Assessment methods of the human exposure to electric and magnetic fields from wireless power transfer systems - Models, instrumentation, measurement and numerical methods and procedures (frequency range of 1 kHz to 30 MHz)

IEC PAS 63184:2021 specifies the assessment methods to evaluate compliance of stationary and dynamic wireless power transfer (WPT) systems with electromagnetic human exposure guidelines (external electric and magnetic fields, specific absorption rate (SAR), internal electric fields or current density including contact currents). The frequency range of this document is from 1 kHz to 30 MHz.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
26-May-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
27-May-2021
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IEC PAS 63184:2021 - Assessment methods of the human exposure to electric and magnetic fields from wireless power transfer systems - Models, instrumentation, measurement and numerical methods and procedures (frequency range of 1 kHz to 30 MHz)
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119 pages
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IEC PAS 63184
Edition 1.0 2021-05
PUBLICLY AVAILABLE
SPECIFICATION
PRE-STANDARD
colour
inside
Assessment methods of the human exposure to electric and magnetic fields
from wireless power transfer systems – Models, instrumentation, measurement
and numerical methods and procedures (frequency range of 1 kHz to 30 MHz)
IEC PAS 63184:2021-05(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC PAS 63184
Edition 1.0 2021-05
PUBLICLY AVAILABLE
SPECIFICATION
PRE-STANDARD
colour
inside
Assessment methods of the human exposure to electric and magnetic fields
from wireless power transfer systems – Models, instrumentation, measurement
and numerical methods and procedures (frequency range of 1 kHz to 30 MHz)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 17.220.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-9542-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC PAS 63184:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 8

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 10

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 11

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 11

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 11

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ..................................................................................... 15

4.1 Physical quantities ................................................................................................ 15

4.2 Constants ............................................................................................................. 15

4.3 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 15

5 Assessment procedures ................................................................................................ 16

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 16

5.2 Conformity assessment considering direct effects ................................................. 17

5.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 17

5.2.2 Evaluation based on coil current .................................................................... 17

5.2.3 Evaluation of incident fields against reference levels ..................................... 18

5.2.4 Evaluation of incident fields against basic restrictions .................................... 18

5.2.5 Evaluation of internal E-field, current density and/or SAR against basic

restrictions ..................................................................................................... 22

5.3 Conformity assessment considering indirect effect ................................................ 22

6 Measurement methods .................................................................................................. 24

6.1 Incident fields ....................................................................................................... 24

6.1.1 General procedure ......................................................................................... 24

6.1.2 Equipment ..................................................................................................... 25

6.2 SAR ...................................................................................................................... 26

6.3 Contact currents ................................................................................................... 27

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 27

6.3.2 Equipment ..................................................................................................... 28

6.3.3 Measurements ............................................................................................... 29

7 Computational assessment methods .............................................................................. 30

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 30

7.2 Quasi-static approximation .................................................................................... 30

7.3 Computational assessment against the basic restrictions ...................................... 31

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

7.3.2 Peak spatial-average SAR ............................................................................. 31

7.3.3 Whole-body average SAR .............................................................................. 31

8 Combination of measurement and computational assessment methods ......................... 32

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 32

8.2 Measurement of magnetic field ............................................................................. 32

8.3 Computational analyses of induced quantities ....................................................... 32

8.4 Computational assessment against the basic restrictions ...................................... 33

9 Uncertainty assessments ............................................................................................... 33

9.1 Measurement methods .......................................................................................... 33

9.2 Numerical methods ............................................................................................... 34

9.3 Assessment of combining measurement and numerical methods .......................... 35

Annex A (informative) Exposure evaluations using approximations ...................................... 37

Annex B (normative) Calibration methods ............................................................................ 39

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IEC PAS 63184:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 39

B.2 E-field and H-field calibration ................................................................................ 39

B.2.1 Standard field generation methods ................................................................ 39

B.2.2 Characteristics to be measured ..................................................................... 39

B.2.3 Frequency domain calibration ........................................................................ 40

B.2.4 E-field calibration ........................................................................................... 44

B.3 Gradient response verification .............................................................................. 48

B.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 48

B.3.2 H-field gradient verification: Main steps ......................................................... 48

B.3.3 Uncertainty for H-field gradient verification .................................................... 48

B.4 Dosimetric probe calibration .................................................................................. 49

B.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 49

B.4.2 Calibration with short dipole antennas via transmit antenna factor ................. 49

B.4.3 Uncertainty .................................................................................................... 52

Annex C (normative) Verification and validation methods for measurement .......................... 53

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 53

C.2 Objective .............................................................................................................. 53

C.3 Measurement setup and procedure for system verification and system

validation .............................................................................................................. 53

C.4 Measurement system verification: test procedure .................................................. 54

C.5 Measurement system validation: test procedure .................................................... 54

Annex D (informative) Dependency of SAR on phantom property and size ........................... 55

D.1 Phantom property ................................................................................................. 55

D.2 Phantom size ........................................................................................................ 58

Annex E (informative) Extrapolation methods of SAR measurement ..................................... 61

E.1 General ................................................................................................................. 61

E.2 Measurement and interpolation of electric field inside a phantom .......................... 61

E.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 61

E.2.2 Extrapolation functions .................................................................................. 61

E.2.3 Three steps for determination of spatial-peak SAR ........................................ 62

E.2.4 Validation of measurement methods using extrapolation ................................ 62

E.2.5 Uncertainty .................................................................................................... 64

Annex F (informative) Numerical calculation methods .......................................................... 66

F.1 General ................................................................................................................. 66

F.2 Quasi-static finite element method ........................................................................ 66

F.3 Scalar potential finite difference method ............................................................... 67

F.4 Impedance method ............................................................................................... 67

F.5 Finite-difference time-domain method ................................................................... 68

F.6 Hybrid technique of MoM and FDTD method ......................................................... 68

F.7 Hybrid technique of FEM and SPFD method ......................................................... 69

Annex G (informative) Averaging algorithms ........................................................................ 70

G.1 Current density averaging over an area ................................................................ 70

G.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 70

G.1.2 Calculation of the current density in a Cartesian voxel ................................... 70

G.1.3 Calculation of the current density in a tetrahedron ......................................... 71

G.1.4 Calculation of J .......................................................................................... 71

G.2 E-field averaging in a cubical volume .................................................................... 72

G.3 E-field averaging along an averaging distance ...................................................... 72

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– 4 – IEC PAS 63184:2021 © IEC 2021

G.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 72

G.3.2 Algorithm to construct the integration path ..................................................... 73

Annex H (informative) Code verification and model validations ............................................ 74

H.1 Code verification ................................................................................................... 74

H.1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 74

H.1.2 Quasi-static codes ......................................................................................... 74

H.1.3 Quasi-static codes for the calculation of the incident magnetic field ............... 75

H.1.4 Averaging algorithms ..................................................................................... 76

H.2 Model validation .................................................................................................... 77

H.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 77

H.2.2 Recommendations for the development of the numerical model ..................... 78

H.2.3 Determining the validity of the field source .................................................... 78

Annex I (informative) Use cases .......................................................................................... 80

I.1 EV (SWPT) ........................................................................................................... 80

I.1.1 Determination of user position ....................................................................... 80

I.1.2 Assessment procedures considering direct effects for WPT system for

EV ................................................................................................................. 81

I.1.3 Assessment procedures considering indirect effects for WPT system for

EV ................................................................................................................. 86

I.2 Heavy duty vehicle EMF measurement procedure ................................................. 91

I.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 91

I.2.2 Step 1 ............................................................................................................ 91

I.2.3 Step 2 ............................................................................................................ 93

I.2.4 Step 3 ............................................................................................................ 93

I.3 Drone ................................................................................................................... 94

I.3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 94

I.3.2 Assessment procedures of WPT system for drone ......................................... 94

Annex J (informative) Examples of assessment results ........................................................ 98

J.1 General ................................................................................................................. 98

J.2 Assessment procedure of heavy-duty WPT EV system .......................................... 98

J.2.1 Outline of assessment procedure ................................................................... 98

J.2.2 Test condition ................................................................................................ 98

J.2.3 Test result 1 .................................................................................................. 99

J.2.4 Test result 2 .................................................................................................. 99

J.3 Drone ................................................................................................................. 100

J.3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 100

J.3.2 Description of WPT system for drone ........................................................... 100

J.3.3 Measurement of magnetic field around the WPT system for drone ............... 100

J.3.4 Modelling for the WPT system for drone ...................................................... 101

J.3.5 Evaluation of incident field against basic restrictions ................................... 102

J.3.6 Evaluation of current density, internal electric field, and SAR against

basic restrictions ......................................................................................... 104

J.4 Combined method of experimental and numerical analysis ................................. 105

J.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 105

J.4.2 Measurement of magnetic field .................................................................... 105

J.4.3 Numerical analyses of induced quantities .................................................... 106

J.4.4 Example of exposure assessment for WPT systems using combined

method ........................................................................................................ 106

J.5 SAR measurement for WPT system .................................................................... 110

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IEC PAS 63184:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
Annex K (informative) Proximity detection sensor considerations for compliance

assessment ........................................................................................................................ 112

K.1 Proximity detection sensor considerations .......................................................... 112

K.1.1 General ....................................................................................................... 112

K.1.2 Phantom definition ....................................................................................... 112

K.1.3 Test preparation .......................................................................................... 112

K.1.4 Procedures for determining stationary living objects .................................... 113

K.1.5 Procedures for determining proximity detection sensor triggering

distance ....................................................................................................... 114

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 115

Figure 1 – Flowchart for the assessment procedure .............................................................. 16

Figure 2 – Flowchart for the assessment procedure considering the direct effect .................. 17

Figure 3 – Trend of the approximation formulas as a function of the gradient [10] ................. 22

Figure 4 – Two exposure situations for ungrounded and grounded metal objects .................. 23

Figure 5 – Flowchart for assessment procedures for indirect effects ..................................... 23

Figure 6 – Human body equivalent circuit proposed in IEC 60990 [23] .................................. 28

Figure 7 – Impedance frequency characteristics of adult male and equivalent circuits

proposed in IEC 60990 [23] and evaluated values [24], [25], [26], [27] .................................. 28

Figure 8 – Example of contact current measurement equipment ........................................... 29

Figure B.1 – H-field and E-field generation setup for probe calibration .................................. 41

Figure B.2 – H-field generation setup for dynamic range calibration ...................................... 42

Figure B.3 – E-field generation setup for frequency response calibration .............................. 44

Figure B.4 – E-field generation setup for dynamic range calibration ...................................... 45

Figure B.5 – Illustration of the transmit antenna factor evaluation setup [38] ......................... 51

Figure B.6 – Illustration of the sensitivity coefficients evaluation setup [38] ........................... 52

Figure C.1 – A recommended magnetic and electric field setup for measurement

system verification and validation ......................................................................................... 54

Figure D.1 – Simulation model of large WPT system operating close to a) elliptical

phantom and b) human body model ...................................................................................... 56

Figure D.2 – Different exposure conditions for human body model ........................................ 56

Figure D.3 – Calculated SAR for circular coils with a 50 cm diameter operating at 6 cm

from the elliptical phantom and heterogeneous human model ............................................... 57

Figure D.4 – Simulation model of small WPT system operating close to a) elliptical

phantom and b) human body model ...................................................................................... 57

Figure D.5 – Calculated SAR for the small squared coils with dimensions 10 cm ×

10 cm operating at 2 cm from the elliptical phantom and heterogeneous human model ......... 58

Figure D.6 – Layout of large WPT system for exposure condition of a) case A and b)

case C with respect to the elliptical phantom surface ............................................................ 59

Figure D.7 – Calculated 10 g-averaged SAR versus the smaller axis of elliptical

phantom v normalized by coil outer diameter D for a) case A (f = 7,54 MHz) and b)

high

case C (f = 6,14 MHz, f = 7,18 MHz) ......................................................................... 59

low high
Figure D.8 – Layout of small WPT system for exposure conditions of case C with

respect to a) elliptical phantom and b) rectangular phantom ................................................. 60

Figure D.9 – Calculated 10 g-averaged SAR versus the smaller axis v or width W
normalized by square coil diagonal K for a) elliptical phantom (f = 6,6 MHz, f =
low high

7,64 MHz) and b) rectangular phantom (f = 6,59 MHz) ..................................................... 60

low
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– 6 – IEC PAS 63184:2021 © IEC 2021

Figure E.1 – Schematic diagram of measurement system ..................................................... 63

Figure E.2 – Measurement system ........................................................................................ 63

Figure E.3 – Measured and simulated electric field distributions in the measurement

plane 2,5 cm away from the phantom boundary in the case of the solenoid-type WPT

system .................................................................................................................................. 63

Figure E.4 – Measured and simulated electric field distributions in the measurement

plane 2,5 cm away from the phantom boundary in the case of the flat-spiral-type WPT

system .................................................................................................................................. 64

Figure E.5 – 10 g averaged SAR obtained by measurement with extrapolation and

MoM-derived 10 g averaged SAR ......................................................................................... 64

Figure G.1 – Field components on voxel edges ..................................................................... 71

Figure I.1 – Example for areas of protection, for ground mounted systems (vehicle) [61] ..... 80

Figure I.2 – Example for areas of protection, for ground mounted systems (using

vehicle mimic plate) .............................................................................................................. 81

Figure I.3 – Flowchart for EV and vehicle mimic plate assessment (direct effect) .................. 82

Figure I.4 – Area 2 measurement position (SWPT)................................................................ 83

Figure I.5 – Area 3 measurement position ............................................................................. 84

Figure I.6 – Area 2 measurement position of vehicle mimic plate (SWPT) ............................. 85

Figure I.7 – Area 2 measurement position of vehicle mimic plate (SWPT) ............................. 85

Figure I.8 – Flowchart for EV use and vehicle mimic plate assessment (indirect effect) ......... 87

Figure I.9 – Configuration example of contact current with grounded condition: (1) with

vehicle .................................................................................................................................. 88

Figure I.10 – Configuration example of contact current with grounded condition:

(2) with vehicle mimic plate ................................................................................................... 89

Figure I.11 – Configuration example of contact current with ungrounded condition:

(1) with vehicle ..................................................................................................................... 90

Figure I.12 – Configuration example of contact current with ungrounded condition:

(2) with vehicle mimic plate ................................................................................................... 91

Figure I.13 – EMF measurement for heavy duty vehicle: top view ......................................... 92

Figure I.14 – EMF measurement for heavy duty vehicle: side view ........................................ 92

Figure I.15 – Measurement points on the inside floor of WPT bus ......................................... 94

Figure I.16 – Measurement position ...................................................................................... 95

Figure J.1 – EMF test of an electrical bus (August 7, 2015, Sejong City) ............................... 98

Figure J.2 – Test result 1 from side-view ............................................................................... 99

Figure J.3 – Test result 2 on separation distance from bus surface ....................................... 99

Figure J.4 – Geometry and measurement position of WPT system for drone ....................... 101

Figure J.5 – Measured magnetic field strength .................................................................... 101

Figure J.6 – Measured and computed magnetic field strength ............................................. 102

Figure J.7 – Measurement system for the magnetic near-field of WPT systems [33] ............ 106

Figure J.8 – Schematic view and picture of the fabricated magnetic-field probes [33] .......... 106

Figure J.9 – Schematic view (left) and picture (right) of WPT systems [33] ......................... 107

Figure J.10 – Exposure conditions for WPT coils [33] ......................................................... 108

Figure J.11 – Amplitude and phase distributions of magnetic fields measured near

WPT systems without and with ferrite tiles [33] ................................................................... 109

Figure J.12 – Distribution of the internal electric field stren
...

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