Photovoltaic (PV) modules - Partial shade endurance testing for monolithically integrated products

IEC TS 63140:2021 provides test methods for quantifying the permanent change in a monolithically integrated PV module’s power output that may result from some potential partial shade conditions. Three tests are available, representing conditions of use, misuse, and most severe misuse. This document is applicable to monolithically integrated PV modules with one series-connected cell group or with multiple series-connected cell groups that are in turn connected in parallel. This document is not applicable to PV modules formed by the interconnection of separate cells.

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General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Apr-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
28-Apr-2021
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IEC TS 63140:2021 - Photovoltaic (PV) modules - Partial shade endurance testing for monolithically integrated products
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IEC TS 63140
Edition 1.0 2021-04
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
Photovoltaic (PV) modules – Partial shade endurance testing for monolithically
integrated products
IEC TS 63140:2021-04(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TS 63140
Edition 1.0 2021-04
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
Photovoltaic (PV) modules – Partial shade endurance testing for monolithically
integrated products
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 27.160 ISBN 978-2-8322-9741-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TS 63140:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 5

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Principle .......................................................................................................................... 7

5 Apparatus ........................................................................................................................ 8

6 Procedure ...................................................................................................................... 10

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

6.2 Use test (test U) .................................................................................................... 10

6.3 Misuse test (test M) and most severe misuse test (test SM) .................................. 11

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 11

6.3.2 Initial measurements ..................................................................................... 11

6.3.3 Misuse test (test M) ....................................................................................... 11

6.3.4 Most severe misuse test (test SM) ................................................................. 12

6.3.5 Final measurements ...................................................................................... 13

7 Test report ..................................................................................................................... 14

Figure 1 – Selection of the three available tests ...................................................................... 7

Figure 2 – Dimensions of the mask for test M (left) and the mask for test SM (right) ............. 10

Figure 3 – Illustration of test M, showing the movement of the fixed-size mask across

example modules of three different sizes .............................................................................. 12

Figure 4 – Illustration of test SM, showing the overlap of the mask with the module’s

full height and the movement of the mask across example modules of three different

sizes ..................................................................................................................................... 13

Table 1 – Test types available in this document ...................................................................... 8

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IEC TS 63140:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MODULES – PARTIAL SHADE ENDURANCE
TESTING FOR MONOLITHICALLY INTEGRATED PRODUCTS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

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4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

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any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

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services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC TS 63140 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 82: Solar photovoltaic energy

systems. It is a Technical Specification.
The text of this Technical Specification is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
82/1804/DTS 82/1836/RVDTS

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.

The language used for the development of this Technical Specification is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC TS 63140:2021 © IEC 2021

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC TS 63140:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) MODULES – PARTIAL SHADE ENDURANCE
TESTING FOR MONOLITHICALLY INTEGRATED PRODUCTS
1 Scope

This document provides test methods for quantifying the permanent change in a monolithically

integrated PV module’s power output that may result from some potential partial shade

conditions. Three tests are available, representing conditions of use, misuse, and most severe

misuse. This document is applicable to monolithically integrated PV modules with one series-

connected cell group or with multiple series-connected cell groups that are in turn connected in

parallel. This document is not applicable to PV modules formed by the interconnection of

separate cells.

With regard to shading, PV module documentation varies significantly by manufacturer. The

physical tests prescribed in this document are applied without regard to manufacturer

documentation or warranty policy, which may forbid certain shadows. The tests may therefore

go beyond intended use, testing a module’s response to misuse. The tests are accelerated tests.

They are intended to excite similar levels of stress as shadows that are possible during an

extended period of outdoor service. The tests represent adverse shadow scenarios, but not

necessarily the worst case scenario, which varies by product. The procedures are performed

repeatedly and in high-irradiance conditions; shadows occurring only one time or in low-

irradiance conditions are likely to cause less damage. This test procedure does not

comprehensively evaluate the efficacy or completeness of manufacturer recommendations.

This test procedure is not equivalent to, and is not intended to replace, the hot-spot endurance

test in IEC 61215-2. The safety aspects of partial shading of PV modules are covered by

IEC 61730-2 MST 22 and IEC 61215-2 MQT 09.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 60904-1, Photovoltaic devices – Part 1: Measurement of photovoltaic current-voltage

characteristics

IEC 60904-2, Photovoltaic devices – Part 2: Requirements for photovoltaic reference devices

IEC 60904-9, Photovoltaic devices – Part 9: Classification of solar simulator characteristics

IEC 60904-10, Photovoltaic devices – Part 10: Methods of linear dependence and linearity

measurements

IEC TS 60904-13, Photovoltaic devices – Part 13: Electroluminescence of photovoltaic modules

IEC 61215-2:2021, Terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules – Design qualification and type

approval – Part 2: Test procedures

IEC 61730-2, Photovoltaic (PV) module safety qualification – Part 2: Requirements for testing

IEC TS 61836, Solar photovoltaic energy systems – Terms, definitions and symbols
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC TS 63140:2021 © IEC 2021

IEC 61853-1, Photovoltaic (PV) module performance testing and energy rating – Part 1:

Irradiance and temperature performance measurements and power rating
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC TS 61836 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp.
3.1
intended use

use of a product, process or product-related service in accordance with the information for use

provided by the product manufacturer
3.2
misuse

use of a product, process or product-related service in a way not intended by the product

manufacturer as described in the product manufacturer’s product-specific manuals and

operating instructions
Note 1 to entry: Module warranties are often voided in cases of misuse.
3.3
monolithically integrated

composed of multiple solar cells built on the same substrate or superstrate and integrated

through scribing processes during fabrication
3.4
cell pitch
distance between successive repetitions of the monolithic integration pattern
3.5
module height

dimension of the module when measured parallel to the cell integration scribe lines

3.6
module width

dimension of the module when measured perpendicular to the cell integration scribe lines

3.7
string current

current that would pass in a long string of uniformly illuminated modules under the present

irradiance conditions and at 25 °C
Note 1 to entry: String current is defined by:
where
I is the current at maximum power listed on the module nameplate, and
mp,STC
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC TS 63140:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
E is the plane-of-array irradiance.
POA

Note 2 to entry: This formula is strictly valid only for linear devices, as defined in IEC 60904-10. It is acceptable for

use in the range of irradiances and temperatures used in this document.
4 Principle

Monolithically integrated PV modules contain multiple PV cells connected in series. When

illuminated and non-illuminated cells are connected in series, the non-illuminated cells can

operate in reverse bias. In combination with nonuniformities in the device, this reverse bias can

lead to highly nonuniform current flow, localized heating, and the formation of permanent shunts.

The test procedures excite this nonuniform current flow and quantify the resulting permanent

change in PV module power output.

Three test types are available, summarized in Table 1. Any of the tests may be requested by a

requestor. The U test verifies the presence of specific warning text in manufacturer

documentation. If this text is absent, test M is performed, whether or not it was requested. Test

M approximates a person repeatedly walking past the module in sunny conditions. Test SM

approximates a narrow
...

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