Communication networks and systems for power utility automation - Part 90-12: Wide area network engineering guidelines

IEC TR 61850-90-12:2020, which is a Technical Report, is intended for an audience familiar with electrical power automation based on IEC 61850 and related power system management, and particularly for data network engineers and system integrators. It is intended to help them to understand the technologies, configure a wide area network, define requirements, write specifications, select components, and conduct tests.
This document provides definitions, guidelines, and recommendations for the engineering of WANs, in particular for protection, control and monitoring based on IEC 61850 and related standards.
This document addresses substation-to-substation communication, substation-to-control centre, and control centre-to-control centre communication. In particular, this document addresses the most critical aspects of IEC 61850 such as protection related data transmission via GOOSE and SMVs, and the multicast transfer of large volumes of synchrophasor data.
The document addresses issues such as topology, redundancy, traffic latency and quality of service, traffic management, clock synchronization, security, and maintenance of the network.
This document contains use cases that show how utilities tackle their WAN engineering. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2015. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) extension of use case with respect to distribution and customer-side applications;
b) extensions of wireless access technologies as well as power line communication ones applicable to the above-mentioned use case;
c) revisions regarding radio communication technology performance;
d) extension of network migration with respect to packet switched network;
e) a new mapping of multiprotocol label switching technology to teleprotection.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Jul-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
28-Jul-2020
Ref Project

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IEC TR 61850-90-12
Edition 2.0 2020-07
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Communication networks and systems for power utility automation –
Part 90-12: Wide area network engineering guidelines
IEC TR 61850-90-12:2020-07 (en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TR 61850-90-12
Edition 2.0 2020-07
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Communication networks and systems for power utility automation –
Part 90-12: Wide area network engineering guidelines
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.200 ISBN 978-2-8322-8657-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 61850-90-12:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 12

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 14

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 16

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 16

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms, acronyms, and symbols ...................................... 21

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 21

3.2 Abbreviated terms and acronyms .......................................................................... 25

3.3 Network diagram symbols ..................................................................................... 34

4 Wide area communication in electrical utilities ............................................................... 36

4.1 Executive summary ............................................................................................... 36

4.2 Network and application example: ENDESA, Andalusia (Spain) ............................ 38

4.3 Typical interface between a substation and the WAN ............................................ 40

4.4 WAN characteristics and actors ............................................................................ 41

4.5 Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM) Mapping .................................................. 42

4.6 Network elements and voltage level ...................................................................... 44

4.7 WAN interfaces in substation automation (IEC 61850-5) ....................................... 45

4.8 Logical interfaces and protocols in the architecture in IEC TR 62357-200 ............. 46

4.9 Network traffic and ownership ............................................................................... 47

5 WAN metrics ................................................................................................................. 48

5.1 Traffic types .......................................................................................................... 48

5.2 Quality of Service (QoS) of TDM and PSN ............................................................ 48

5.3 Latency calculation ............................................................................................... 48

5.3.1 Latency components ...................................................................................... 48

5.3.2 Propagation delay .......................................................................................... 49

5.3.3 Residence delay ............................................................................................ 49

5.3.4 Latency accumulation .................................................................................... 49

5.3.5 Example: latency of a microwave system ....................................................... 49

5.3.6 Latency and determinism ............................................................................... 50

5.3.7 Latency classes in IEC 61850-5 ..................................................................... 50

5.4 Jitter ..................................................................................................................... 52

5.4.1 Jitter definition ............................................................................................... 52

5.4.2 Jitter classes in IEC 61850 ............................................................................ 53

5.5 Latency symmetry and path congruency ............................................................... 53

5.6 Medium asymmetry ............................................................................................... 53

5.7 Communication speed symmetry ........................................................................... 54

5.8 Recovery delay ..................................................................................................... 54

5.9 Time accuracy ...................................................................................................... 54

5.9.1 Time accuracy definition ................................................................................ 54

5.9.2 Time accuracy classes................................................................................... 55

5.10 Tolerance against failures ..................................................................................... 56

5.10.1 Failure ........................................................................................................... 56

5.10.2 Reliability....................................................................................................... 57

5.10.3 Redundancy principles................................................................................... 57

5.10.4 Redundancy and reliability ............................................................................. 58

5.10.5 Redundancy checking .................................................................................... 59

5.10.6 Redundant layout: single point of failure ........................................................ 59

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IEC TR 61850-90-12:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –

5.10.7 Redundant layout: cross-redundancy ............................................................. 60

5.10.8 Maintainability ............................................................................................... 61

5.10.9 Availability ..................................................................................................... 61

5.10.10 Integrity ......................................................................................................... 63

5.10.11 Dependability ................................................................................................. 64

5.10.12 Example: Dependability of GOOSE transmission ........................................... 64

6 Use cases and WAN communication requirements ........................................................ 65

6.1 List of generic use cases ...................................................................................... 65

6.2 Teleprotection (IF2 & IF11) ................................................................................... 66

6.2.1 Teleprotection schemes ................................................................................. 66

6.2.2 Teleprotection data kinds ............................................................................... 66

6.2.3 Current differential teleprotection for multi-terminal transmission line ............ 66

6.2.4 Teleprotection communication requirements .................................................. 67

6.3 Wide area monitoring system (IF13) ...................................................................... 69

6.3.1 WAMS overview ............................................................................................ 69

6.3.2 WAMS topology ............................................................................................. 70

6.3.3 WAMS communication requirements .............................................................. 72

6.4 Wide area monitoring, protection, and control (WAMPAC) IF13 ............................. 74

6.4.1 Functional description .................................................................................... 74

6.4.2 WAMPAC communication requirements ......................................................... 76

6.5 Fault Location ....................................................................................................... 76

6.5.1 Functional description .................................................................................... 76

6.5.2 Fault location communication requirements ................................................... 78

6.6 Distribution Automation ......................................................................................... 78

6.6.1 Functional description .................................................................................... 78

6.6.2 Distribution automation communication requirements .................................... 79

6.7 Condition monitoring and diagnostics (CMD) and asset management (IF7) ........... 80

6.7.1 Functional description .................................................................................... 80

6.7.2 CMD communication requirements ................................................................ 80

6.8 Telecontrol (SCADA) ............................................................................................. 81

6.8.1 Functional description .................................................................................... 81

6.8.2 Telecontrol communication requirements ....................................................... 81

6.9 Control centre to control centre (IF12) .................................................................. 82

6.9.1 Functional description .................................................................................... 82

6.9.2 Inter control centre communication requirements ........................................... 83

6.10 Smart metering / advanced metering infrastructure ............................................... 84

6.10.1 Functional description .................................................................................... 84

6.10.2 Smart metering communication requirements ................................................ 84

6.11 WAN communication requirements summary ........................................................ 85

7 Wide-area and real-time network technologies............................................................... 86

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 86

7.2 Topology ............................................................................................................... 86

7.3 Overview............................................................................................................... 87

7.4 Layer 1 (physical) transmission media .................................................................. 89

7.4.1 Summary ....................................................................................................... 89

7.4.2 Installation guidelines .................................................................................... 89

7.4.3 Metallic lines ................................................................................................. 89

7.4.4 Power line carrier (PLC) ................................................................................ 91

7.4.5 Radio transmission ...................................................................................... 101

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– 4 – IEC TR 61850-90-12:2020 © IEC 2020

7.4.6 Fibre optics.................................................................................................. 112

7.4.7 Layer 1 redundancy ..................................................................................... 118

7.4.8 Application example: diverse redundancy against extreme

contingencies (Hydro-Quebec) ..................................................................... 119

7.4.9 Layer 1 security ........................................................................................... 120

7.5 Layer 1,5 (physical) multiplexing ......................................................................... 120

7.6 Layer 2 (link) technologies .................................................................................. 121

7.6.1 Telephony technologies ............................................................................... 121

7.6.2 SDH/SONET ................................................................................................ 123

7.6.3 Optical Transport Network ........................................................................... 133

7.6.4 Ethernet ...................................................................................................... 135

7.6.5 Ethernet over TDM ...................................................................................... 144

7.6.6 Carrier Ethernet ........................................................................................... 146

7.6.7 Audio-video bridging .................................................................................... 147

7.6.8 Provider Backbone Bridge (PBB) ................................................................. 147

7.6.9 Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) .......................................................... 149

7.7 Layer 3 (network) technologies ........................................................................... 157

7.7.1 Internet Protocol (IP) ................................................................................... 157

7.7.2 IP QoS......................................................................................................... 167

7.7.3 IP multicast.................................................................................................. 170

7.7.4 IP redundancy ............................................................................................. 171

7.7.5 IP security ................................................................................................... 171

7.7.6 IP communication for utilities ....................................................................... 173

7.7.7 IP summary ................................................................................................. 175

7.8 Layer 4 (transport) protocols ............................................................................... 176

7.8.1 Transport layer encapsulation ...................................................................... 176

7.8.2 UDP ............................................................................................................ 176

7.8.3 TCP ............................................................................................................. 177

7.8.4 Layer 4 redundancy ..................................................................................... 178

7.8.5 Layer 4 security ........................................................................................... 178

7.9 Layer 5 (session) and higher ............................................................................... 178

7.9.1 Session layer ............................................................................................... 178

7.9.2 Routable GOOSE and SMV ......................................................................... 179

7.9.3 Example: C37.118 transmission ................................................................... 179

7.9.4 Session protocol for voice and video transmission ....................................... 180

7.9.5 Application interface redundancy ................................................................. 180

7.9.6 Application device redundancy .................................................................... 181

7.10 Protocol overlay – tunnelling ............................................................................... 181

7.10.1 Definitions ................................................................................................... 181

7.10.2 Tunnelling principle ..................................................................................... 182

7.10.3 Tunnelling Layer 2 over Layer 3 ................................................................... 182

7.10.4 Application Example: Tunnelling GOOSE and SMV in IEC 61850 ................ 183

7.11 Virtual private networks (VPNs) .......................................................................... 184

7.11.1 VPN principles ............................................................................................. 184

7.11.2 L2VPNs ....................................................................................................... 184

7.11.3 L2VPN multicast on MPLS ........................................................................... 186

7.11.4 L3VPN ......................................................................................................... 186

7.11.5 VPN mapping to application ......................................................................... 188

7.12 Cyber security ..................................................................................................... 192

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IEC TR 61850-90-12:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –

7.12.1 Security circles ............................................................................................ 192

7.12.2 Network security .......................................................................................... 193

7.12.3 Access control ............................................................................................. 195

7.12.4 Threat detection and mitigation. ................................................................... 195

7.12.5 Security architecture .................................................................................... 199

7.12.6 Application (end-to-end) communication security ......................................... 200

7.12.7 Security for synchrophasor (PMU) networks (IEC TR 61850-90-5) ............... 201

7.12.8 Additional recommendations ........................................................................ 202

7.13 QoS and application-specific engineering............................................................ 202

7.13.1 General ....................................................................................................... 202

7.13.2 SDH/SONET QoS and SLA .......................................................................... 202

7.13.3 PSN QoS and SLA ....................................................................................... 202

7.13.4 Application and priority ................................................................................ 203

7.13.5 QoS chain between networks ....................................................................... 203

7.13.6 QoS mapping between networks .................................................................. 204

7.13.7 QoS engineering .......................................................................................... 205

7.13.8 Customer restrictions ................................................................................... 206

7.13.9 Clock services ............................................................................................. 206

7.14 Configuration and OAM ....................................................................................... 206

7.14.1 Network configuration .................................................................................. 206

7.14.2 OAM ............................................................................................................ 206

7.15 Time synchronization .......................................................................................... 208

7.15.1 Oscillator stability ........................................................................................ 208

7.15.2 Mutual synchronization ................................................................................ 209

7.15.3 Direct synchronization ................................................................................. 209

7.15.4 Radio synchronization ................................................................................. 210

7.15.5 GNSS synchronization ................................................................................. 210

7.15.6 Frequency distribution ................................................................................. 210

7.15.7 Time distribution .......................................................................................... 212

7.15.8 PTP telecommunication profiles ................................................................... 218

7.15.9 PTP over MPLS ........................................................................................... 219

7.15.10 Comparison of time distribution profiles based on IEC 61588 ....................... 219

7.15.11 Application example: synchrophasor time synchronization ........................... 220

7.15.12 Application example: Atomic clock hierarchy ................................................ 221

8 Technology mapping to applications ............................................................................ 222

8.1 Overview............................................................................................................. 222

8.2 Current differential teleprotection for multi-terminal transmission lines ................ 222

8.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 222

8.2.2 Deterministic fibre-optic PDH loop network .................................................. 223

8.2.3 Dedicated Gigabit Ethernet network ............................................................. 223

8.2.4 Carrier Ethernet with wide-area time synchronization................................... 224

8.2.5 MPLS based wide area network ................................................................... 225

8.3 Wide area monitoring, protection, and control (WAMPAC) ................................... 227

8.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 227

8.3.2 Wide area stabilizing control using legacy network ...................................... 227

8.3.3 PMU-based WAMPAC using time-synchronized Layer 2 and Layer 3

network........................................................................................................ 229

8.4 Fault location ...................................................................................................... 231

8.5 SCADA and facility maintenance ......................................................................... 232

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– 6 – IEC TR 61850-90-12:2020 © IEC 2020

8.6 Distribution automation ....................................................................................... 234

8.7 Smart metering ................................................................................................... 234

9 Network migration ........................................................................................................ 237

9.1 TDM to packet switched network ......................................................................... 237

9.1.1 General ....................................................................................................... 237

9.1.2 Overview ..................................................................................................... 237

9.1.3 Drivers for network migration ....................................................................... 237

9.1.4 Considerations for network migration ........................................................... 238

9.1.5 Migration concepts ...................................................................................... 240

9.1.6 Implementation details ................................................................................. 246

9.2 From IPv4 to IPv6 ............................................................................................... 250

9.2.1 IPv4 to IPv6 evolution .................................................................................. 250

9.2.2 IPv4 to IPv6 migration ................................................................................. 250

9.2.3 IEC 61850 stack with IPv4 and IPv6 ............................................................ 251

Annex A (informative) Future promising or upcoming technologies ..................................... 252

A.1 5G ...................................................................................................................... 252

A.1.1 General ....................................................................................................... 252

A.1.2 Different performance requirements ............................................................. 253

A.2 Deterministic networking technologies ................................................................ 256

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 257

Figure 1 – Symbols ............................................................................................................... 35

Figure 2 – Substation locations in Andalusia ......................................................................... 38

Figure 3 – Topology of the Andalusia network ....................................................................... 39

Figure 4 – Cabinet of a substation edge node ....................................................................... 40

Figure 5 – Communication interfaces in a SEN ..................................................................... 41

Figure 6 – Communicating entities ........................................................................................ 42

Figure 7 – SGAM communication model................................................................................ 43

Figure 8 – Principle of grid voltage level and network technology .......................................... 44

Figure 9 – Communication paths and interfaces .................................................................... 45

Figure 10 – IEC TR 62357 Interfaces, protocols, and applications......................................... 46

Figure 11 – Composition of end-to-end latency in a microwave relay .................................... 49

Figure 12 – Example of latency in function of traffic .............................................................. 50

Figure 13 – Jitter for two communication delay types ............................................................ 52

Figure 14 – Preci
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