Fibre optic communication subsystem test procedures - Part 4-4: Cable plants and links - Polarization mode dispersion measurement for installed links

IEC 61280-4-4:2017 provides uniform methods of measuring polarization mode dispersion (PMD) of single-mode installed links. An installed link is the optical path between transmitter and receiver, or a portion of that optical path. These measurements can be used to assess the suitability of a given link for high bit rate applications, or to provide insight on the relationships of various related transmission attributes. This document focuses on the measurement methods and requirements for measuring long lengths of installed cabling that can also include other optical elements, such as splices, connectors, amplifiers, chromatic dispersion compensating modules, dense wavelength division multiplexing or multiplexer (DWDM) components, multiplexers, wavelength selective switches, re-configurable optical add drop multiplexer (ROADMS). This document focuses on the apparatus, procedures, and calculations needed to complete measurements. IEC TR 61282-9 explains the theory behind the test methods. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2006. This second edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- theory is removed and replaced with a reference to IEC TR 61282-9;
- a new method, wavelength scanning OTDR and SOP analysis (WSOSA), is added as Annex G;
- a brief description of each method is added to Clause 5;
- Methods E and F are converted to informative Annexes E and F;
- a new Clause (6) on measurement configurations is added;
- a new Clause (7) on measurement considerations is added;
- Clause 10 on procedure is expanded;
- several of the apparatus diagrams are improved;
- several clarifications about what is measured and what is calculated have been made in Annex H.

Procédures d’essai des sous-systèmes de télécommunication fibroniques - Partie 4-4 : Installations de câbles et liaisons - Mesure de la dispersion de mode de polarisation pour les liaisons installées

IEC 61280-4-4: 2017 fournit des méthodes uniformes de mesure de la dispersion de mode de polarisation (PMD) de liaisons unimodales installées. Une liaison installée est le chemin optique entre l’émetteur et le récepteur ou une partie de ce chemin optique. Ces mesures peuvent être utilisées afin d’évaluer si une liaison donnée est adaptée à des applications à débit binaire élevé ou pour connaître les relations entre différents attributs connexes d’une transmission. Le présent document se concentre sur les méthodes de mesure et les exigences relatives à la mesure de grandes longueurs d’une installation câblée qui peut également inclure d’autres éléments optiques, tels que des épissures, des connecteurs, des amplificateurs, des modules de compensation de dispersion chromatique, des composants de multiplexage ou multiplexeurs par répartition en longueur d'onde dense (DWDM – dense wavelength division multiplexing or multiplexer), des multiplexeurs, des commutateurs sélectifs en longueur d'onde, ainsi qu’un multiplexeur optique d’insertion-extraction reconfigurable (ROADMS – re-configurable optical add drop multiplexer). Le présent document se concentre sur l’appareillage, les procédures et les calculs nécessaires pour effectuer des mesures. L’IEC TR 61282-9 explique la théorie qui régit les méthodes d’essai. Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2006. Cette deuxième édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
· suppression de la théorie et remplacement par une référence à l’IEC TR 61282-9;
· ajout, en tant qu’Annexe G, d’une nouvelle méthode,
· à savoir analyse OTDR et SOP par balayage de longueur d'onde (WSOSA);
· ajout d’une description succincte de chaque méthode à l’Article 5;
· conversion des méthodes E et F en Annexes E et F informatives;
· ajout d’un nouvel Article (6) sur les configurations de mesure;
· ajout d’un nouvel Article (7) sur les considérations de mesure;
· extension de l’Article 10 sur la procédure;
· amélioration de plusieurs diagrammes dédiés à l’appareillage;
· plusieurs clarifications internes à l’Annexe H portant sur les mesures et les calculs effectués.
La présente version bilingue (2020-09) correspond à la version anglaise monolingue publiée en 2017-03.

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Published
Publication Date
06-Mar-2017
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
07-Mar-2017
Completion Date
07-Mar-2017
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IEC 61280-4-4
Edition 2.0 2017-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Fibre optic communication subsystem test procedures –
Part 4-4: Cable plants and links – Polarization mode dispersion measurement
for installed links
IEC 61280-4-4:2017-03(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
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All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 61280-4-4
Edition 2.0 2017-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Fibre optic communication subsystem test procedures –
Part 4-4: Cable plants and links – Polarization mode dispersion measurement
for installed links
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.180.01 ISBN 978-2-8322-4077-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 61280-4-4:2017  IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 7

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 10

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................ 10

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 10

3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms ............................................................................ 11

4 Background on PMD properties ..................................................................................... 12

5 Measurement methods .................................................................................................. 13

5.1 Methods of measuring PMD .................................................................................. 13

5.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 13

5.1.2 Method A: Fixed analyzer with Fourier transformation (FA-FT) ...................... 14

5.1.3 Method B: Stokes parameters evaluation (SPE) ............................................. 14

5.1.4 Method C: Interferometric .............................................................................. 15

5.1.5 Method D: Stokes parameter evaluation using back-reflected light ................. 15

5.1.6 Method E: Modulated phase-shift technique ................................................... 15

5.1.7 Method F: Polarization phase shift (PPS) ....................................................... 15

5.1.8 Method G: Wavelength scanning OTDR and SOP Analysis (WSOSA) ............ 16

5.2 Document structure ............................................................................................... 16

5.3 Reference test method .......................................................................................... 16

6 Measurement configurations .......................................................................................... 16

6.1 Passive cabling link .............................................................................................. 16

6.2 Link including amplifiers ........................................................................................ 17

6.3 Link including chromatic dispersion compensating modules .................................. 17

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 17

6.3.2 Grating based DCM ....................................................................................... 17

6.4 Link including ROADMs ........................................................................................ 17

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 17

6.4.2 Multi-channel point to point configuration ....................................................... 18

6.4.3 Single channel configuration .......................................................................... 18

7 Measurement considerations ......................................................................................... 18

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 18

7.2 Wavelength range ................................................................................................. 18

7.3 PMD measurement range...................................................................................... 18

7.4 Measurement dynamic range ................................................................................ 19

7.5 Fibre movement .................................................................................................... 19

7.6 Input and output SOP scrambling .......................................................................... 19

7.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 19

7.6.2 Polarizers/scramblers .................................................................................... 19

7.6.3 The 9-states Mueller set ................................................................................ 20

7.6.4 Random scrambling ....................................................................................... 20

7.7 Polarization dependent loss .................................................................................. 20

7.8 Amplifier considerations ........................................................................................ 20

7.8.1 General ......................................................................................................... 20

7.8.2 Optical isolators ............................................................................................. 20

7.8.3 Wavelength range .......................................................................................... 20

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 61280-4-4:2017  IEC 2017 – 3 –

7.8.4 Power levels .................................................................................................. 20

7.8.5 Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise ................................................ 21

7.9 Considerations on location of equipment ............................................................... 21

8 Apparatus ...................................................................................................................... 21

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 21

8.2 Light source and polarizers ................................................................................... 21

8.3 Input optics ........................................................................................................... 22

8.4 Cladding mode stripper ......................................................................................... 22

8.5 High-order mode filter ........................................................................................... 22

8.6 Output connection ................................................................................................. 22

8.7 Output optics ........................................................................................................ 23

8.8 Detector ................................................................................................................ 23

8.9 Computer or test platform ..................................................................................... 23

8.10 Means to reduce the effects of amplified spontaneous emission ........................... 23

9 Sampling and specimens ............................................................................................... 23

10 Procedure ...................................................................................................................... 23

11 Calculation or interpretation of results ........................................................................... 24

12 Documentation .............................................................................................................. 24

12.1 Information required for each measurement .......................................................... 24

12.2 Information to be available .................................................................................... 24

13 Specification information ............................................................................................... 25

Annex A (normative) Fixed analyzer method ........................................................................ 26

A.1 Apparatus ............................................................................................................. 26

A.1.1 Block diagrams .............................................................................................. 26

A.1.2 Light source ................................................................................................... 28

A.1.3 Analyzer ........................................................................................................ 29

A.1.4 Optional polarization control at the input and output of the link under

test ................................................................................................................ 29

A.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 29

A.2.1 Wavelength range and increment ................................................................... 29

A.2.2 Complete the scans ....................................................................................... 30

A.3 Calculations – Fourier transform ........................................................................... 31

A.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

A.3.2 Data pre-processing and Fourier transformation ............................................ 32

A.3.3 Transform data fitting..................................................................................... 32

A.3.4 Spectral range ............................................................................................... 34

Annex B (normative) Stokes parameter evaluation method .................................................. 36

B.1 Apparatus ............................................................................................................. 36

B.1.1 Block diagrams .............................................................................................. 36

B.1.2 Light source ................................................................................................... 37

B.1.3 Polarimeter .................................................................................................... 37

B.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 37

B.3 Calculations .......................................................................................................... 38

B.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 38

B.3.2 Jones matrix eigenanalysis (JME) .................................................................. 38

B.3.3 Poincaré sphere analysis (PSA) DGD calculation .......................................... 40

Annex C (normative) Interferometric method ........................................................................ 41

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 41

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 61280-4-4:2017  IEC 2017

C.2 Traditional analysis (TINTY) .................................................................................. 42

C.2.1 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 42

C.2.2 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 43

C.2.3 Calculations ................................................................................................... 44

C.3 General analysis (GINTY) ..................................................................................... 45

C.3.1 Benefit ........................................................................................................... 45

C.3.2 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 45

C.3.3 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 46

C.3.4 Calculations ................................................................................................... 47

Annex D (informative) Stokes parameter evaluation method using back-reflected light......... 49

D.1 Utility .................................................................................................................... 49

D.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................. 49

D.2.1 Block diagram ................................................................................................ 49

D.2.2 Directional coupler ......................................................................................... 49

D.2.3 Angled connector ........................................................................................... 49

D.2.4 Far-end termination ....................................................................................... 49

D.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 50

D.4 Calculation and interpretation of results ................................................................ 50

Annex E (informative) Modulation phase-shift method .......................................................... 51

E.1 Apparatus ............................................................................................................. 51

E.1.1 Overview and block diagrams ........................................................................ 51

E.1.2 Light source(s)............................................................................................... 52

E.1.3 Modulation ..................................................................................................... 53

E.1.4 Polarization control ........................................................................................ 54

E.1.5 Input and output optics .................................................................................. 54

E.1.6 Optical detector and phase detection electronics ........................................... 55

E.1.7 Reference signal............................................................................................ 55

E.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 55

E.2.1 Modulation frequency .................................................................................... 55

E.2.2 Scan the wavelengths and measure DGD ...................................................... 55

E.2.3 Calibration ..................................................................................................... 58

E.3 Calculations .......................................................................................................... 58

E.3.1 DGD calculations ........................................................................................... 58

E.3.2 PMD calculation ............................................................................................. 59

Annex F (informative) Polarization phase shift method ......................................................... 60

F.1 Apparatus ............................................................................................................. 60

F.1.1 Block diagram ................................................................................................ 60

F.1.2 Light source ................................................................................................... 60

F.1.3 Modulation ..................................................................................................... 60

F.1.4 Polarization control ........................................................................................ 61

F.1.5 Output optics ................................................................................................. 61

F.1.6 Optical detectors ........................................................................................... 61

F.1.7 Amplitude and phase comparator ................................................................... 61

F.1.8 Reference signal............................................................................................ 62

F.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 62

F.2.1 Modulation frequency .................................................................................... 62

F.2.2 Wavelength increment ................................................................................... 62

F.2.3 Scanning wavelengths and measuring DGDs ................................................. 62

F.2.4 Calibration ..................................................................................................... 63

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 61280-4-4:2017  IEC 2017 – 5 –

F.3 Calculations .......................................................................................................... 63

F.3.1 Results overview ........................................................................................... 63

F.3.2 DGD determination ........................................................................................ 64

F.3.3 PMD calculation ............................................................................................. 65

Annex G (normative) Wavelength scanning OTDR and SOP analysis (WSOSA) PMD

test method ........................................................................................................................... 66

G.1 General ................................................................................................................. 66

G.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................. 66

G.2.1 Block diagram ................................................................................................ 66

G.2.2 Light source ................................................................................................... 67

G.2.3 Launch polarization ....................................................................................... 67

G.2.4 Polarization scrambling .................................................................................. 68

G.2.5 Input/output optics ......................................................................................... 68

G.3 Specimen stability ................................................................................................. 68

G.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 68

G.4.1 Set instrument parameters ............................................................................. 68

G.4.2 Action of the instrument after measurement initiation ..................................... 69

G.5 Calculations .......................................................................................................... 71

G.5.1 Power normalisation ...................................................................................... 71

G.5.2 Transmission differences ............................................................................... 72

G.5.3 Mean-square transmission difference and round trip PMD ............................. 73

G.5.4 Determination of PMD .................................................................................... 74

G.6 Procedures for measuring PMD on installed aerial links ........................................ 74

G.6.1 Instability compensation ................................................................................ 74

G.6.2 Approaches to reducing the effects of instabilities ......................................... 75

Annex H (informative) PMD determination by Method C ....................................................... 77

H.1 General ................................................................................................................. 77

H.2 Traditional analysis ............................................................................................... 77

H.3 General analysis ................................................................................................... 79

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 81

Figure 1 – Typical passive cabling link configuration ............................................................. 16

Figure 2 – Example configuration of link including amplifiers ................................................. 17

Figure A.1 – Block diagrams for fixed analyzer ..................................................................... 28

Figure A.2 – Example of the R-function for the fixed analyzer method ................................... 31

Figure A.3 – A chirped sine wave .......................................................................................... 33

Figure A.4 – PMD by Fourier analysis ................................................................................... 34

Figure B.1 – Block diagram for Method B using a narrowband (tuneable laser) source .......... 36

Figure B.2 – Block diagram for Method B using a broadband (ASE) source ........................... 36

Figure C.1 – Generic set-up for Method C (INTY).................................................................. 41

Figure C.2 – Schematic diagram for Method C (TINTY) ......................................................... 42

Figure C.3 – Typical data obtained by Method C (TINTY) ...................................................... 44

Figure C.4 – Schematic diagram for Method C (GINTY) ........................................................ 45

Figure C.5 – Typical random-mode-coupling data obtained by Method C (GINTY) ................ 47

Figure C.6 – Typical mixed-mode-coupling data obtained by Method C (GINTY) ................... 47

Figure D.1 – Layout for Method D ......................................................................................... 49

Figure E.1 – Basic apparatus ................................................................................................ 51

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 61280-4-4:2017  IEC 2017

Figure E.2 – Apparatus layout for polarization modulation ..................................................... 52

Figure E.3 – Mueller states on Poincaré sphere .................................................................... 57

Figure E.4 – DGD versus wavelength .................................................................................... 58

Figure E.5 – DGD in histogram format .................................................................................. 58

Figure F.1 – Block diagram for Method F (polarization phase shift method) ........................... 60

Figure F.2 – DGD versus wavelength for a random mode coupling device ............................ 64

Figure G.1 – Illustration of the frequency domain and parameters for WSOSA ...................... 66

Figure G.2 − Typical generic experimental implementation for WSOSA ................................. 67

Figure G.3 – Typical power measurement results .................................................................. 71

Figure G.4 − Typical s(ω) for random I/O-SOP ...................................................................... 72

Figure G.5 − Typical transmission difference for a frequency pair and I/O-SOP .................... 73

Figure G.6 − Example of 2-pulse implementation in presence of instabilities ......................... 76

Table E.1 – Example of Mueller set ....................................................................................... 57

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 61280-4-4:2017  IEC 2017 – 7 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FIBRE OPTIC COMMUNICATION SUBSYSTEM
TEST PROCEDURES –
Part 4-4: Cable plants and links – Polarization mode dispersion
measurement for installed links
FOREWORD

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...

IEC 61280-4-4
Edition 2.0 2017-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Fibre optic communication subsystem test procedures –
Part 4-4: Cable plants and links – Polarization mode dispersion measurement for
installed links
Procédures d’essai des sous-systèmes de télécommunication fibroniques –

Partie 4-4: Installations de câbles et liaisons – Mesure de la dispersion de mode

de polarisation pour les liaisons installées
IEC 61280-4-4:2017-03(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 61280-4-4
Edition 2.0 2017-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Fibre optic communication subsystem test procedures –
Part 4-4: Cable plants and links – Polarization mode dispersion measurement for
installed links
Procédures d’essai des sous-systèmes de télécommunication fibroniques –

Partie 4-4: Installations de câbles et liaisons – Mesure de la dispersion de mode

de polarisation pour les liaisons installées
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 33.180.01 ISBN 978-2-8322-8821-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 61280-4-4:2017  IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 7

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 10

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................ 10

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 10

3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms ............................................................................ 11

4 Background on PMD properties ..................................................................................... 12

5 Measurement methods .................................................................................................. 13

5.1 Methods of measuring PMD .................................................................................. 13

5.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 13

5.1.2 Method A: Fixed analyzer with Fourier transformation (FA-FT) ...................... 14

5.1.3 Method B: Stokes parameters evaluation (SPE) ............................................. 14

5.1.4 Method C: Interferometric .............................................................................. 15

5.1.5 Method D: Stokes parameter evaluation using back-reflected light ................. 15

5.1.6 Method E: Modulated phase-shift technique ................................................... 15

5.1.7 Method F: Polarization phase shift (PPS) ....................................................... 15

5.1.8 Method G: Wavelength scanning OTDR and SOP Analysis (WSOSA) ............ 16

5.2 Document structure ............................................................................................... 16

5.3 Reference test method .......................................................................................... 16

6 Measurement configurations .......................................................................................... 16

6.1 Passive cabling link .............................................................................................. 16

6.2 Link including amplifiers ........................................................................................ 17

6.3 Link including chromatic dispersion compensating modules .................................. 17

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 17

6.3.2 Grating based DCM ....................................................................................... 17

6.4 Link including ROADMs ........................................................................................ 17

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 17

6.4.2 Multi-channel point to point configuration ....................................................... 18

6.4.3 Single channel configuration .......................................................................... 18

7 Measurement considerations ......................................................................................... 18

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 18

7.2 Wavelength range ................................................................................................. 18

7.3 PMD measurement range...................................................................................... 18

7.4 Measurement dynamic range ................................................................................ 19

7.5 Fibre movement .................................................................................................... 19

7.6 Input and output SOP scrambling .......................................................................... 19

7.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 19

7.6.2 Polarizers/scramblers .................................................................................... 19

7.6.3 The 9-states Mueller set ................................................................................ 20

7.6.4 Random scrambling ....................................................................................... 20

7.7 Polarization dependent loss .................................................................................. 20

7.8 Amplifier considerations ........................................................................................ 20

7.8.1 General ......................................................................................................... 20

7.8.2 Optical isolators ............................................................................................. 20

7.8.3 Wavelength range .......................................................................................... 20

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7.8.4 Power levels .................................................................................................. 20

7.8.5 Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise ................................................ 20

7.9 Considerations on location of equipment ............................................................... 21

8 Apparatus ...................................................................................................................... 21

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 21

8.2 Light source and polarizers ................................................................................... 21

8.3 Input optics ........................................................................................................... 22

8.4 Cladding mode stripper ......................................................................................... 22

8.5 High-order mode filter ........................................................................................... 22

8.6 Output connection ................................................................................................. 22

8.7 Output optics ........................................................................................................ 22

8.8 Detector ................................................................................................................ 23

8.9 Computer or test platform ..................................................................................... 23

8.10 Means to reduce the effects of amplified spontaneous emission ........................... 23

9 Sampling and specimens ............................................................................................... 23

10 Procedure ...................................................................................................................... 23

11 Calculation or interpretation of results ........................................................................... 24

12 Documentation .............................................................................................................. 24

12.1 Information required for each measurement .......................................................... 24

12.2 Information to be available .................................................................................... 24

13 Specification information ............................................................................................... 25

(normative) Fixed analyzer method ........................................................................ 26

A.1 Apparatus ............................................................................................................. 26

A.1.1 Block diagrams .............................................................................................. 26

A.1.2 Light source ................................................................................................... 28

A.1.3 Analyzer ........................................................................................................ 29

A.1.4 Optional polarization control at the input and output of the link under

test ................................................................................................................ 29

A.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 29

A.2.1 Wavelength range and increment ................................................................... 29

A.2.2 Complete the scans ....................................................................................... 30

A.3 Calculations – Fourier transform ........................................................................... 31

A.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

A.3.2 Data pre-processing and Fourier transformation ............................................ 32

A.3.3 Transform data fitting..................................................................................... 32

A.3.4 Spectral range ............................................................................................... 35

(normative) Stokes parameter evaluation method .................................................. 36

B.1 Apparatus ............................................................................................................. 36

B.1.1 Block diagrams .............................................................................................. 36

B.1.2 Light source ................................................................................................... 37

B.1.3 Polarimeter .................................................................................................... 37

B.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 37

B.3 Calculations .......................................................................................................... 38

B.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 38

B.3.2 Jones matrix eigenanalysis (JME) .................................................................. 38

B.3.3 Poincaré sphere analysis (PSA) DGD calculation .......................................... 40

(normative) Interferometric method ........................................................................ 41

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 41

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C.2 Traditional analysis (TINTY) .................................................................................. 42

C.2.1 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 42

C.2.2 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 43

C.2.3 Calculations ................................................................................................... 44

C.3 General analysis (GINTY) ..................................................................................... 45

C.3.1 Benefit ........................................................................................................... 45

C.3.2 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 45

C.3.3 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 46

C.3.4 Calculations ................................................................................................... 47

(informative) Stokes parameter evaluation method using back-reflected light......... 49

D.1 Utility .................................................................................................................... 49

D.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................. 49

D.2.1 Block diagram ................................................................................................ 49

D.2.2 Directional coupler ......................................................................................... 49

D.2.3 Angled connector ........................................................................................... 49

D.2.4 Far-end termination ....................................................................................... 49

D.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 50

D.4 Calculation and interpretation of results ................................................................ 50

(informative) Modulation phase-shift method .......................................................... 51

E.1 Apparatus ............................................................................................................. 51

E.1.1 Overview and block diagrams ........................................................................ 51

E.1.2 Light source(s)............................................................................................... 52

E.1.3 Modulation ..................................................................................................... 53

E.1.4 Polarization control ........................................................................................ 54

E.1.5 Input and output optics .................................................................................. 54

E.1.6 Optical detector and phase detection electronics ........................................... 54

E.1.7 Reference signal............................................................................................ 55

E.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 55

E.2.1 Modulation frequency .................................................................................... 55

E.2.2 Scan the wavelengths and measure DGD ...................................................... 55

E.2.3 Calibration ..................................................................................................... 58

E.3 Calculations .......................................................................................................... 58

E.3.1 DGD calculations ........................................................................................... 58

E.3.2 PMD calculation ............................................................................................. 60

(informative) Polarization phase shift method ......................................................... 61

F.1 Apparatus ............................................................................................................. 61

F.1.1 Block diagram ................................................................................................ 61

F.1.2 Light source ................................................................................................... 61

F.1.3 Modulation ..................................................................................................... 61

F.1.4 Polarization control ........................................................................................ 62

F.1.5 Output optics ................................................................................................. 62

F.1.6 Optical detectors ........................................................................................... 62

F.1.7 Amplitude and phase comparator ................................................................... 62

F.1.8 Reference signal............................................................................................ 63

F.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 63

F.2.1 Modulation frequency .................................................................................... 63

F.2.2 Wavelength increment ................................................................................... 63

F.2.3 Scanning wavelengths and measuring DGDs ................................................. 63

F.2.4 Calibration ..................................................................................................... 64

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F.3 Calculations .......................................................................................................... 64

F.3.1 Results overview ........................................................................................... 64

F.3.2 DGD determination ........................................................................................ 65

F.3.3 PMD calculation ............................................................................................. 66

(normative) Wavelength scanning OTDR and SOP analysis (WSOSA) PMD

test method ........................................................................................................................... 67

G.1 General ................................................................................................................. 67

G.2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................. 67

G.2.1 Block diagram ................................................................................................ 67

G.2.2 Light source ................................................................................................... 68

G.2.3 Launch polarization ....................................................................................... 68

G.2.4 Polarization scrambling .................................................................................. 69

G.2.5 Input/output optics ......................................................................................... 69

G.3 Specimen stability ................................................................................................. 69

G.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 69

G.4.1 Set instrument parameters ............................................................................. 69

G.4.2 Action of the instrument after measurement initiation ..................................... 70

G.5 Calculations .......................................................................................................... 72

G.5.1 Power normalisation ...................................................................................... 72

G.5.2 Transmission differences ............................................................................... 73

G.5.3 Mean-square transmission difference and round trip PMD ............................. 74

G.5.4 Determination of PMD .................................................................................... 75

G.6 Procedures for measuring PMD on installed aerial links ........................................ 75

G.6.1 Instability compensation ................................................................................ 75

G.6.2 Approaches to reducing the effects of instabilities ......................................... 76

(informative) PMD determination by Method C ....................................................... 78

H.1 General ................................................................................................................. 78

H.2 Traditional analysis ............................................................................................... 78

H.3 General analysis ................................................................................................... 80

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 82

Figure 1 – Typical passive cabling link configuration ............................................................. 16

Figure 2 – Example configuration of link including amplifiers ................................................. 17

Figure A.1 – Block diagrams for fixed analyzer ..................................................................... 28

Figure A.2 – Example of the R-function for the fixed analyzer method ................................... 31

Figure A.3 – A chirped sine wave .......................................................................................... 33

Figure A.4 – PMD by Fourier analysis ................................................................................... 34

Figure B.1 – Block diagram for Method B using a narrowband (tuneable laser) source .......... 36

Figure B.2 – Block diagram for Method B using a broadband (ASE) source ........................... 36

Figure C.1 – Generic set-up for Method C (INTY).................................................................. 41

Figure C.2 – Schematic diagram for Method C (TINTY) ......................................................... 42

Figure C.3 – Typical data obtained by Method C (TINTY) ...................................................... 44

Figure C.4 – Schematic diagram for Method C (GINTY) ........................................................ 45

Figure C.5 – Typical random-mode-coupling data obtained by Method C (GINTY) ................ 47

Figure C.6 – Typical mixed-mode-coupling data obtained by Method C (GINTY) ................... 47

Figure D.1 – Layout for Method D ......................................................................................... 49

Figure E.1 – Basic apparatus ................................................................................................ 51

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Figure E.2 – Apparatus layout for polarization modulation ..................................................... 52

Figure E.3 – Mueller states on Poincaré sphere .................................................................... 57

Figure E.4 – DGD versus wavelength .................................................................................... 58

Figure E.5 – DGD in histogram format .................................................................................. 59

Figure F.1 – Block diagram for Method F (polarization phase shift method) ........................... 61

Figure F.2 – DGD versus wavelength for a random mode coupling device ..................

...

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