Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems - Part 2: Guidance on manufacturing requirements relating to non-laser optical radiation safety

IEC/TR 62471-2:2009(E) provides the basis for optical radiation safety requirements of non-laser products, serving as a guide for development of safety requirements in vertical product standards and assisting lamp system manufacturers in the interpretation of safety information provided by the lamp manufacturers. This report provides guidance on:
- requirements for optical radiation safety assessment;
- allocation of safety measures;
- labelling of products.
This technical report does not address safety requirements of intentional exposure to optical radiation from sun tanning equipment, ophthalmic instruments or other medical/cosmetic devices whose specific safety issues are addressed through appropriate standards.

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IEC/TR 62471-2
Edition 1.0 2009-08
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems –
Part 2: Guidance on manufacturing requirements relating to non-laser optical
radiation safety
IEC/TR 62471-2:2009(E)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC/TR 62471-2
Edition 1.0 2009-08
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems –
Part 2: Guidance on manufacturing requirements relating to non-laser optical
radiation safety
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
PRICE CODE
ICS 29.140 ISBN 978-2-88910-736-0
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – 62471-2/TR © IEC:2009(E)
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................4

INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................6

1 Scope...............................................................................................................................7

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................7

3 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................7

4 Risk groups applied for optical radiation safety assessments..........................................10

4.1 Basis for optical radiation safety classification.......................................................10

4.2 Assessment criteria ...............................................................................................10

4.3 Application-related issues .....................................................................................10

4.3.1 Near-infrared sources................................................................................10

4.3.2 “Point sources” ..........................................................................................11

4.3.3 Application-related vertical standards ........................................................11

5 Guidelines for lamp and lamp system manufacturers on how to apply IEC 62471 ...........11

5.1 Limit values...........................................................................................................11

5.1.1 General .....................................................................................................11

5.1.2 Limits provided in irradiance/radiant exposure ...........................................12

5.1.3 Limits provided in (time integrated) radiance .............................................12

5.2 Guidelines for lamp/LED manufacturers ................................................................12

5.2.1 General .....................................................................................................12

5.2.2 Measurement conditions............................................................................12

5.2.3 User information ........................................................................................13

5.3 Guidelines for lamp system/luminaire manufacturers .............................................13

5.3.1 General .....................................................................................................13

5.3.2 Sources for general lighting service (GLS).................................................13

5.3.3 Multi-purpose lamps ..................................................................................14

5.3.4 Determination of the hazard distance.........................................................14

5.4 Labelling ...............................................................................................................15

5.5 Other information provisions..................................................................................16

6 Allocation of safety measures .........................................................................................17

6.1 General .................................................................................................................17

6.2 Maximum acceptable viewer-related risk ...............................................................18

Annex A (informative) Radiance and ocular hazards from extended sources........................20

Annex B (informative) Determination of hazard distances ....................................................26

Annex C (informative) Sources for general lighting service (GLS) ........................................36

Annex D (informative) Lamps and lamp systems with integrated, attached beam-

shaping or projection optics...........................................................................................41

Bibliography..........................................................................................................................45

Figure 1 – Example of graphic presentation of distant dependent emission hazard

values...................................................................................................................................15

Figure 2 – Example of warning label for a lamp with multiple hazard spectral regions ...........17

Figure A.1 – Invariance of radiance with distance from an extended source..........................21

Figure A.2 – Usual measurement conditions for the determination of radiance and time

integrated radiance ...............................................................................................................

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62471-2/TR © IEC:2009(E) – 3 –

Figure A.3a – Source size larger than the FOV (overfilled)....................................................23

Figure A.3b – Source size smaller than the FOV (under-filled) ..............................................23

Figure A.3 – Source sizes.....................................................................................................23

Figure A.4 – B(λ)-weighted radiance distribution of a state-of-the-art “pc-white” LED

component............................................................................................................................24

Figure B.1 – Normalized correlation between radiance L and corresponding irradiance

E for varying values of source diameter and distance ...........................................................27

Figure B.2 – Direct intra-beam viewing of an arc searchlight showing a magnification of

the actual arc........................................................................................................................29

Figure B.3 – Calculated flash distance of LEDs depending on the individual half

intensity angle θ of the spatial emission................................................................................30

Figure B.4 – Actinic UV-related safe use conditions for the example radiator ........................32

Figure B.5 – Distance-dependant (spectrally weighted) Exempt Risk Group limits for

the spatially averaged radiance of a halogen lamp of 7 mm source size................................34

Figure C.1 – Measured spatially averaged radiance..............................................................37

Figure C.2 – Relationships between illuminance of 500 lux and source luminance

[cd/m ] (indicated) for several source sizes and distances of some typical luminances..........38

Figure D.1 – Ultraviolet and infrared filtering by projection optics..........................................41

Figure D.2 – Magnified apparent source size of the filament in an incandescent

projection lamp .....................................................................................................................42

Figure D.3 – Examples of projection optics ...........................................................................42

Figure D.4 – Formation of a virtual LED chip image by the integrated lens...........................43

Figure D.5 – Imaging of the apparent source and measurement condition for the

assessment of sources with built-in or attached projection optics..........................................43

Table 1 – Hazard-related risk group labelling of lamp systems..............................................16

Table 2 – Explanation of labelling information and guidance on control measures.................17

Table 3 – Maximum acceptable risk group of products assessed for viewer-related risk

under application specific conditions.....................................................................................19

Table B.1 – Spatially averaged radiance ...............................................................................35

Table C.1 – Risk group-related inverse square law and hazard distances .............................37

Table C.2 – Risk group-related hazard distances (in m) for halogen lamp of 7 mm
7 -2

source diameter and with luminance of 3 × 10 cd⋅m .........................................................39

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– 4 – 62471-2/TR © IEC:2009(E)
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PHOTOBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF LAMPS AND LAMP SYSTEMS –
Part 2: Guidance on manufacturing requirements
relating to non-laser optical radiation safety
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

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3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

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6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

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members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

technical committee may propose the publication of a technical report when it has collected

data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard, for

example "state of the art".

IEC 62471-2, which is a technical report, has been prepared by Technical Committee 76:

Optical radiation safety and laser equipment
The text of this technical report is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
76/396/DTR 76/410/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
62471-2/TR © IEC:2009(E) – 5 –

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts of the IEC 62471 series, published under the general title Photobiological

safety of lamps and lamp systems, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in

the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The “colour inside” logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this publication using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – 62471-2/TR © IEC:2009(E)
INTRODUCTION

Optical radiation hazards from all types of lamps or other broadband light sources are

assessed by the application of IEC 62471:2006 (Edition 1), Photobiological safety of lamps

and lamp systems. IEC 62471 covers LEDs as well as incandescent, low and high pressure

gas-discharge, arc and other lamps. It also covers electrically-powered optical radiation

sources that are not lamps. The standard provides a risk group classification system for all

lamps and lamp systems, and the measurement conditions are well developed. IEC 62471

does not include manufacturing or user safety requirements that may be required as a result

of a lamp or lamp system being assigned to a particular risk group. The safety requirements

for lamp systems necessarily vary and are best dealt with in vertical standards. This Part 2

provides the basis for safety requirements dependent upon risk group classification and

examples thereof. The assigned risk group of a product may be used to assist with risk

assessments, e.g. for occupational exposure in workplaces. National requirements may exist

for the assessment of products or occupational exposure.

NOTE 1 There are some instances where the IEC 60825 laser product standards may be useful for a nearly

“point” source, as in an LED fibre source or a superluminescent diode (see 3.16).

NOTE 2 IEC 62471 is currently being revised and will be published as IEC 62471-1.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
62471-2/TR © IEC:2009(E) – 7 –
PHOTOBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF LAMPS AND LAMP SYSTEMS –
Part 2: Guidance on manufacturing requirements
relating to non-laser optical radiation safety
1 Scope

This technical report provides the basis for optical radiation safety requirements of non-laser

products, serving as a guide for development of safety requirements in vertical product

standards and assisting lamp system manufacturers in the interpretation of safety information

provided by the lamp manufacturers.
This report provides guidance on:
• requirements for optical radiation safety assessment;
• allocation of safety measures;
• labelling of products.

This technical report does not address safety requirements of intentional exposure to optical

radiation from sun tanning equipment, ophthalmic instruments or other medical/cosmetic

devices whose specific safety issues are addressed through appropriate standards.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
IEC 62471, Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems
IEC 60825 (all parts), Safety of laser products
IEC 60050-845, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Chapter 845: Lighting
IEC 60417, Graphical symbols for use on equipment
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions of IEC 62471 and the following

additional terms and definitions apply.
3.1
controlled access location

location where an engineering and/or administrative control measure is established to restrict

access except to authorised personnel with appropriate safety training
3.2
exposure hazard value
EHV
value defined as follows:
Exposure level (distance,exposure time)
EHV (distance,exposure time) =
Exposure limit value
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– 8 – 62471-2/TR © IEC:2009(E)

The EHV is greater than 1 when the exposure level (3.3) exceeds the exposure limit value

(3.4)
3.3
exposure level
level of exposure from a source at a location in space for a stated duration
3.4
exposure limit value
ELV

maximum level of exposure of optical radiation to the eye or skin that is not expected to result

in adverse biological effects. These ELVs are used to determine hazard distances in respect

to foreseeable photobiological effects
3.5
hazard distance

distance from the source at which the EL equals the appropriate exposure limit value (ELV)

3.6
intended viewing

deliberate act of an individual to either look at a source of optical radiation or at a virtual

source, such as a reflection
3.7
intended use

usage of a product, process or service in accordance with specifications, instructions and

information provided by the manufacturer or supplier
3.8
lamp

electrically powered device emitting optical radiation in the wavelength range between 200 nm

and 3 000 nm, with the exception of laser radiation
3.9
lamp system

electrically operated product incorporating a lamp or lamps, including fixtures and

incorporated electrical or electronic components, generally as intended by the manufacturer to

be used (for illumination purposes - luminaire)

NOTE 1 Lamp systems may include diffusers, enclosures and/or beam modifying optics.

NOTE 2 For the purpose of this technical report, a lamp system may incorporate a lamp that does not serve as the

primary function of the product, e.g. an indicator lamp or an illumination lamp inside a refrigerator.

3.10
modifying optics

optical components, such as filters, lenses and reflectors, which change the characteristics of

the optical radiation from a lamp when incorporated into a lamp system
3.11
non-laser optical radiation

incoherent optical radiation generated by a process other than stimulated emission

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62471-2/TR © IEC:2009(E) – 9 –
3.12
restricted access location

location which is normally inaccessible by the general public, including workers, visitors and

residents in the immediate vicinity, by means of engineering or administrative control

measures but is accessible to authorised personnel that may not have specific safety training

3.13
small source

source or apparent source with an angular subtense smaller than the angle of acceptance γ

that should be applied according to a risk assessment or classification.

NOTE This may result in the spatially averaged radiance (3.15) of a source or apparent source being averaged

over a larger area than would be applied for the source radiance (3.14).
3.14
source radiance

radiance of the emitting element of the source (see IEV 845-01-34). However, the applicable

acceptance angle should not be smaller than 1,7 mrad
Symbol: L
NOTE It is defined to differentiate from spatially averaged radiance (3.15).
3.15
spatially averaged radiance

radiance spatially averaged over a given angle of acceptance to account for physiological

factors such as eye-movements (sometimes referred to as “physiological radiance”). The

spatially average radiance may be lower than the source radiance (see 3.14)
Symbol: L
3.16
superluminescent diode

edge-emitting semiconductor light source based on superluminescence. It combines the high

power and brightness of laser diodes with the low coherence of conventional light-emitting

diodes. Its emission band is 20 nm to 100 nm wide
3.17
unintentional viewing
condition when eye exposure to optical radiation is not intended
3.18
unintentional skin exposure
condition when skin exposure to optical radiation is not intended
3.19
viewer-related risk

risk for intended or unintended viewers of a source under application-specific realistic

conditions

NOTE In order to be independent of the use condition, the risk group classification of lamps and lamp systems is

based on worst case assumptions of exposure duration, pupil size and viewing distance. However, the emission of

lamps is often divergent and when a lamp is integrated into a product, depending on product design and its

application, these assessment conditions may become inappropriate. In this case, the product may be assessed at

the minimum distance and maximum exposure duration representative for the application-specific conditions of

foreseeable access.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – 62471-2/TR © IEC:2009(E)
4 Risk groups applied for optical radiation safety assessments
4.1 Basis for optical radiation safety classification

IEC 62471 provides the method to determine the risk group of any lamp or any product

incorporating a lamp. The risk groups in IEC 62471 indicate the degree of risk from potential

optical radiation hazards and minimise the need for further measurements. The risk groups

were developed based upon decades of lamp use experience and the analysis of accidental

injuries related to optical radiation emission (where injuries were, generally, quite rare except

from ultraviolet-emitting lamps or arc lamps). There are four basic risk groups:

• Exempt Group (RG 0), where no optical hazard is considered reasonably foreseeable,

even for continuous, unrestricted use. Typical examples are most frosted incandescent

lamps and fluorescent lamps used in domestic applications;

• Risk Group 1 (RG 1) products are safe for most use applications, except for very

prolonged exposures where direct ocular exposures may be expected. An example of a

Risk Group 1 product is a domestic battery operated torch (flashlight);

• Risk Group 2 (RG 2) products generally do not pose a realistic optical hazard if aversion

responses limit the exposure duration or where lengthy exposures are unrealistic;

• Risk Group 3 (RG 3) products pose a potential hazard even for momentary exposures, and

system safety requirements are generally essential.

IEC 62471 does not provide manufacturing requirements and control measures. These issues

should be addressed in application-specific vertical standards (see 4.3.3). However, in order

to provide a consistent approach across products, the (non-normative) labelling requirements

are outlined in this technical report (see 5.4).
4.2 Assessment criteria

The standard measurement conditions consider the emission spectrum and, depending on the

type of hazard, either irradiance or spatially averaged radiance to determine risk to the eye

and/or the skin. The measurement conditions are related to potentially hazardous viewing

conditions and take into consideration physiological factors of the eye, such as
accommodation, pupil size, the aversion responses and eye movements (saccades).

IEC 62471 distinguishes between lamps intended for general lighting service (GLS) and lamps

intended for use in other applications such as for germicidal use, heating, signalling, data

transfer or others. Assessment and measurement conditions are different for these two

groups:

• GLS - the hazard values should be quoted as irradiance or spatially averaged radiance

values at a distance which produces an illuminance of 500 lux;

• other applications – the hazard values should be determined at a distance of 200 mm from

the source.

Different application groups define a range of operational, maintenance and servicing

conditions. If the assessment applied to different application groups in a vertical standard

justifies it, the measurement conditions in IEC 62471 can be modified for specific application

groups.
4.3 Application-related issues
4.3.1 Near-infrared sources

The limits set for the infrared (IR) spectral region were originally intended for applications of

large IR-radiators with a significant amount of IR-A and IR-B radiation. The limits protect the

cornea or lens of the eye against long-term thermal effects (e.g. cataract). Thus, the limits

should be applied where the application is likely to result in chronic and lengthy exposures of

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
62471-2/TR © IEC:2009(E) – 11 –

the eye for periods greater than 1 000 s and the daily averaged irradiance is expected to be at

. -2

least 100 W m . The primary objective is to minimise heating of the lens and cornea.

4.3.2 “Point sources”

There may be a small number of applications where an incoherent optical radiation source

appears as a nearly monochromatic “point” source and should be considered within a laser

safety standard framework. Generally, this will only apply to: superluminescent diodes (SLDs)

(see 3.16), which resemble “point sources”; and LEDs which are employed in optical fibre

communications, where the fibre source also resembles a very small, or “point” source. The

user is referred to IEC 60825-1 for SLDs and to IEC 60825-2 for optical fibre communication

systems.
4.3.3 Application-related vertical standards
The requirements in vertical standards may:
– limit the source risk group that can be used in a given application;

– require specific performance features based upon the risk group specifications; or

– specify application-specific control measures.

Basic guidance, based on the likelihood of direct source viewing, is provided in Clause 6.

Vertical standards should be guided by the principle that it is not necessary to reduce optical

radiation exposure
...

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