. The specimen support shall be such that the

heat dissipation from the back of the sample is not hindered and the material shall be heat

resistant and electrically insulating (e.g. polytetrafluoroethylene). Figure 9 and Figure 10 show

a sketch and an example of a specimen support respectively.
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 9 – Schematic diagram of specimen support
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
IEC 60587:2022 © IEC 2022 – 13 –
Figure 10 – Example of specimen support
5.4 Contaminant

Unless otherwise specified use a contaminant with a conductivity at (23 ± 1) °C of (0,256 41 to

0,25) S/m, which can be achieved by adding approximately 0,1 % by mass of NH Cl (ammonium

chloride), consisting of

– distilled or de-ionized water and NH Cl (ammonium chloride) of analytical quality, and

– (0,02 ± 0,002) % by mass of the non-ionic wetting agent octylphenoxypolyethoxy-ethanol

(CAS number: 9002-93-1).

The contaminant shall be not more than four weeks old and its conductivity shall be checked

before each series of tests.

The rate of application of contaminant shall be that specified in Table 2, within ±10 % in relation

to the applied voltage. This is usually done by pumping the contaminant through a tube and let

it drop onto the filter-paper stack.

The contaminant shall be fed into the filter-paper stack so that a uniform flow between the top

and the bottom electrodes shall occur before voltage application.

Feeding of the contaminant onto the filter-paper stack shall be done in such a way that the

contaminant in neither the tube/reservoir, nor the feeding/pumping device is exposed to the

high voltage of the top electrode.
5.5 Timing device
A timing device with an accuracy of ±1 min/h shall be used.
5.6 Depth gauge

A depth gauge with an accuracy of ±0,01 mm shall be used. The point of the probe shall be

hemispherical with a radius of 0,25 mm. The weight of the gauge shall not have an influence

on the measuring result.
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
– 14 – IEC 60587:2022 © IEC 2022
5.7 Ventilation

The test stand or the test chamber shall allow an exhaust of steam and gaseous decomposition

products in order to avoid both condensation of steam and contamination of the surrounded

volume. Experience shows that the intensity of ventilation may influence the test result.

Especially a direct airflow onto the surface of the specimens shall be avoided.
6 Test procedure
6.1 General

Unless otherwise specified, the test shall be carried out at an ambient temperature of

(23 ± 2) °C using sets of at least five specimens for each material.
Prepare the specimen assemblies.
Mount the specimen assemblies in the test stand or test chamber.

Adjust the settings of the electrical apparatus (voltage, contaminant flow rate and series

resistor), (Table 2), depending on the chosen test voltage.

Select a criterion for determining the end point of the test. The following criteria for determining

the end point of the test are applicable.
6.2 Criterion A – evaluation of the current (preferred)

The end point of the test of a specimen is reached when the value of the current in the high

voltage circuit through the specimen exceeds 60 mA (an overcurrent device then breaks this

current not before 2 s, but after 4 s latest).

This criterion permits the use of an automatic apparatus testing several specimens

simultaneously.
Any specimen that ignites during the test counts as "failed" as well.

Any specimen that shows a hole (perforation) due to erosion counts as "failed", no matter

whether the hole becomes visible during the test or after the removal of the eroded material.

6.3 Criterion B – evaluation of the length of the track
The end point is reached wh
...

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