Switchgear and controlgear and their assemblies for low-voltage - Energy efficiency

IEC TR 63196:2020 is following the principles of IEC Guide 119. This document defines the energy efficiency aspects of switchgear and controlgear products complying with IEC 60947 (all parts), IEC 61095 and IEC 62626 (all parts), and associated assemblies complying with IEC 61439 (all parts), in the context of the overall system energy efficiency. This document references energy policy aspects, as well as product and system aspects.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Jan-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
28-Jan-2020
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Technical report
IEC TR 63196:2020 - Switchgear and controlgear and their assemblies for low-voltage - Energy efficiency
English language
22 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

IEC TR 63196
Edition 1.0 2020-01
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Switchgear and controlgear and their assemblies for low voltage –
Energy efficiency
IEC TR 63196:2020-01(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2020 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester. If you have any questions about IEC

copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address below or

your local IEC member National Committee for further information.
IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé info@iec.ch
CH-1211 Geneva 20 www.iec.ch
Switzerland
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigendum or an amendment might have been published.

IEC publications search - webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform Electropedia - www.electropedia.org

The advanced search enables to find IEC publications by a The world's leading online dictionary on electrotechnology,

variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical containing more than 22 000 terminological entries in English

committee,…). It also gives information on projects, replaced and French, with equivalent terms in 16 additional languages.

and withdrawn publications. Also known as the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary

(IEV) online.
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished

Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published IEC Glossary - std.iec.ch/glossary

details all new publications released. Available online and 67 000 electrotechnical terminology entries in English and

once a month by email. French extracted from the Terms and Definitions clause of

IEC publications issued since 2002. Some entries have been

IEC Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/csc collected from earlier publications of IEC TC 37, 77, 86 and

If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or CISPR.
need further assistance, please contact the Customer Service
Centre: sales@iec.ch.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TR 63196
Edition 1.0 2020-01
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Switchgear and controlgear and their assemblies for low voltage –
Energy efficiency
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 27.015; 29.130.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-7796-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 63196:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Contribution of low-voltage switchgear and controlgear and their assemblies to

energy efficiency ............................................................................................................. 9

5 General concepts of energy efficiency ............................................................................. 9

5.1 Concept of energy efficiency system ....................................................................... 9

5.1.1 System considerations ..................................................................................... 9

5.1.2 System boundary description ......................................................................... 10

5.2 Limits of the energy efficiency concept .................................................................. 11

5.2.1 Electrical energy efficiency and safety ........................................................... 11

5.2.2 Availability of electrical energy and user decision .......................................... 11

6 Energy efficiency for switchgear, controlgear and their assemblies ................................ 11

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

6.2 Energy efficiency management system/optimization of the overall energy

consumption ......................................................................................................... 14

6.2.1 Optimization of energy consumption .............................................................. 14

6.2.2 Electrical energy efficiency management ....................................................... 14

6.2.3 Economic aspects .......................................................................................... 16

6.2.4 Systems approach ......................................................................................... 16

6.3 Energy efficiency measures .................................................................................. 17

6.3.1 Load shedding system (in combination with peak shaving) ............................ 17

6.3.2 Benefit of fixed speed motor control systems ................................................. 18

6.3.3 Losses in switchgear and controlgear ............................................................ 19

6.3.4 Minimization of semiconductor controller losses ............................................ 20

6.3.5 Power factor correction .................................................................................. 20

6.3.6 Energy efficiency of assemblies ..................................................................... 20

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 22

Figure 1 – Overview of energy efficiency management ........................................................... 5

Figure 2 – Key elements in energy efficiency definition ......................................................... 10

Figure 3 – Role of low-voltage switchgear and controlgear in energy efficiency

management ......................................................................................................................... 12

Figure 4 – Energy efficiency landscape concerning switchgear and controlgear and

their assemblies .................................................................................................................... 13

Figure 5 – Useful energy, energy loss and recovered energy ................................................ 17

Figure 6 – Poor and good energy efficiency practice in assembly layout ............................... 21

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC TR 63196:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR
AND THEIR ASSEMBLIES FOR LOW VOLTAGE – ENERGY EFFICIENCY
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between

any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

technical committee may propose the publication of a technical report when it has collected

data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard, for

example "state of the art".

IEC TR 63196, which is a technical report, has been prepared by committee 121: Switchgear

and controlgear and their assemblies for low voltage.
The text of this technical report is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
121/44/DTR 121/47A/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical report can be found in the report

on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC TR 63196:2020 © IEC 2020

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC TR 63196:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Energy efficiency (EE) is a horizontal topic spanning the IEC domain and may be dealt with in

standards in various forms across a wide range of technologies and for different products,

processes and services.

The horizontal nature of the topic and increasing integration of products, processes and

services entering the market implies that standard writers identify which aspects of energy

efficiency are relevant for standardization, and:
– use a systematic approach (see lEC Guide 119);
– adopt a systems approach.

The objective of an energy efficiency management system is to improve continuously the energy

performance of an energy using system such as a production facility or an office building. As

shown below in Figure 1 (see dark blue boxes), it is based on the particular organization's

energy policy, supporting energy objectives and it is implemented by processes (planning,

operations, assessment, etc.) to achieve those objectives.
Figure 1 – Overview of energy efficiency management

Many types of equipment, including switchgear and controlgear and their assemblies, depicted

in the light blue boxes in Figure 1, make an important contribution to the overall energy

efficiency of a system.

This document aims to give guidance to product standards writers and other interested parties

on the way energy efficiency should be considered for switchgear and controlgear and their

assemblies.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC TR 63196:2020 © IEC 2020
By following this document, experts in standards will be encouraged to:

– consider energy efficiency aspects in their product standards and any associated

publications;
– use a structured method;
– use a systems approach;
– support the dissemination of energy efficient technologies;
– accelerate the uptake of the next generation of energy efficient technologies;
– create the prerequisites for energy efficiency through enabling technologies.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC TR 63196:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –
SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR
AND THEIR ASSEMBLIES FOR LOW VOLTAGE –ENERGY EFFICIENCY
1 Scope

This document is following the principles of IEC Guide 119. This document defines the energy

efficiency aspects of switchgear and controlgear products complying with IEC 60947 (all parts),

IEC 61095 and IEC 62626 (all parts), and associated assemblies complying with IEC 61439 (all

parts), in the context of the overall system energy efficiency. This document references energy

policy aspects, as well as product and system aspects.

This document generally assumes electrical energy input, whereas the output can be a number

of different products and/or services.
This document:

– helps to harmonize the energy efficiency requirements and guidance in product standards;

– raises awareness that provisions in publications can generally influence energy efficiency;

– helps to identify energy efficiency aspects;
– promotes the use of a systems approach to energy efficiency.

Other than energy efficiency aspects, this document does not cover environmental impacts (see

IEC TS 63058).
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
energy management
coordinated activities directing and controlling the energy use of an entity
3.2
energy management system
EnMS

set of interrelated or interacting elements to establish an energy policy and energy objectives,

and processes and procedures to achieve those objectives
[SOURCE: ISO 50001:2011, 3.9]
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC TR 63196:2020 © IEC 2020
3.3
energy efficiency

ratio or other quantitative relationship between an output of performance, service, goods or

energy, and an input of energy taking into account the driving parameters and the boundaries

Note 1 to entry: Both input and output need to be clearly specified in quantity and quality, and be measurable.

EXAMPLE Conversion efficiency; energy required/energy used; output/input; theoretical energy used to

operate/energy used to operate.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 13273-1:2015, 3.4.1, modified – Insertion of “taking into account the driving

parameters and the boundaries”, symbol “E ” renamed to “EE”, and “Efficiency conversion

energy” renamed to “Conversion efficiency” in example.]
3.4
recovered energy

energy that is withdrawn from system energy loss to become applied energy at another energy

using system
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 13273-1:2015, 3.1.11.2.1]
3.5
load

electric equipment intended to convert electric energy into another form of energy, for example

light, heat, mechanical energy
3.6
peak shaving

process in an electrical system intended to not exceed a maximum overall energy demand

Note 1 to entry: Peak shaving can be obtained by planning of energy needs within the manufacturing system or

load shedding or autonomous energy production.
[SOURCE: IEC TR 62837:2013, 3.3.8]
3.7
load shedding

process of deliberately disconnecting preselected loads from a power system in order to

maintain a certain performance level

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-603:1986, 603-04-32, modified – “the integrity of the remainder of the

system” replaced by “a certain performance level”.]
3.8
energy performance

measurable results related to energy efficiency, energy use and energy consumption

Note 1 to entry: Energy performance can be improved by reducing the energy consumption and/or improving the

energy efficiency.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 13273-1:2015, 3.3.1, modified – New Note 1 to entry.]
3.9
energy efficiency improvement

increase in energy efficiency as a result of technological, design, behavioural or economic

changes
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 13273-1:2015, 3.4.3]
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC TR 63196:2020 © IEC 2020 – 9 –
3.10
energy policy

statement by the organization of its overall intentions and direction of an organization related

to its energy performance, as formally expressed by top management

Note 1 to entry: The energy policy provides a framework for action and for the setting of energy objectives and

energy targets.
[SOURCE: ISO 50001:2011, 3.14]
3.11
energy control centre
ECC

switchgear and controlgear assembly designed to manage different types of energy sources

and/or their loads
4 Contribution of low-voltage switchgear and controlgear and their assemblies
to energy efficiency

Many energy-efficient technologies and solutions are already available and cost-effective;

nevertheless, a lack of awareness may slow down the deployment of these technologies and

impedes harvesting their energy efficiency potential. In this context, switchgear and controlgear

can be used as resources (see Figure 1) for three different roles:
1) controlling the electrical (energy-using) loads in an efficient way;

2) source control: selecting, connecting or disconnecting the source of energy, as appropriate;

3) monitoring, measuring, analysing such as:
• the availability of energy sources;

• the power from each source and the power consumed by each load, including power

quality;
• sensing other environmental inputs (temperature, overload conditions, etc.).
5 General concepts of energy efficiency
5.1 Concept of energy efficiency system
5.1.1 System considerations

Energy efficiency relates the output of an activity to its energy input, for a given system. The

input can be expressed in various energy units (kWh, etc.), while the output may not be

necessarily expressed in energy units and covers a wide range of activities and services,for

example controlling a load (switch on/switch off/protect/monitor), providing data, etc. See

Figure 2.

It is key for energy efficiency not to reduce the given service but to optimize the energy input

for a given service.

NOTE Implementation of energy efficiency measures can be based on energy price consideration.

It should be noted that:
– energy efficiency may vary when the system changes;
– energy efficiency may vary and degrade in time.

EXAMPLE A system boundary to measure EE could be an electric motor itself or a motor-pump combination or the

whole pumping system, consisting of a motor, a pump and the pipe installation.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC TR 63196:2020 © IEC 2020
SOURCE: Figure 1 of IEC Guide 118:2017.
Figure 2 – Key elements in energy efficiency definition
5.1.2 System boundary description
5.1.2.1 General

The system boundary should be adequately described in any publication dealing with energy

efficiency.
System boundaries should be defined in terms of:
– intended use (relevant applications);
– energy inputs;
– outputs;
– driving parameters;
– EE related key performance indicators (KPIs);
– interactions between components of the system;
– possible interactions with other systems.

Boundaries can include a device, a product or a system depending on the application

considered. System boundaries may include:
• the physical limits;
• communication interfaces;
• any measurable inputs and outputs.
5.1.2.2 Input
Amount of electrical power input to the system.
5.1.2.3 Output
Output is the intended service plus any recovered energy for subsequent use.
5.1.2.4 Driving parameters

The driving parameters shall be defined. These are all external factors that affect energy

efficiency and include, for example: regulation, environmental conditions, energy prices and

management requirements, mode of operation, duty cycle, load curves, state, operating

parameters, indoor temperature, lighting levels, production volume, range of products.

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC TR 63196:2020 © IEC 2020 – 11 –
5.1.2.5 Energy efficiency related KPI(s)

Suitable key performance indicators (KPIs) should be provided, typically as defined by the

energy policy (see Figure 1).
EXAMPLE KPI = quantified amount of service/unit of energy used.
5.2 Limits of the energy efficiency concept
5.2.1 Electrical energy efficiency and safety

The safety of persons, property and livestock remains of prime importance compared to the

energy efficiency statements. Consequently, all guidance to achieve energy efficiency shall not

impair the safety requirements included in relevant standards.
5.2.2 Availability of electrical energy and user decision

Energy efficiency management shall not reduce electrical availability and/or services or

operation below the level needed by the user and/or defined by the product standard.

It is recognized that the users of the electrical system should be able to take the final decision

whether or not to use the most efficient service.

At any time, the users should be able to make an exemption and to use the service in

accordance with their needs while being aware that this can be less efficient than expected.

EXAMPLE 1 If someone is ill, the user can decide to heat the room at a higher temperature, even during peak

consumption.

EXAMPLE 2 If a company receives an urgent delivery order, the workshop can need to work at an unscheduled

hour.
6 Energy efficiency for switchgear, controlgear and their assemblies
6.1 General
the usage of the energy
An energy efficiency and load management system optimizes

consumed, taking into account the loads, local production and energy storage and user

requirements.

Low-voltage electrical installations are evolving towards prosumer’s electrical installations (PEI)

as reported in IEC 60364-8-2. The concept of a PEI includes local (renewable) energy sources

and/or storage units. This concept is based on the central role of the end-user to control (via

an ECC) its usage of electrical energy considering its needs and the effects on the distribution

system operator’s supply requirements (DSO). The end-user should be able to permanently

monitor and control its own electricity consumption and its own electricity production through

an active energy management system. This system is intended to balance the local
consumption with the local production and the supply from/to the DSO.

Figure 3 shows the scheme of the energy management system to be implemented in an

electrical installation in accordance with IEC 60364-8-1 in order to enable the energy efficiency

to perform source switching and load shedding coordinated operations (see 6.3.1). These

operations are needed to optimize the overall use of electrical energy.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC TR 63196:2020 © IEC 2020
SOURCE Figure 3 is adapted from Figure 1 of IEC 60364-8-1:2019.
Figure 3 – Role of low-voltage switchgear and controlgear
in energy efficiency management

Switchgear and controlgear can be used in such energy efficiency and load management

systems by their intrinsic functionalities and combinations of the different capabilities. Figure 4

shows how these energy efficiency measures are situated in the landscape of switchgear and

controlgear and their assemblies.
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
IEC TR 63196:2020 © IEC 2020 – 13 –
Figure 4 – Energy efficiency landscape concerning switchgear and
controlgear and their assemblies
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
– 14 – IEC TR 63196:2020 © IEC 2020
6.2 Energy efficiency management system/optimization of the overall energy
consumption
6.2.1 Optimization of energy consumption
6.2.1.1 General

The main task of an energy efficiency management system is to optimize the energy availability,

use energy economically and improve energy efficiency. A description of an energy efficiency

improvement process is given in IEC Guide 118.

The goal of an energy efficiency management system is to realize the saving and improvement

of the existing energy consumption through intelligent system integration.
6.2.1.2 Composition of energy efficiency management system

An energy efficiency management system consists of three parts: decision-making system,

control system and data measurement system.
6.2.1.3 Functions of energy efficiency management system
An energy efficiency management system may have the following functions:
– remote real-time transmission of energy data;
– fault alarm: abnormal energy consumption alarm;
– dynamic energy consumption monitoring;
– analysis and evaluation of energy efficiency;
– analysis of energy use;
– operation control / load management of equipment;
– prediction and control of energy saving targets;
– decision-making of energy optimization strategy.
6.2.1.4 Energy consumption diagnosis

Real-time monitoring and data acquisition is conducted by means of an analysis and diagnosis

module in energy management, and the acquired results are analysed statistically and

diagnosed intelligently to support the optimization of the operation mode and energy

consumption distribution and thus reduction of electric energy loss.
6.2.1.5 Energy consumption monitoring

An energy consumption monitoring device is used to regularly acquire every kind of information

on energy consumption, such as voltage, current, reactive power, harmonics, etc., and upload

this information to the energy efficiency management system.
6.2.2 Electrical energy efficiency management
6.2.2.1 General

The electrical energy optimization needs a global approach of the management of the electrical

energy consumption, generation, storage, etc., including consideration of all operating modes.

6.2.2.2 Strategy of energy management
Energy efficiency should firstly be applied to loads and their usage.
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
IEC TR 63196:2020 © IEC 2020 – 15 –

Motor loads account for 70 % of the electricity consumed by industry (figure from the European

Community Commission Regulation No 640/2009). Improving the load profile by a system

analysis and afterwards selecting the most appropriate motor should be the first focus.

The electrical distribution architecture (generation and transmission) should also be considered,

as well as power supplies and wiring systems.
6.2.2.3 Energy management using automation and control

Energy management through automation is a significant contributor to energy efficiency.

Automation design over the past decades has continued to evolve, introducing new methods

that are of increasing importance in energy saving (availability and cost).

Status information, measurements from sensors, commands from the operator and information

from the environment are necessary inputs to the energy management system (EnMS). The

automation function of the energy management system should ensure that the energy is

consumed at the right moment, for the right
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.