Printed electronics - Part 501-1: Quality assessment - Failure modes and mechanical testing - Flexible and/or bendable primary or secondary cells

IEC 62899-501-1:2019(E) specifies failure modes and mechanical stress test methods for the determination of reliability characteristics of bendable or flexible printed primary cells and secondary cells and batteries as defined in IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-01, IEC 60050‑482:2004, 482-01-02, IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-03, IEC 60050-482:2004, 482‑01-04 and IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-05, respectively.
Important parameters and specifications for primary cells are mentioned in IEC 60086-1 and IEC 60086-2. IEC 61960-3, as well as IEC 61951-1 and IEC 61951-2 define performance tests, designations, markings, dimensions and other requirements for secondary single cells and batteries. IEC 62133-1 and IEC 62133-2 address general safety requirements of secondary cells and batteries.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Jan-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
16-Jan-2019
Ref Project

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IEC 62899-501-1:2019 - Printed electronics - Part 501-1: Quality assessment - Failure modes and mechanical testing - Flexible and/or bendable primary or secondary cells
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IEC 62899-501-1
Edition 1.0 2019-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Printed electronics –
Part 501-1: Quality assessment – Failure modes and mechanical testing –
Flexible or bendable primary or secondary cells
IEC 62899-501-1:2019-01(en)
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IEC 62899-501-1
Edition 1.0 2019-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Printed electronics –
Part 501-1: Quality assessment – Failure modes and mechanical testing –
Flexible or bendable primary or secondary cells
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 29.220.10; 29.220.30; 29.220.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-6412-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62899-501-1:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Characteristics ................................................................................................................ 8

4.1 Geometrical cell properties ..................................................................................... 8

4.1.1 General specifications for measurement .......................................................... 8

4.1.2 Measuring method for cell thickness determination .......................................... 8

4.1.3 Measuring method for cell volume and cell volume change calculation ............ 9

4.2 Mechanical characteristics ...................................................................................... 9

4.2.1 General remarks .............................................................................................. 9

4.2.2 Mechanical stability (of battery package and contacts) .................................... 9

4.2.3 Bending test .................................................................................................. 10

4.2.4 Torsion properties ......................................................................................... 13

5 Failure criteria ............................................................................................................... 14

5.1 Mechanical package damage and heat generation ................................................ 14

5.2 Failure states ........................................................................................................ 14

6 Storage conditions ......................................................................................................... 14

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 15

Figure 1 – Schematic description of battery thickness measurement ....................................... 8

Figure 2 – Test points for testing the mechanical strength of cell or battery package

with a steel ball tip ................................................................................................................ 10

Figure 3 – Measurement setup for mechanical testing of flexible cells or batteries ............... 11

Figure 4 – Flexible substrate carrier for cell or battery packages with small and non-

clampable lamination frame .................................................................................................. 12

Figure 5 – Possible cell or battery designs with bending axes (dashed) ................................ 12

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IEC 62899-501-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PRINTED ELECTRONICS –
Part 501-1: Quality assessment – Failure modes and mechanical testing –
Flexible or bendable primary or secondary cells
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

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patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62899-501-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 119:

Printed Electronics.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
119/241/FDIS 119/245/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

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– 4 – IEC 62899-501-1:2019 © IEC 2019

A list of all parts in the IEC 62899 series, published under the general title Printed electronics,

can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
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IEC 62899-501-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Due to the trend towards a globalised, technological and connected society there is a rising

demand for a new breed of technologies enabling low-priced, flexible and new-concept

products. Some conventional technologies (including silicon-based microelectronics) have

reached their limits due to their high fabrication costs and environmental impact. Armed with

new printing technologies (e.g., ink jet) and innovative materials, printed electronics have

recently emerged as a promising, environmentally friendly route toward producing electronic,

display or energy storage articles at low cost, enabling new creative technologies such as

flexible electronics. Currently, this technology is beginning to be applied for the industrial

production of items such as photovoltaic devices, signage, RFID, batteries, lighting devices,

some parts of display devices, where cost, flexibility and recycling are very critical issues. For

successful industrialization of this technology, reliability and repeatability in equipment and

process should be provided under global standardization.

In the interests of improving communication, printed electronics terminology should be

identical to, or analogous with, standardised terminology approved by technical committees in

the following areas (since one or more of these will be commonly used concurrently with

printed electronics):
• TC 21: Secondary cells and batteries

• SC 21A: Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes

• TC 35: Primary cells and batteries
• TC 113: Nanotechnology for electrotechnical products and systems
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– 6 – IEC 62899-501-1:2019 © IEC 2019
PRINTED ELECTRONICS –
Part 501-1: Quality assessment – Failure modes and mechanical testing –
Flexible or bendable primary or secondary cells
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62899 specifies failure modes and mechanical stress test methods for the

determination of reliability characteristics of bendable or flexible printed primary cells and

secondary cells and batteries as defined in IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-01,

IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-02, IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-03, IEC 60050-482:2004,

482-01-04 and IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-01-05, respectively.

Important parameters and specifications for primary cells are mentioned in IEC 60086-1 and

IEC 60086-2. IEC 61960-3, as well as IEC 61951-1 and IEC 61951-2 define performance tests,

designations, markings, dimensions and other requirements for secondary single cells and

batteries. IEC 62133-1 and IEC 62133-2 address general safety requirements of secondary

cells and batteries.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050-482, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 482: Primary and

secondary cells and batteries (available at www.electropedia.org)

ISO/IEC 10373-1, Identification cards – Test methods – Part 1: General characteristics

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60050-482 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
cell

basic functional unit, consisting of an assembly of electrode terminals, electrolyte, container,

terminals and usually separators, that is a source of electric energy obtained by direct

conversion of chemical energy
Note 1 to entry: See primary cell and secondary cell.
3.2
primary cell
cell which is not designed to be electrically recharged
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IEC 62899-501-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 7 –
3.3
secondary cell
cell which is designed to be electrically recharged

Note 1 to entry: The recharge is accomplished by way of a reversible chemical reaction.

3.4
battery

one or more cells fitted with devices necessary for use, for example case, terminals, marking

and protective devices
3.5
electrolyte

liquid or solid substance containing mobile ions which render it ionically conductive

Note 1 to entry: The electrolyte may be liquid, solid or a gel.
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-02-29]
3.6
nominal value

value of a quantity used to designate and identify a component, device, equipment, or system

Note 1 to entry: The nominal value is generally a rounded value.
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-151:2001, 151-16-09]
3.7
capacity (for cells or batteries)

electric charge which a cell or battery can deliver under specified discharge conditions

Note 1 to entry: The SI unit for electric charge, or quantity of electricity, is the coulomb (1 C = 1 A·s) but in

practice, capacity is usually expressed in ampere hours (A·h).
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-14]
3.8
rated capacity

capacity value of a cell or battery determined under specified conditions

and declared by the manufacturer

Note 1 to entry: The rated capacity is the quantity of electricity C5 in A·h (ampere-hours) declared by the

manufacturer which a single cell can deliver during a 5-h period, when charged, stored and discharged.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-15, modified – a note has been added.]
3.9
discharge (for cells or batteries)

operation by which a battery delivers, to an external electric circuit and under specified

conditions, electric energy produced in the cells
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-23]
3.10
nominal voltage

suitable approximate value of the voltage used to designate or identify a cell, a battery or an

electrochemical system
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-31]
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– 8 – IEC 62899-501-1:2019 © IEC 2019
3.11
open-circuit voltage
OCV
...

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