Safety of laser products - Part 12: Safety of free space optical communication systems used for transmission of information

IEC 60825-12:2019 is available as IEC 60825-12:2019 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60825-12:2019 provides requirements and specific guidance for the manufacture and safe use of laser products and systems used for point-to-point or point-to-multipoint free space optical data transmission in the wavelength range from 180 nm to 1 mm. This document only addresses the open beam portion of the system. If portions of the equipment or system incorporate optical fibre that extends from the confinements of the enclosure(s), the manufacturing and safety requirements in IEC 60825-2 apply to those portions only. This document does not apply to systems designed for the purposes of transmitting optical power for applications such as material processing or medical treatment. This document also does not apply to the use of systems in explosive atmospheres (see IEC 60079-0). Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) employed by free space optical communication systems (FSOCSs), used for the purpose of free space optical data transmission, do not fall into the scope of this document. This document covers lasers employed by FSOCSs used for the purpose of free space optical data transmission. This document:
• provides information to protect people from potentially hazardous optical radiation produced by FSOCSs by specifying engineering controls and requirements, administrative controls and work practices according to the degree of the hazard; and
• specifies requirements for manufacturing, installation, service and operating organizations in order to establish procedures and provide written information so that proper precautions can be adopted.
Because of the nature of FSOCSs, also known as optical wireless or free-air information transmission systems, care is taken in their manufacture as well as their installation, operation, maintenance and service to assure the safe deployment and use of these systems. This document places the responsibility for certain product safety requirements, as well as requirements for providing appropriate information on how to use these systems safely, on the manufacturer of the system and/or transmitters. It places the responsibility for the safe deployment and use of these systems on the installer and/or operating organization. It places the responsibility for adherence to safety instructions during installation and service operations on the installation and service organizations as appropriate, and during operation and maintenance functions on the operating organization. It is recognized that the user of this document may fall into one or more of the categories of manufacturer, installer, service organization and/or operating organization as mentioned above. This document does not apply to a laser product if classification by the manufacturer according to IEC 60825-1 shows that the emission level does not exceed the accessible emission limit (AEL) of Class 1 under all conditions of operation, maintenance, service and reasonably foreseeable failure.
Key words: Laser products, Free space optical data, Free space optical communication.

Sécurité des appareils à laser - Partie 12 : Sécurité des systèmes de communication optiques en espace libre utilisés pour la transmission d'informations

IEC 60825-12:2019 est disponible sous forme de IEC 60825-12:2019 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.
L'IEC 60825-12:2019 donne des exigences et des recommandations spécifiques relatives à la fabrication et à l'utilisation en toute sécurité des appareils à laser et des systèmes employés pour la transmission optique de données en espace libre, d'un point à un autre ou d'un point à plusieurs autres points, dans la plage de longueurs d’onde comprise entre 180 nm et 1 mm. Le présent document ne traite que de la partie du faisceau qui se propage dans un espace ouvert du système. Si des parties de l'équipement ou du système comprennent une fibre optique qui sort des limites de confinement de l'enveloppe ou des enveloppes, les exigences de fabrication et de sécurité de l’IEC 60825-2 ne s'appliquent qu'à ces parties. Le présent document ne s'applique pas aux systèmes conçus dans le but de transmettre un flux énergétique optique pour des applications telles que le traitement des matériaux ou le traitement médical. Le présent document ne s'applique pas non plus à l'utilisation des systèmes en atmosphères explosives (voir l’IEC 60079-0). Les diodes électroluminescentes (LED) employées par les systèmes de communication optique en espace libre (SCOEL), pour la transmission optique de données en espace libre, ne font pas partie du domaine d’application du présent document. Le présent document couvre les lasers employés par les SCOEL utilisés dans le cadre de la transmission optique de données en espace libre. Le présent document:
• fournit des informations pour protéger les personnes contre le rayonnement optique potentiellement dangereux produit par les SCOEL, en spécifiant les moyens de contrôle et les exigences techniques, les moyens de contrôle administratif et les règles de travail en fonction du degré de danger; et
• spécifie des exigences à l'usage des organismes assurant la fabrication, l'installation, l'entretien et l'exploitation, afin d'établir des procédures et de fournir des informations écrites, de sorte que des précautions appropriées puissent être prises.
En raison de la nature des SCOEL, également connus sous le nom de systèmes optiques de transmission d'informations sans fil ou à l'air libre, des précautions sont prises lors de leur fabrication comme lors de leur installation, exploitation, maintenance et entretien, pour assurer un déploiement et une utilisation en toute sécurité. Le présent document établit la responsabilité du fabricant du système et/ou des émetteurs vis-à-vis de certaines exigences de sécurité du produit, ainsi que des exigences destinées à fournir des informations appropriées sur la manière d'utiliser ces systèmes en toute sécurité. Il fixe la responsabilité de l'installateur et/ou de l'organisme d'exploitation vis-à-vis du déploiement et de l'utilisation en toute sécurité de ces systèmes. Il définit, comme il convient, la responsabilité des organismes d'installation et d'entretien vis-à-vis de leur respect des instructions de sécurité, pendant les opérations d'installation et d'entretien et de l'organisme d'exploitation vis-à-vis des fonctions d'exploitation et de maintenance. Il est manifeste que l'utilisateur du présent document peut relever d'une ou de plusieurs catégories, celle(s) du fabricant, de l'installateur, de l'organisme d'entretien et/ou de l'organisme d'exploitation, comme mentionnées ci-dessus. Le présent document ne s’applique pas à un appareil à laser si la classification par le fabricant, selon l’IEC 60825-1, montre que son niveau d'émission ne dépasse pas la limite d’émission accessible (LEA) de la classe 1 dans toutes les conditions d'exploitation, de maintenance, d'entretien et de défaillance raisonnablement prévisible.
Mots-clés: Appareils à laser, Optique de données en espace libre, Communication optique en espace libre

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
07-Feb-2019
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
08-Feb-2019
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IEC 60825-12
Edition 2.0 2019-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Safety of laser products –
Part 12: Safety of free space optical communication systems used for
transmission of information
Sécurité des appareils à laser –
Partie 12: Sécurité des systèmes de communication optiques en espace libre
utilisés pour la transmission d'informations
IEC 60825-12:2019-02(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60825-12
Edition 2.0 2019-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Safety of laser products –
Part 12: Safety of free space optical communication systems used for
transmission of information
Sécurité des appareils à laser –
Partie 12: Sécurité des systèmes de communication optiques en espace libre
utilisés pour la transmission d'informations
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.260 ISBN 978-2-8322-6458-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60825-12:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Requirements ................................................................................................................ 11

4.1 General remarks ................................................................................................... 11

4.2 Determination of access level ............................................................................... 13

4.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 13

4.2.2 The use of Condition 2 ................................................................................... 13

4.2.3 The use of C7 ................................................................................................ 16

4.3 Impact of using automatic power reduction features .............................................. 16

4.4 Access level and classification requirements by location type ............................... 16

4.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 16

4.4.2 Requirements for unrestricted locations ......................................................... 18

4.4.3 Requirements for restricted locations ............................................................. 22

4.4.4 Requirements for controlled locations ............................................................ 23

4.4.5 Requirements for inaccessible space ............................................................. 24

4.5 Classification ........................................................................................................ 24

4.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 24

4.5.2 Automatic power reduction mechanisms (APR) .............................................. 25

4.6 Installation protection systems (IPS) ..................................................................... 26

4.7 Specular reflections .............................................................................................. 26

4.8 Organizational requirements ................................................................................. 26

4.8.1 Requirements for manufacturers of ready-to-use FSOCS transmitters or

turn key systems............................................................................................ 26

4.8.2 Installation and service organization requirements ......................................... 28

4.8.3 Operating organization requirements ............................................................. 29

Annex A (informative) Methods of hazard/safety analysis ..................................................... 30

Annex B (informative) Guidance for installing, servicing and operating organizations ........... 31

B.1 Working practices for FSOCSs .............................................................................. 31

B.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

B.1.2 General working practices ............................................................................. 31

B.1.3 Additional working practices for Class/access level 1M, 2M, 3R, 3B and

4 systems ...................................................................................................... 32

B.2 Education and training .......................................................................................... 32

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 33

Figure 1 – Commercial structures ......................................................................................... 17

Figure 2 – Residential areas ................................................................................................. 18

Figure 3 – Examples of external location types ..................................................................... 19

Figure 4 – Class 1M or 2M transmitter near edge of unrestricted rooftop ............................... 20

Figure 5 – Class 1M transmitter in unrestricted location ........................................................ 21

Figure 6 – Class 3R transmitter in restricted location ............................................................ 23

Table 1 – Restrictions for product classes and access levels ................................................ 12

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60825-12:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –

Table 2 – Measurement aperture diameters and distances for the default (simplified)

evaluation ............................................................................................................................. 14

Table 3 – Requirements for warning signs ............................................................................ 29

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60825-12:2019 © IEC 2019
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SAFETY OF LASER PRODUCTS –
Part 12: Safety of free space optical communication
systems used for transmission of information
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

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Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60825-12 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 76:

Optical radiation safety and laser equipment.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2004. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) LEDs have been removed from the scope.

b) Normative references have been changed to refer the latest edition of the standards.

c) A description of the Condition 2 measurement and determination method for access level

has been added.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60825-12:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
76/616/FDIS 76/617/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The list of all parts of the IEC 60825 series, published under the general title Safety of laser

products, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60825-12:2019 © IEC 2019
SAFETY OF LASER PRODUCTS –
Part 12: Safety of free space optical communication
systems used for transmission of information
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60825 provides requirements and specific guidance for the manufacture and

safe use of laser products and systems used for point-to-point or point-to-multipoint free

space optical data transmission in the wavelength range from 180 nm to 1 mm. This document

only addresses the open beam portion of the system. If portions of the equipment or system

incorporate optical fibre that extends from the confinements of the enclosure(s), the

manufacturing and safety requirements in IEC 60825-2 apply to those portions only. This

document does not apply to systems designed for the purposes of transmitting optical power

for applications such as material processing or medical treatment. This document also does

not apply to the use of systems in explosive atmospheres (see IEC 60079-0).

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) employed by free space optical communication systems

(FSOCSs), used for the purpose of free space optical data transmission, do not fall into the

scope of this document. This document covers lasers employed by FSOCSs used for the

purpose of free space optical data transmission.
This document:

• provides information to protect people from potentially hazardous optical radiation

produced by FSOCSs by specifying engineering controls and requirements, administrative

controls and work practices according to the degree of the hazard; and

• specifies requirements for manufacturing, installation, service and operating organizations

in order to establish procedures and provide written information so that proper precautions

can be adopted.

Because of the nature of FSOCSs, also known as optical wireless or free-air information

transmission systems, care is taken in their manufacture as well as their installation,

operation, maintenance and service to assure the safe deployment and use of these systems.

This document places the responsibility for certain product safety requirements, as well as

requirements for providing appropriate information on how to use these systems safely, on the

manufacturer of the system and/or transmitters. It places the responsibility for the safe

deployment and use of these systems on the installer and/or operating organization. It places

the responsibility for adherence to safety instructions during installation and service

operations on the installation and service organizations as appropriate, and during operation

and maintenance functions on the operating organization. It is recognized that the user of this

document may fall into one or more of the categories of manufacturer, installer, service

organization and/or operating organization as mentioned above.

This document does not apply to a laser product if classification by the manufacturer

according to IEC 60825-1 shows that the emission level does not exceed the accessible

emission limit (AEL) of Class 1 under all conditions of operation, maintenance, service and

reasonably foreseeable failure.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60825-12:2019 © IEC 2019 – 7 –

IEC 60825-1, Safety of laser products – Part 1: Equipment classification and requirements

IEC 60825-2, Safety of laser products – Part 2: Safety of optical fibre communication systems

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
access level
potential hazard at any accessible position associated with a free space optical
communication system (FSOCS) installation

Note 1 to entry: The access level is based on the level of optical radiation which could become accessible in

reasonably foreseeable circumstances, e.g. walking into an open beam path. It is closely related to the laser

classification procedure in IEC 60825-1.

Note 2 to entry: Practically speaking, it takes two or more seconds to fully align an optical aid with a beam (which

might occur in an unrestricted location), and this delay is incorporated into the method for determining access level.

3.2
access level 1

level for which, under reasonably foreseeable circumstances, human access to laser radiation

in excess of the accessible emission limits (AEL) of Class 1 for the applicable wavelengths

and emission duration will not occur

Note 1 to entry: The level of radiation is measured with the conditions for Class 1 laser products

(see IEC 60825-1), but with Condition 2 and C being as defined in 4.2.3 of this document (IEC 60825-12).

3.3
access level 1M

level for which, under reasonably foreseeable circumstances, human access to laser radiation

in excess of the accessible emission limits (AEL) of Class 1M for the applicable wavelengths

and emission duration will not occur

Note 1 to entry: The level of radiation is measured with the conditions for Class 1M laser products

(see IEC 60825-1), but with Condition 2 and C being as defined in 4.2.3 of this document (IEC 60825-12).

Note 2 to entry: If the applicable limit of access level 1M is larger than the limit of 3R and less than the limit of 3B,

access level 1M is allocated.
3.4
access level 2

level for which, under reasonably foreseeable circumstances, human access to laser radiation

in excess of the accessible emission limits of Class 2 for the applicable wavelengths and

emission duration will not occur

Note 1 to entry: The level of radiation is measured with the conditions for Class 2 laser products

(see IEC 60825-1), but with Condition 2 and C being as defined in 4.2.3 of this document (IEC 60825-12).

3.5
access level 2M

level for which, under reasonably foreseeable circumstances, human access to laser radiation

in excess of the accessible emission limits of Class 2M for the applicable wavelengths and

emission duration will not occur
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60825-12:2019 © IEC 2019

Note 1 to entry: The level of radiation is measured with the conditions for Class 2M laser products

(see IEC 60825-1), but with Condition 2 and C being as defined in 4.2.3 of this document (IEC 60825-12).

Note 2 to entry: If the applicable limit of access level 2M is larger than the limit of 3R and less than the limit of 3B,

access level 2M is allocated.
3.6
access level 3R

level for which, under reasonably foreseeable circumstances, human access to laser radiation

in excess of the accessible emission limits of Class 3R for the applicable wavelengths and

emission duration will not occur

Note 1 to entry: The level of radiation is measured with the conditions for Class 3R laser products

(see IEC 60825-1), but with Condition 2 and C being as defined in 4.2.3 of this document (IEC 60825-12).

Note 2 to entry: If the applicable limit of access level 1M or 2M is larger than the limit of 3R and less than the limit

of 3B, access level 1M or 2M is allocated.
3.7
access level 3B

level for which, under reasonably foreseeable circumstances, human access to laser radiation

in excess of the accessible emission limits of Class 3B for the applicable wavelengths and

emission duration will not occur

Note 1 to entry: The level of radiation is measured with the conditions for Class 3B laser products

(see IEC 60825-1), but with Condition 2 and C being as defined in 4.2.3 of this document (IEC 60825-12).

3.8
access level 4

level for which, under reasonably foreseeable circumstances, it is possible that human access

to laser radiation in excess of the accessible emission limits of Class 3B for the applicable

wavelengths and emission duration could occur

Note 1 to entry: The level of radiation is measured with the conditions for Class 4 laser products

(see IEC 60825-1), but with Condition 2 and C being as defined in 4.2.3 of this document (IEC 60825-12).

3.9
automatic power reduction
APR

feature of a transmitter of an FSOCS, provided by the system equipment manufacturer, by

which the accessible power in the nominal hazard zone (NHZ) or extended nominal hazard

zone (ENHZ) is reduced to a specified value within a specified time

Note 1 to entry: The term “automatic power reduction” (APR) used in this document encompasses the following

terms used in recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union ITU:
• automatic laser shutdown (ALS);
• automatic power reduction (APR);
• automatic power shutdown (APSD).

Note 2 to entry: The accessible power in the NHZ or ENHZ is reduced to a specified value within a specified time,

whenever there is an event which could result in human exposure to optical radiation above the maximum

permissible exposure (MPE), e.g. by a person entering the NHZ or ENHZ, as applicable. In an FSOCS, this feature

may be used by the transmitter manufacturer to determine the classification.
3.10
beacon

optical source whose function is to aid in pointing or alignment of an optical system

3.11
end-to-end system

FSOCS that is comprised of at least one transmitter, one receiver, and any peripheral

hardware necessary for the effective transfer of data along the transmission path from one

position in space to another
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60825-12:2019 © IEC 2019 – 9 –
3.12
extended nominal hazard zone
ENHZ

volume within which, when optical aids are used, the level of the direct, reflected or scattered

radiation exceeds the applicable maximum permissible exposure (MPE) (under measurement

conditions indicated in IEC 60825-1)

Note 1 to entry: Exposure levels outside the boundary of the ENHZ are below the applicable MPE when optical

aids are used.

Note 2 to entry: This volume is determined prior to activation of any IPS or APR systems unless the APR is used

for classification under the conditions of 4.5 of this document.
3.13
free space optical communication system
FSOCS

installed, portable, or temporarily mounted, through-the-air system typically used, intended or

promoted for voice, data or multimedia communications and/or control purposes via the use of

modulated optical radiation produced by a laser

Note 1 to entry: “Free space” means indoor and outdoor optical wireless applications with both non-directed and

directed transmission.
Note 2 to entry: Emitting and detecting assemblies may or may not be separated.

Note 3 to entry: Refer to the conditions within Clause 1, by which Class 1 FSOCS products are exempt from all

requirements of this document.
3.14
FSOCS transmitter
transmitter
optical transmitter emitting radiation through the air and used in an FSOCS
3.15
installation organization
installer
organization or individual who is responsible for the installation of an FSOCS
3.16
installation protection system
IPS

feature of an installation site, provided by the installer or operating organization, that has two

functions: (1) it detects human entry into the accessible volume of either the NHZ for

restricted or controlled locations or the ENHZ for an unrestricted location, and (2) once such

entry is detected, causes reduction of the accessible power of the laser to a specified level

within a specified time
3.17
interlock

means either of preventing access to a hazardous location until the hazard is removed, or of

automatically removing the hazardous condition when access is gained
3.18
location
position or site occupied or available for occupancy

Note 1 to entry: Other standards may use the same terms for location types (3.19 to 3.22) with somewhat

different definitions.
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3.19
location of inaccessible space
inaccessible space

volume where a person cannot normally be located, i.e. the space that has a horizontal

spacing more than 2,5 m from any unrestricted location and is both greater than 6 m above a

surface in any unrestricted location, and more than 3 m above a surface in any restricted

location
Note 1 to entry: Inaccessible space may be entered by, for example, aircraft.

Note 2 to entry: All open space that is neither an unrestricted, restricted nor controlled location.

3.20
location with controlled access
controlled location

location where an engineering or administrative control measure is present to make it

inaccessible except to authorized personnel with appropriate laser safety training

3.21
location with restricted access
restricted location

location that is normally inaccessible to the general public (including workers, visitors, and

residents in the immediate vicinity) by means of a
...

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