Environmental testing - Part 2-57: Tests - Test Ff: Vibration - Time-history and sine-beat method

IEC 60068-2-57:2013 provides a standard procedure for determining, by the time-history and sine-beat methods, the ability of a specimen to withstand specified severities of transient vibration. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition, published in 1999. It also replaces IEC 60068-2-59:1990, which will be withdrawn. This edition includes only minor technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- editorially combines IEC 60068-2-57 and IEC 60068-2-59;
- the title has been modified to include a sine beat method.
This publication is to be read in conjunction with IEC 60068-1:1988.

Essais d'environnement - Partie 2-57: Essais - Essai Ff: Vibrations - Méthode par accélérogrammes et sinusoïdes modulées

La CEI 60068-2-57:2013 a pour objet de donner des règles d'exécution normalisées pour déterminer l'aptitude d'un spécimen à supporter des sévérités données de vibrations de courte durée, au moyen des méthodes par accélérogrammes et sinusoïdes modulées. Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition, publiée en 1999. Elle remplace également la CEI 60068-2-59:1990, qui sera retirée. Cette édition inclut seulement des modifications techniques mineures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
- combinaison éditoriale de la CEI 60068-2-57 et de la CEI 60068-2-59;
- le titre a été modifié afin d'inclure la méthode d'essai sinusoïde modulé.
Cette publication doit être lue conjointement avec la CEI 60068-1:1988.

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Publication Date
24-Apr-2013
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
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IEC 60068-2-57
Edition 3.0 2013-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Environmental testing –
Part 2-57: Tests – Test Ff: Vibration – Time-history and sine-beat method
Essais d'environnement –
Partie 2-57: Essais – Essai Ff: Vibrations – Méthode par accélérogrammes et
sinusoïdes modulées
IEC 60068-2-57:2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60068-2-57
Edition 3.0 2013-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Environmental testing –
Part 2-57: Tests – Test Ff: Vibration – Time-history and sine-beat method
Essais d'environnement –
Partie 2-57: Essais – Essai Ff: Vibrations – Méthode par accélérogrammes et
sinusoïdes modulées
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX X
ICS 19.040 ISBN 978-2-83220-745-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – 60068-2-57 © IEC:2013
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 8

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................... 8

4 Test requirements and associated parameters ................................................................ 15

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 15

4.2 Requirements for testing ....................................................................................... 15

4.3 Vibration response investigation ............................................................................ 16

4.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 16

4.3.2 Basic motion .............................................................................................. 16

4.3.3 Transverse motion ..................................................................................... 16

4.3.4 Rotational motion ...................................................................................... 16

4.3.5 Measuring points ....................................................................................... 16

4.3.6 Vibration amplitude tolerances ................................................................... 17

4.3.7 Frequency tolerances ................................................................................ 17

4.3.8 Sweeping .................................................................................................. 17

4.3.9 Damping ratio ............................................................................................ 17

4.4 Time-history testing ............................................................................................... 18

4.4.1 Basic motion .............................................................................................. 18

4.4.2 Transverse motion ..................................................................................... 18

4.4.3 Rotational motion ...................................................................................... 18

4.4.4 Tolerance zone for the required response spectrum .................................. 18

4.4.5 Frequency range ....................................................................................... 19

4.5 Sine-beat testing ................................................................................................... 19

4.5.1 General description ................................................................................... 19

4.5.2 Vibration amplitude tolerances ................................................................... 19

4.5.3 Test frequency tolerances ......................................................................... 19

4.5.4 Transverse motion ..................................................................................... 19

4.6 Mounting ............................................................................................................... 20

5 Severities ....................................................................................................................... 20

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 20

5.2 Time history .......................................................................................................... 20

5.3 Test frequency range............................................................................................. 21

5.4 Required response spectrum ................................................................................. 21

5.5 Number and duration of time-histories ................................................................... 21

5.5.1 Number of time histories ............................................................................ 21

5.5.2 Time-history duration ................................................................................. 21

5.5.3 Duration of the strong part of the time history ............................................ 22

5.5.4 Number of high stress cycles ..................................................................... 22

5.6 Sine-beat test level ................................................................................................ 23

5.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 23

5.6.2 Test frequency determination .................................................................... 29

5.6.3 Sine-beat test wave ................................................................................... 29

5.6.4 Number of cycles in the sine beat .............................................................. 29

5.6.5 Modulating frequency ................................................................................ 30

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60068-2-57 © IEC:2013 – 3 –

5.6.6 Number of sine beats................................................................................. 31

5.6.7 High-stress low-cycle fatigue effects .......................................................... 31

6 Preconditioning .............................................................................................................. 31

7 Initial measurements ...................................................................................................... 31

8 Testing ........................................................................................................................... 31

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 31

8.2 Vibration response investigation ............................................................................ 31

8.3 Time-history testing ............................................................................................... 32

8.4 Sine-beat testing ................................................................................................... 32

8.5 Multi-axis testing ................................................................................................... 32

8.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 32

8.5.2 Single axis testing ..................................................................................... 32

8.5.3 Biaxial testing ............................................................................................ 32

8.5.4 Triaxial testing ........................................................................................... 32

9 Intermediate measurements ........................................................................................... 33

10 Recovery ........................................................................................................................ 33

11 Final measurements ....................................................................................................... 33

12 Information to be given in the relevant specification........................................................ 33

13 Information to be given in the test report ........................................................................ 34

Annex A (informative) Guidance for time-history and sine-beat methods .............................. 35

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 41

Figure 1 – Sequence of five sine beats with five cycles ........................................................... 7

Figure 2 – Number of cycles per sine beat ............................................................................ 13

Figure 3 – Typical time history .............................................................................................. 14

Figure 4 – Typical logarithmic plot of a required response spectrum, test response

spectrum and tolerance zone ................................................................................................ 14

Figure 5 – Typical response of an oscillator excited by a specific time history during a

test ....................................................................................................................................... 22

Figure 6 – Recommended test level with crossover frequency at 0,8 Hz ............................... 24

Figure 7 – Recommended test level with crossover frequency at 1,6 Hz ............................... 26

Figure 8 – Recommended test level with crossover frequency at 8 Hz .................................. 28

Figure 9 – Amplification factors of different sine beats, continuous sine and a typical

natural time-history ............................................................................................................... 30

Figure A.1 – Recommended shape of a required response spectrum in generalized

form ...................................................................................................................................... 37

Figure A.2 – Standardized presentation of matched sine beats of acceleration, velocity

and displacement (five cycles within the sine beat of acceleration) ....................................... 40

Table 1 – Comparison of tolerances ...................................................................................... 15

Table 2 – Recommended test frequency ranges .................................................................... 21

Table 3 – Recommended test levels with a crossover frequency of 0,8 Hz (see Figure 6) ..... 23

Table 4 – Recommended test levels with a crossover frequency of 1,6 Hz (see Figure 7) ..... 25

Table 5 – Recommended test levels with a crossover frequency of 8 Hz (see Figure 8) ........ 27

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– 4 – 60068-2-57 © IEC:2013
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
___________
ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING –
Part 2-57: Tests – Test Ff: Vibration –
Time-history and sine-beat method
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

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3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

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expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60068-2-57 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 104:

Environmental conditions, classification and methods of test.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition, published in 1999. It also replaces

IEC 60068-2-59:1990, which will be withdrawn.

This edition includes only minor technical changes with respect to the previous edition:

– editorially combines IEC 60068-2-57 and IEC 60068-2-59;
– the title has been modified to include a sine beat method.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
104/595/FDIS 104/612/RVD
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
60068-2-57 © IEC:2013 – 5 –

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 60068 series, published under the general title Environmental

testing, can be found on the IEC website.
This standard is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60068-1.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – 60068-2-57 © IEC:2013
INTRODUCTION

This part of IEC 60068 details methods for testing components, equipment and other

electrotechnical products (hereinafter referred to as “specimens”) which in service can be

subjected to random or oscillating type dynamic forces of short duration, typical examples of

which are the stresses induced in equipment as a result of earthquakes, explosions and

certain phases of transportation, or by transient, short time vibration in machinery.

The characteristics of these forces and the damping of the specimen may be such that the

vibration response of the specimen will not reach a steady-state condition.

The time-history test consists, after any preliminary vibration response investigation with

sinusoidal or random vibration, in subjecting the specimen to a vibration (acceleration,

velocity or displacement) the time history being specified by a response spectrum with

characteristics simulating the effects of the dynamic forces.
A time history may be developed or obtained from
– a natural event (natural time history),
– a random sample
artificial time history.
– a synthesized signal 

In general, to adapt to the required testing severity, some modification is necessary.

The use of a time history allows a single test wave to envelop a broadband response

spectrum.

It is possible for all the modes of the structure in the excitation axis (or axes) to be excited at

the same time and consequently the stresses derived from the combined effects of the

coupled modes are generally taken into account.

In the sine beat test, the specimen is excited at fixed frequencies with a preset number of sine

beats (see Figure 1). These fixed test frequencies are predetermined test frequencies, or

critical frequencies identified by means of a sinusoidal vibration test (IEC 60068-2-6), or both.

Pauses are provided between the individual sine beats in order to allow decay of the free

response of the specimen.

In Clause 12 specification writers will find a list of details to be considered for inclusion in

specifications and, in Annex A, guidance giving necessary extra information.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
60068-2-57 © IEC:2013 – 7 –
st nd rd th th

1 sine beat Pause 2 sine beat Pause 3 sine beat Pause 4 sine beat Pause 5 sine beat

Test frequency
Modulating frequency Time
Five cycles
IEC 907/13
Figure 1 – Sequence of five sine beats with five cycles
Vibration amplitude
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – 60068-2-57 © IEC:2013
ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING –
Part 2-57: Tests – Test Ff: Vibration –
Time-history and sine-beat method
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60068 provides a standard procedure for determining, by the time-history and

sine-beat methods, the ability of a specimen to withstand specified severities of transient

vibration.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.
IEC 60068 (all parts), Environmental testing
IEC 60068-1, Environmental testing – Part 1: General and guidance

IEC 60068-2-6:2007, Environmental testing – Part 2-6: Tests – Test Fc: Vibration (sinusoidal)

IEC 60068-2-47:2005, Environmental testing – Part 2-47: Tests – Mounting of specimens for

vibration, impact and similar dynamic tests

IEC 60068-2-64:2008, Environmental testing – Part 2-64: Tests –Vibration, broadband random

and guidance

IEC 60068-3-3:1991, Environmental testing – Part 3: Guidance – Seismic test methods for

equipments

IEC 60068-3-8, Environmental testing – Part 3-8: Supporting documentation and guidance –

Selecting amongst vibration tests
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

NOTE Some of the following terms can be found in ISO 2041, IEC 60068-1 or in IEC 60068-2-6. Where, for the

convenience of the reader, a definition from one of those sources is included here, it is indicated.

3.1
critical frequency
frequency at which

– malfunctioning and/or deterioration of performance of the specimen which are dependent

on vibration are exhibited, and/or
– mechanical resonances and/or other response effects occur, for example chatter
[SOURCE: IEC 60068-2-6:2007, definition 3.9]
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
60068-2-57 © IEC:2013 – 9 –
3.2
crossover frequency

frequency at which the characteristic of a vibration changes from one relationship to another

Note 1 to entry: For example, a crossover frequency may be that frequency at which the test vibration amplitude

changes from a constant displacement value versus frequency to a constant acceleration value versus frequency.

[SOURCE: ISO 2041:2007, definition 2.118]
3.3
damping

progressive reduction of the amplitude with time due to the dissipation of energy in a system

Note 1 to entry: In practice, damping depends on many parameters, such as the structural system, mode of

vibration, strain, applied forces, velocity, materials, joint slippage, etc.

[SOURCE: IEC 60068-2-6:2007, definition 3.8, modified – original text reads "generic term

ascribed to the numerous energy dissipation mechanisms in a system"; Note remains same]

3.4
viscous damping

damping that occurs when an element or a part of a vibration system is resisted by a force the

magnitude of which is proportional to the velocity of the element and the direction of which is

opposite to the direction of the velocity
3.5
critical damping

minimum viscous damping that will allow a displaced system to return to its initial position

without oscillation
3.6
damping ratio

ratio of actual viscous damping to critical damping in a system with viscous damping

Note 1 to entry: The damping ratio (DR) can be calculated using the formula DR = C/C where C is actual viscous

damping value and C is the critical damping.
Note 2 to entry: This parameter is normally expressed as a percentage value.
3.7
signal tolerance
 NF 
signal tolerance T = × 100 (per cent)
 −1
 
where
NF is the r.m.s value of the unfiltered signal;
F is the r.m.s value of the filtered signal.

Note 1 to entry: This parameter applies to whichever signal, i.e. acceleration, velocity or displacement, is being

used to control the test (see A.2.2 of IEC 60068-2-6:2007)
3.8
fixing point

part of the specimen in contact with the fixture or vibration table at a point where the

specimen is normally fastened in service

Note 1 to entry: If a part of the real mounting structure is used as the fixture, the fixing points are taken as those

of the mounting structure and not of the specimen.

[SOURCE: IEC 60068-2-6:2007, definition 3.1, modified – omission of the second NOTE]

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – 60068-2-57 © IEC:2013
3.9
standard acceleration

standard acceleration due to the earth's gravity, which itself varies with altitude and

geographical latitude

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this standard, the value of g is rounded up to the nearest whole number, that

is 10 m/s .
3.10
high stress cycles

response cycles giving rise to values of stress which may cause degradation, deformation or

low cycle fatigue in the specimen

Note 1 to entry: Stresses in the specimen are normally not measured or controlled. High stress is used here as a

circumscription for high excitation, see A.1.4.
3.11
measuring points
specific points at which data are gathered for conducting the test
Note 1 to entry: These points are of two main types, as defined below

Note 2 to entry: Measurements may be made at points within the specimen in order to assess its behaviour; these

are not considered as measuring points in the sense of this standard.
[SOURCE: IEC 60068-2-6:2007, definition 3.2]
3.11.1
check point

point located on the fixture, the real mounting structure, on the vibration table or on the

specimen as close as possible to one of its fixing points and in any case rigidly connected to it

Note 1 to entry: A number of check points are used as a means of ensuring that the test requirements are

satisfied.

Note 2 to entry: If four or fewer fixing points exist, each is used as a check point. If more than four fixing points

exist, four representative fixing points will be defined in the relevant specification to be used as check points.

Note 3 to entry: In special cases, for example for large or complex specimens, the check

...

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