Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes - Vented nickel-cadmium prismatic rechargeable single cells

IEC 60623:2017 is also available as IEC 60623:2017 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60623:2017 specifies marking, designation, dimensions, tests and requirements for vented nickel-cadmium prismatic secondary single cells. When there exists an IEC standard specifying test conditions and requirements for cells used in special applications and which is in conflict with this document, the former takes precedence.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- optional characterization of cells designed for performances at very low and/or very high temperature;
- optional characterization of cells tested with CCCV charge;
- optional characterization of cells designed for rapid charge;
- optional characterization of cells designed for high cycling.

Accumulateurs alcalins et autres accumulateurs à électrolyte non acide - Eléments individuels parallélépipédiques rechargeables ouverts au nickel-cadmium

IEC 60623:2017 est disponible sous forme de IEC 60623:2017 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.
L'IEC 60623:2017 spécifie le marquage, la désignation, les dimensions, les essais et les exigences applicables aux éléments individuels parallélépipédiques rechargeables, ouverts, au nickel-cadmium. En cas d'existence d'une norme IEC spécifiant des conditions d'essai et des exigences pour des éléments destinés à des applications particulières, et qui serait en contradiction avec le présent document, la publication particulière est appliquée en priorité.
Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
- caractérisation facultative d'éléments conçus pour des performances à très basse et/ou très haute température;
- caractérisation facultative d'éléments soumis aux essais avec des charges CCCV;
- caractérisation facultative d'éléments conçus pour une charge rapide;
- caractérisation facultative d'éléments conçus pour des cyclages élevés.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
22-Jan-2017
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
23-Jan-2017
Ref Project

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IEC 60623
Edition 5.0 2017-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid
electrolytes – Vented nickel-cadmium prismatic rechargeable single cells
Accumulateurs alcalins ou autres accumulateurs à électrolyte non acide –
Éléments individuels parallélépipédiques rechargeables ouverts au nickel-
cadmium
IEC 60623:2017-01(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60623
Edition 5.0 2017-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid
electrolytes – Vented nickel-cadmium prismatic rechargeable single cells
Accumulateurs alcalins ou autres accumulateurs à électrolyte non acide –
Éléments individuels parallélépipédiques rechargeables ouverts au nickel-
cadmium
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.220.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-3788-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60623:2017  IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Parameter measurement tolerances ................................................................................ 7

5 Designation and marking ................................................................................................. 7

5.1 Cell designation (mandatory) .................................................................................. 7

5.2 Cell designation (optional) ...................................................................................... 8

5.3 Cell termination ....................................................................................................... 8

5.4 Marking ................................................................................................................... 8

5.5 Safety recommendations ......................................................................................... 8

6 Dimensions...................................................................................................................... 9

7 Electrical tests ............................................................................................................... 10

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

7.2 Charging procedure for test purposes ................................................................... 10

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 10

7.2.2 Charge procedure based on constant current ................................................ 11

7.2.3 Charge procedure based on constant voltage at a given current .................... 11

7.2.4 Rapid charge current ..................................................................................... 11

7.3 Discharge performances ....................................................................................... 11

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 11

7.3.2 Discharge performance at 20 °C .................................................................... 11

7.3.3 Discharge performance at +5 °C .................................................................... 12

7.3.4 Discharge performance at –18 °C .................................................................. 13

7.3.5 Discharge performance at low temperature .................................................... 13

7.3.6 Discharge performance at high temperature .................................................. 14

7.3.7 High rate current test ..................................................................................... 15

7.4 Charge retention ................................................................................................... 16

7.5 Endurance ............................................................................................................ 16

7.5.1 Test conditions .............................................................................................. 16

7.5.2 Endurance in cycles....................................................................................... 16

7.6 Charge acceptance at constant voltage ................................................................. 17

7.7 Vent plug operation ............................................................................................... 18

7.8 Electrolyte retention test ....................................................................................... 18

7.8.1 General ......................................................................................................... 18

7.8.2 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 18

7.8.3 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 18

7.9 Storage ................................................................................................................. 18

8 Mechanical tests ............................................................................................................ 18

9 Physical appearance ..................................................................................................... 18

10 Conditions for approval and acceptance ........................................................................ 19

10.1 Type approval ....................................................................................................... 19

10.2 Batch acceptance ................................................................................................. 19

Annex A (normative) CCCV charge methodology ................................................................. 21

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 24

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60623:2017  IEC 2017 – 3 –

Figure 1 – Example of a vented prismatic cell in steel container with two terminals

and four lugs ........................................................................................................................... 9

Figure A.1 – Overview of charging characteristic of Ni-Cd ..................................................... 22

Table 1 – Dimensions for vented nickel-cadmium prismatic cells in steel containers .............. 9

Table 2 – Dimensions for vented nickel-cadmium prismatic cells in plastic containers .......... 10

Table 3 – Measurement tolerances in millimetres (valid for widths and lengths) ................... 10

Table 4 – Maximum values for rapid charge current R ........................................................... 11

Table 5 – Discharge performance at 20 °C ............................................................................ 12

Table 6 – Discharge performance at +5 °C ............................................................................ 12

Table 7 – Discharge performance at –18 °C .......................................................................... 13

Table 8 – Discharge performance at low temperature ........................................................... 14

Table 9 – Discharge performance at high temperature .......................................................... 15

Table 10 – High currents values ............................................................................................ 15

Table 11 – Endurance in cycles ............................................................................................ 16

Table 12 – Constant voltage charging conditions .................................................................. 17

Table 13 – Charge time......................................................................................................... 17

Table 14 – Sequence of tests for type approval .................................................................... 19

Table 15 – Recommended test sequence for batch acceptance ............................................ 20

Table A.1 – Ni-Cd batteries charging characteristics ............................................................. 22

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60623:2017  IEC 2017
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SECONDARY CELLS AND BATTERIES CONTAINING
ALKALINE OR OTHER NON-ACID ELECTROLYTES –
VENTED NICKEL-CADMIUM PRISMATIC RECHARGEABLE SINGLE CELLS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60623 has been prepared by subcommittee 21A: Secondary cells

and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes, of IEC technical committee

21: Secondary cells and batteries.

This fifth edition cancels and replaces the fourth edition published in 2001 and constitutes a

technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

– optional characterization of cells designed for performances at very low and/or very high

temperature;
– optional characterization of cells tested with CCCV charge;
– optional characterization of cells designed for rapid charge;
– optional characterization of cells designed for high cycling.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60623:2017  IEC 2017 – 5 –
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
21A/610/FDIS 21A/621/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60623:2017  IEC 2017
SECONDARY CELLS AND BATTERIES CONTAINING
ALKALINE OR OTHER NON-ACID ELECTROLYTES –
VENTED NICKEL-CADMIUM PRISMATIC RECHARGEABLE SINGLE CELLS
1 Scope

IEC 60623 specifies marking, designation, dimensions, tests and requirements for vented

nickel-cadmium prismatic secondary single cells.

NOTE In this context, "prismatic" refers to cells having rectangular sides and base.

When there exists an IEC standard specifying test conditions and requirements for cells used

in special applications and which is in conflict with this document, the former takes

precedence.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050-482:2004, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Part 482: Primary and

secondary cells and batteries

IEC 60417, Graphical symbols for use on equipment (available from: http://www.graphical-

symbols.info/equipment)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60050-482 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
vented cell

secondary cell having a cover provided with an opening through which products of electrolysis

and evaporation are allowed to escape freely from the cell to the atmosphere
Note 1 to entry: The opening may be fitted with a venting system.
3.2
nominal voltage

suitable approximate value of the voltage used to designate or identify a cell or a battery

Note 1 to entry: The nominal voltage of a vented nickel-cadmium rechargeable single cell is 1,2 V.

Note 2 to entry: The nominal voltage of a battery of n series connected cells is equal to n times the nominal

voltage of a single cell.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60623:2017  IEC 2017 – 7 –

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-31, modified – Replacement of the words "a battery

or an electrochemincal system" by" "or a battery" and addition of Notes 1 and 2 to entry.]

3.3
discharge voltage
closed circuit voltage
DEPRECATED: on load voltage

voltage between the terminals of a cell or battery when being discharged

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-28]
3.4
rated capacity

capacity value of a cell or battery determined under specified conditions and declared by the

manufacturer

Note 1 to entry: The rated capacity is the quantity of electricity C Ah (ampere-hours) declared by the

manufacturer which a single cell can deliver during a 5 h period when charging, storing and discharging under the

conditions specified in 7.3.2.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-15, modified – Addition of the words "a cell or" in the

definition, and of Note 1 to entry.]
3.5
CCCV charge

method of charge consisting in a charge at Constant Current followed by a charge at Constant

Voltage
4 Parameter measurement tolerances

The overall accuracy of controlled or measured values, relative to the specified or actual

values, shall be within these tolerances:
a) ±1 % for voltage;
b) ±1 % for current;
c) ±2 °C for temperature;
d) ±0,1 % for time;
e) ±1 % for capacity.

These tolerances comprise the combined accuracy of the measuring instruments, the

measurement techniques used, and all other sources of error in the test procedure.

The details of the instrumentation used shall be provided in any report of results.

5 Designation and marking
5.1 Cell designation (mandatory)

Vented nickel-cadmium prismatic secondary single cells shall be designated by the letter "K"

followed by a letter L, M, H or X which signifies:
– low rate of discharge (L);
– medium rate of discharge (M);
– high rate of discharge (H);
– very high rate of discharge (X).
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60623:2017  IEC 2017

NOTE 1 These types of cells are typically but not exclusively used for the following discharge rates:

– L up to 0,5 I A;
– M up to 3,5 I A;
– H up to 7,0 I A;
– X up to and above 7,0 I A.

NOTE 2 These currents are expressed as multiples of I A, where I A = C Ah/1 h (see IEC 61434).

t t

This group of two letters shall be followed by a group of figures indicative of the rated

capacity of the cell in ampere-hours. Cells that have been tested at 20 °C and 5 °C but not

at –18 °C shall carry an additional marking of T5: for example: KH 185 or KH 185 T5.

Cells in cases of plastic material shall be designated by the letter "P" after the figures: for

example: KH 185 P.
5.2 Cell designation (optional)

The additional marking shall be added to the mandatory marking. When the marking would

exceed the available space on the cell, this information may be omitted on the cell but shall

be provided in the documentation corresponding to the cell and in the type test report.

If there is no mention concerning the marking for temperature, the cells shall have been

tested at: –18 °C, 5 °C and 20 °C. Cells tested at other temperatures shall carry an additional

marking of T followed by tested temperatures. In case the cell is characterized with both low

and high temperature, they shall be indicated in increasing order with a solidus separating

them: for example: KH 185 P T-35/+45.
Cells tested with CCCV charges shall carry the marking of CCCV: for example,
KH 185 P CCCV.

Cells tested at rapid charge shall carry the marking R and the value of the tested rapid charge

A: for example, KH 185 P R1.
current, expressed in multiple of I

High grade cycling cells shall carry an additional marking C followed by the number of cycles:

for example, KH 185 P C1500.

Cells having been tested with multiple types of tests shall carry the marking for the various

tests performed: for example KH 185 P T-35/+45 CCCV R1 C1500.
5.3 Cell termination
This document does not specify cell termination.
5.4 Marking

Each cell or monobloc shall carry durable markings giving the following minimum information:

• type of cell (designation as specified in 5.1 and 5.2; in addition, it is permissible for a

manufacturer to use his own type designation);
• name or identification of manufacturer or supplier;

• positive terminal: either a red washer or an indented or raised symbol (see graphical

symbol IEC 60417-5005:2002-10).
5.5 Safety recommendations

The manufacturer shall provide recommendations for the safe handling of the cell. See also

IEC TR 61438.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60623:2017  IEC 2017 – 9 –
6 Dimensions
Dimensions of cells, shown in Figure 1, are given in Tables 1 and 2.
Lug
b d
IEC

NOTE 1 Cells in steel container can have two or more terminals and four or more lugs.

NOTE 2 Cells in plastic container can have two or more terminals and no lugs.
Figure 1 – Example of a vented prismatic cell in steel container
with two terminals and four lugs
Table 1 – Dimensions for vented nickel-cadmium
prismatic cells in steel containers
Width, b Maximum height, h Lengths, d
mm mm mm
81 291 83
105 350 91, 130
131 409 36, 50, 56, 66, 78, 94
148 409 52, 76, 100
157 409 66, 84, 95, 116, 134, 143, 147, 166, 200, 225, 242, 410
188 409 128
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 60623:2017  IEC 2017
Table 2 – Dimensions for vented nickel-cadmium
prismatic cells in plastic containers
Width, b Maximum height, h Lengths, d
mm mm mm
62 178 28
78 285 50
81 241 28, 36, 43, 48
87 273 47, 86
123 273 28, 40, 50, 61
138 406 48, 55, 61, 70, 77, 85, 105, 115, 265
147 285 53, 78, 102
165 406 42, 66, 75, 105, 110, 130, 160
173 375 122, 197, 287, 392, 517
195 406 29, 34, 40, 50, 64, 80, 94, 115

NOTE 1 The dimensions given in Tables 1 and 2 represent preferred values. For cells with deviating size,

dimensions as per Figure 1 are indicated.

NOTE 2 The widths relate to the overall width dimension of the cell excluding the thickness of the lug flanges.

The values for widths and lengths given in Tables 1 and 2 are maximum values; their negative tolerances are given

in Table 3.

NOTE 3 The values for height given in Tables 1 and 2 relate to the maximum height over the terminals or the

closed cell vent, whichever is the greater. No lower limits are stated.

NOTE 4 The dimensions shown in Tables 1 and 2 are not associated to particular cell capacities. They apply to all

kinds of vented nickel-cadmium prismatic cells, i.e. L, M, H and X types.
Table 3 – Measurement tolerances in millimetres
(valid for widths and lengths)
Up to and including 60 mm 0 to –2
Above 60 mm, up to and including 120 mm 0 to –3
Above 120 mm 0 to –4
7 Electrical tests
7.1 General

Charge and discharge currents for the tests in accordance with 7.1 to 7.9 inclusive shall be

based on the value of the rated capacity (C Ah). These currents are expressed as multiples

of I A, where I A = C Ah/1 h.
t t 5
7.2 Charging procedure for test purposes
7.2.1 General

Prior to charging, the cells shall have been discharged at 20 °C ± 5 °C, at a constant current

of 0,2 I A, down to a final voltage of 1,0 V.

Two charging methods are possible, to be selected by the cell manufacturers, in order to

define their cells characteristics:
– charge based on constant current;
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 60623:2017  IEC 2017 – 11 –

– charge based on constant voltage, with a value of possible charging current (CCCV).

7.2.2 Charge procedure based on constant current

Unless otherwise specified in this standard, the charge preceding the various discharge tests

scheduled, shall be carried out in an ambient temperature of 20 °C ± 5 °C and at a constant

A. The duration of the charge shall be 7 h to 8 h.
...

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