Optical amplifiers - Part 5-2: Qualification specifications - Reliability qualification for optical fibre amplifiers

IEC 61291-5-2:2017 applies to optical amplifiers (OAs) and optically amplified, elementary sub-systems for terrestrial applications, using active fibres (optical fibre amplifiers (OFAs)) containing rare-earth dopants, which are commercially available. The black box approach is used in this document. The black box approach is adopted in order to give product specifications which are independent of OA implementation details. For reliability qualification purposes, some information about the internal components is needed; these internal parts are themselves treated as black boxes. This document gives requirements for the evaluation of OA reliability by combining the reliability of such internal black boxes. The object of this document is to specify the minimum list of reliability qualification tests, requirements on failure criteria during testing and on reliability predictions, and give the relevant normative references to establish a standard method for the assessment of the reliability of OFA devices and sub-systems in order to minimize risks and to promote product development and reliability qualification. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2002. It constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) removal of the contents on the relating quality management system from scope, terms and definitions, and the reliability requirements;
b) moving fit-rate calculation to Annex B (informative);
c) change of requirements for shock test;
d) amendment of abbreviations related to changes a) and b).
The contents of the corrigendum of May 2019 have been included in this copy.

Amplificateurs optiques - Partie 5-2: Spécifications de qualification - Qualification de fiabilité pour amplificateurs à fibres optiques

IEC 61291-5-2: 2017 s’applique aux amplificateurs optiques (AO) et aux sous‑systèmes élémentaires amplifiés optiquement pour des applications terrestres, utilisant des fibres actives (amplificateurs à fibres optiques, AFO), qui contiennent des dopants de terres rares, disponibles sur le marché. L’approche de boîte noire est utilisée dans le présent document. L’approche de boîte noire est adoptée afin de fournir des spécifications de produits qui sont indépendantes des détails de mise en service des AO. Pour les besoins de qualification de fiabilité, certaines informations sur les composants internes sont nécessaires; ces parties internes sont elles-mêmes traitées en tant que boîtes noires. Le présent document fournit des exigences relatives à l’évaluation de la fiabilité des AO en combinant la fiabilité de telles boîtes noires internes. Le présent document a pour objet de fournir la liste minimale des essais de qualification de fiabilité, des exigences en matière de critères de défaillance pendant les essais et de prévisions de fiabilité, et de donner des références normatives pertinentes afin d’établir une méthode normalisée pour l'évaluation de la fiabilité des modules et des sous-systèmes AFO afin de réduire le plus possible les risques et d’avancer le développement du produit et la qualification de la fiabilité. Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2002. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
a) le contenu sur le système de management de la qualité a été retiré du domaine d’application, des termes et définitions et des exigences de fiabilité;
b) le calcul du taux de défaillance dans le temps (FIT) a été déplacé à l’Annexe B (informative);
c) les exigences relatives aux essais de chocs ont été modifiées;
d) les abréviations ont été modifiées en fonction des modifications a) et b).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Jan-2017
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
25-Jan-2017
Ref Project

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IEC 61291-5-2
Edition 2.0 2017-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Optical amplifiers –

Part 5-2: Qualification specifications – Reliability qualification for optical fibre

amplifiers
IEC 61291-5-2:2017-01(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2017 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

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copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address below or

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3, rue de Varembé Fax: +41 22 919 03 00
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Switzerland www.iec.ch
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 61291-5-2
Edition 2.0 2017-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Optical amplifiers –

Part 5-2: Qualification specifications – Reliability qualification for optical fibre

amplifiers
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.180.30 ISBN 978-2-8322-3855-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 61291-5-2:2017 © IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 5

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 6

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 6

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 6

4 Reliability requirements ................................................................................................... 7

4.1 Tests ...................................................................................................................... 7

4.1.1 General ........................................................................................................... 7

4.1.2 Reliability qualification of components ............................................................. 7

4.1.3 Reliability qualification of the OFA assembly process ...................................... 8

4.1.4 Reliability qualification of the OFA device or sub-system ................................. 8

4.1.5 Structural similarity ........................................................................................ 10

Annex A (normative) Procedures for reliability testing of OFA components .......................... 11

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

A.2 Tests required for passive optical components ...................................................... 11

A.3 Tests required for the doped fibre ......................................................................... 11

Annex B (informative) Reliability calculations ....................................................................... 12

B.1 Reliability calculation ............................................................................................ 12

B.2 Guidance on failure rate calculations .................................................................... 13

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 14

Table 1 – Minimum test list for passive optical components, pump laser modules,

monitor diode modules and optical connectors ........................................................................ 7

Table 2 – Minimum test list for doped fibre .............................................................................. 8

Table 3 – Tests required for splices ........................................................................................ 8

Table 4 – Minimum list for tests required on OFA devices and sub-systems ............................ 9

Table A.1 – Tests required for the doped fibre ...................................................................... 11

Table B.1 – Failure rate of components ................................................................................. 13

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 61291-5-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS –
Part 5-2: Qualification specifications – Reliability qualification
for optical fibre amplifiers
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 61291-5-2 has been prepared by subcommittee 86C: Fibre optic

systems and active devices, of IEC technical committee 86: Fibre optics.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2002. It constitutes a

technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) removal of the contents on the relating quality management system from scope, terms and

definitions, and the reliability requirements;
b) moving fit-rate calculation to Annex B (informative);
c) change of requirements for shock test;
d) amendment of abbreviations related to changes a) and b).
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 61291-5-2:2017 © IEC 2017
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
86C/1376/CDV 86C/1426/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 61291 series, published under the general title Optical amplifiers,

can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
The contents of the corrigendum of May 2019 have been included in this copy.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 61291-5-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 5 –
OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS –
Part 5-2: Qualification specifications – Reliability qualification
for optical fibre amplifiers
1 Scope

This part of IEC 61291 applies to optical amplifiers (OAs) and optically amplified, elementary

sub-systems for terrestrial applications, using active fibres (optical fibre amplifiers (OFAs))

containing rare-earth dopants, which are commercially available.

The black box approach is used in this document. The black box approach is adopted in order

to give product specifications which are independent of OA implementation details. For

reliability qualification purposes, some information about the internal components is needed;

these internal parts are themselves treated as black boxes. This document gives

requirements for the evaluation of OA reliability by combining the reliability of such internal

black boxes.

The object of this document is to specify the minimum list of reliability qualification tests,

requirements on failure criteria during testing and on reliability predictions, and give the

relevant normative references to establish a standard method for the assessment of the

reliability of OFA devices and sub-systems in order to minimize risks and to promote product

development and reliability qualification.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050-731, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Chapter 731: Optical fibre

communication
IEC 60068-2-2:2007, Environmental testing – Part 2-2: Tests – Test B: Dry heat

IEC 60068-2-14, Environmental testing – Part 2-14: Tests – Test N: Change of temperature

IEC 60068-2-21, Environmental testing – Part 2-21: Tests – Test U: Robustness of
terminations and integral mounting devices

IEC 60068-2-27, Environmental testing – Part 2-27: Tests – Test Ea and guidance: Shock

IEC 60068-2-31, Tests – Test Ec: Rough handling shocks, primarily for equipment-type

specimens

IEC 60068-2-78, Environmental testing – Part 2-78: Tests – Test Cab: Damp heat, steady

state
IEC 61291-1, Optical fibre amplifiers – Part 1: Generic specification
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 61291-5-2:2017 © IEC 2017

IEC 61300-2-4, Fibre optic interconnecting devices and passive components – Basic test and

measurement procedures – Part 2-4: Tests – Fibre/cable retention

IEC 62005-9-1, Fibre optic interconnecting devices and passive components – Reliability –

Part 9-1: Qualification of passive optical components

IEC 62005-9-2, Reliability of fibre optic interconnecting devices and passive optical

components – Part 9-2: Reliability qualification for single fibre optic connector sets – Single

mode

TIA 455-11, FOTP-11 Vibration Test Procedure for Fiber Optic Components and Cables

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 61291-1,

IEC 60050-731 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
failure

non-compliance to product specification or change in parameters as agreed by the customer

and supplier
3.1.2
OFA manufacturer
OFAM

manufacturer who provides optical fibre amplifier (OFA) devices or subsystems meeting the

requirements of the applicable product specification (PS)
Note 1 to entry PS includes the reliability requirement.
3.2 Abbreviated terms
EDFF erbium doped fluoride fibre
EDSFA erbium doped silica fibre amplifier
EDTF erbium doped tellurite fibre
FIT failure in time
FFS for further study
OA optical amplifier
OFA optical fibre amplifier
OFAM optical amplifier manufacturer
OFAM optical fibre amplifier manufacturer
PDFF praseodymium doped fluoride fibre
PS product specification
RH relative humidity
DFF thulium doped fluoride fibre
UCL upper confidence level
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 61291-5-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 7 –
4 Reliability requirements
4.1 Tests
4.1.1 General

An optical fibre amplifier (OFA) device or sub-system is an assembly of various parts and

components of different nature. A main point in the reliability testing of the OFA device or sub-

system is to ensure the reliability of each part and basic manufacturing process used and to

provide a route that may result in an understanding of design margins. For the purpose of this

document, each internal part shall be seen as a black box.

This document is based on the assumption that the reliability of an optical amplifier (OA) can

be evaluated with sufficient confidence from the failure in time (FIT) rates of its internal black

boxes when the assembly process of the constituents has been qualified.
The procedures to qualify the assembly process are described in 4.1.3.

The reliability assurance is confirmed by the test procedure described in 4.1.4 carried out o

...

IEC 61291-5-2
Edition 2.0 2017-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Optical amplifiers –

Part 5-2: Qualification specifications – Reliability qualification for optical fibre

amplifiers
Amplificateurs optiques –
Partie 5-2: Spécifications de qualification – Qualification de fiabilité pour
amplificateurs à fibres optiques
IEC 61291-5-2:2017-01(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2017 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 61291-5-2
Edition 2.0 2017-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Optical amplifiers –

Part 5-2: Qualification specifications – Reliability qualification for optical fibre

amplifiers
Amplificateurs optiques –
Partie 5-2: Spécifications de qualification – Qualification de fiabilité pour
amplificateurs à fibres optiques
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 33.180.30 ISBN 978-2-8322-9361-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 61291-5-2:2017 © IEC 2017
CONTENTS

CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................ 2

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 5

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 6

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 6

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 6

4 Reliability requirements ................................................................................................... 7

4.1 Tests ...................................................................................................................... 7

4.1.1 General ........................................................................................................... 7

4.1.2 Reliability qualification of components ............................................................. 7

4.1.3 Reliability qualification of the OFA assembly process ...................................... 8

4.1.4 Reliability qualification of the OFA device or sub-system ................................. 8

4.1.5 Structural similarity ........................................................................................ 10

Annex A (normative) Procedures for reliability testing of OFA components .......................... 11

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

A.2 Tests required for passive optical components ...................................................... 11

A.3 Tests required for the doped fibre ......................................................................... 11

Annex B (informative) Reliability calculations ....................................................................... 12

B.1 Reliability calculation ............................................................................................ 12

B.2 Guidance on failure rate calculations .................................................................... 13

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 14

Table 1 – Minimum test list for passive optical components, pump laser modules,

monitor diode modules and optical connectors ........................................................................ 7

Table 2 – Minimum test list for doped fibre .............................................................................. 8

Table 3 – Tests required for splices ........................................................................................ 8

Table 4 – Minimum list for tests required on OFA devices and sub-systems ............................ 9

Table A.1 – Tests required for the doped fibre ...................................................................... 11

Table B.1 – Failure rate of components ................................................................................. 13

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 61291-5-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS –
Part 5-2: Qualification specifications – Reliability qualification
for optical fibre amplifiers
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 61291-5-2 has been prepared by subcommittee 86C: Fibre optic

systems and active devices, of IEC technical committee 86: Fibre optics.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2002. It constitutes a

technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) removal of the contents on the relating quality management system from scope, terms and

definitions, and the reliability requirements;
b) moving fit-rate calculation to Annex B (informative);
c) change of requirements for shock test;
d) amendment of abbreviations related to changes a) and b).
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 61291-5-2:2017 © IEC 2017
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
86C/1376/CDV 86C/1426/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 61291 series, published under the general title Optical amplifiers,

can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
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IEC 61291-5-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 5 –
OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS –
Part 5-2: Qualification specifications – Reliability qualification
for optical fibre amplifiers
1 Scope

This part of IEC 61291 applies to optical amplifiers (OAs) and optically amplified, elementary

sub-systems for terrestrial applications, using active fibres (optical fibre amplifiers (OFAs))

containing rare-earth dopants, which are commercially available.

The black box approach is used in this document. The black box approach is adopted in order

to give product specifications which are independent of OA implementation details. For

reliability qualification purposes, some information about the internal components is needed;

these internal parts are themselves treated as black boxes. This document gives

requirements for the evaluation of OA reliability by combining the reliability of such internal

black boxes.

The object of this document is to specify the minimum list of reliability qualification tests,

requirements on failure criteria during testing and on reliability predictions, and give the

relevant normative references to establish a standard method for the assessment of the

reliability of OFA devices and sub-systems in order to minimize risks and to promote product

development and reliability qualification.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050-731, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Chapter 731: Optical fibre

communication
IEC 60068-2-2:2007, Environmental testing – Part 2-2: Tests – Test B: Dry heat

IEC 60068-2-14, Environmental testing – Part 2-14: Tests – Test N: Change of temperature

IEC 60068-2-21, Environmental testing – Part 2-21: Tests – Test U: Robustness of
terminations and integral mounting devices

IEC 60068-2-27, Environmental testing – Part 2-27: Tests – Test Ea and guidance: Shock

IEC 60068-2-31, Tests – Test Ec: Rough handling shocks, primarily for equipment-type

specimens

IEC 60068-2-78, Environmental testing – Part 2-78: Tests – Test Cab: Damp heat, steady

state
IEC 61291-1, Optical fibre amplifiers – Part 1: Generic specification
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– 6 – IEC 61291-5-2:2017 © IEC 2017

IEC 61300-2-4, Fibre optic interconnecting devices and passive components – Basic test and

measurement procedures – Part 2-4: Tests – Fibre/cable retention

IEC 62005-9-1, Fibre optic interconnecting devices and passive components – Reliability –

Part 9-1: Qualification of passive optical components

IEC 62005-9-2, Reliability of fibre optic interconnecting devices and passive optical

components – Part 9-2: Reliability qualification for single fibre optic connector sets – Single

mode

TIA 455-11, FOTP-11 Vibration Test Procedure for Fiber Optic Components and Cables

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 61291-1,

IEC 60050-731 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
failure

non-compliance to product specification or change in parameters as agreed by the customer

and supplier
3.1.2
OFA manufacturer
OFAM

manufacturer who provides optical fibre amplifier (OFA) devices or subsystems meeting the

requirements of the applicable product specification (PS)
Note 1 to entry PS includes the reliability requirement.
3.2 Abbreviated terms
EDFF erbium doped fluoride fibre
EDSFA erbium doped silica fibre amplifier
EDTF erbium doped tellurite fibre
FIT failure in time
FFS for further study
OA optical amplifier
OFA optical fibre amplifier
OFAM optical amplifier manufacturer
OFAM optical fibre amplifier manufacturer
PDFF praseodymium doped fluoride fibre
PS product specification
RH relative humidity
DFF thulium doped fluoride fibre
UCL upper confidence level
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IEC 61291-5-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 7 –
4 Reliability requirements
4.1 Tests
4.1.1 General

An optical fibre amplifier (OFA) device or sub-system is an assembly of various parts and

components of different nature. A main point in the reliability testing of the OFA device or sub-

system is to ensure the reliability of each part and basic manufacturing process used and to

provide a route that may result in an understanding of design margins. For the purpose of this

document, each internal part shall be seen as a black box.

This document is based on the assumption that the reliability of an optical amplifier (OA) can

be evaluated with sufficient confidence from the failure in time (FIT) rates of its internal black

boxes when the assembly process of the constituents has been qualified.
The procedures to qualify the assembly process are described in 4.1.3.

The reliability assurance is confirmed by the test procedure described in 4.1.4 carried out on

the OFA device or sub-system as a whole.
The basic parts usually constituting an OFA are listed below:
• passive optical components;
• opto-electronic components;
• doped fibres or doped fibre modules;
• optical connectors;
• electronics;
• others (to be specified);
• mechanical packaging.

The OFA manufacturer (OFAM) should declare the number and type of the internal black

boxes constituting the OFA and give the failure rates (in FIT) for each of them.

The OFA failure rate should be calculated by suitably combining the FIT rates of its internal

parts, as described in Annex B.
4.1.2 Reliability qualification of components

Table 1 and Table 2 give the minimum list of tests to be performed on the various parts,

where used, constituting the OFA in order to guarantee the claimed reliability level. Normative

references for tests and test conditions are given in Annex A.
Table 1 – Minimum test list for passive optical components, pump laser modules,
monitor diode modules and optical connectors
Component Reference
Pump laser diode IEC 62572-3 (informative)
Photo diode To be defined
Passive optical components IEC 62005-9-1
Optical connectors IEC 62005-9-2
Variable optical attenuators To be defined
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– 8 – IEC 61291-5-2:2017 © IEC 2017
Table 2 – Minimum test list for doped fibre
Test
Proof test
Hydrogen aging
Fibre coating strip force (for non-hermetic fibre only)

A set of test conditions suitable to the test lists in Table 1 and Table 2 to assess the reliability

of OFA components (seen as black boxes) is given for reference in Annex A. These test

conditions specify the common practice in the OFA manufacturing industry.
4.1.3 Reliability qualification of the OFA assembly process

Fibre arrangement and assembly of the optical and electrical components are very important

aspects for assessing the reliability of an OFA. In particular, the fibre winding and splice

process is one of the most critical steps in the OFA assembly process.

The splice process shall be qualified according to the relevant fibre and coating material.

Table 3 indicates the tests required on splices.
Table 3 – Tests required for splices
Tests Conditions Reference
+85 °C
High temperature storage IEC 60068-2-2, Tests B
2 000 h
-40 °C /+85 °C
Change of temperature 2 °C/min
IEC 60068-2-14
(Thermal cycling) Q = 100 cycles
I = 500 cycles
Damp heat 40 °C 93 % RH 500 h IEC 60068-2-78
1 000 m/s
Shock 6 ms IEC 60068-2-27
6 times/axis
5 Hz to 50 Hz, 15 m/s
50 Hz to 500 Hz, 30 m/s TIA 455-11
Vibrations
3 axis
Duration 15 sweeps
Robustness test 5 N
IEC 60068-2-21
(Pull test) 10 s
Q: data for qualification, I: data for information.

The number of samples is to be agreed between customer and supplier according to the level

of confidence and the level of reliability required.
4.1.4 Reliability qualification of the OFA device or sub-system

A reliability qualification procedure related to the complete OFA device or sub-system is

described in Table 4. It gives the minimum list of tests to be performed on OFA devices and

sub-systems in order to assure reliability. Normative references, where tests and test

conditions are specified, are given in Annex A.

The purpose of the testing is to assess the prediction of the failure rate of the complete OFA

performed according to the procedure of 4.1.2.
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IEC 61291-5-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 9 –

On the basis of the reliability assurance required for the reliability tests for the OFA internal

black boxes, the sampling level is generally low (for example a few samples for each amplifier

type).

In some specific cases (for example, non-silica glass OFAs), the use of adhesives in the OFA

can be considered as a critical process and shall be qualified separately. Depending on the

possible function of the adhesive (mechanical anchoring, splice protection, index matching,

etc.), the different failure modes shall be addressed and supported by reliability data.

Table 4 – Minimum list for tests required on OFA devices and sub-systems
Test Condition Duration Operating Samples
Temperature storage T /T 72 h - 3
stg,min stg,max
T /T Q = 100 cycles Y
stg,min stg,max
Temperature cycling 3
Ramp > 1 ºC/min I = 500 cycles
85 ºC to 85 % RH Q = 500 h -
Damp heat 3
I = 1 000 h
5 shocks per -
3 000 m/s 3 ms pulse direction,
Shock
6 directions
(≤ 0,225 Kg)
d c
See table below See table below -
5 shocks per -
500 m/s , 11 ms pulse direction,
Shock
c 6 directions
(> 0,225 Kg)
d c
See table below See table below -
Shock: circuit -
d c
pack, blades See table below See table below 3
and racks
200 m/s , 20 Hz to -
Mechanical test
2 000 Hz to 20 Hz
Vibration
4 mins/cycle 3
(≤ 1 Kg)
3-axis, 4 cycles per
axis, 2 h/axis
5 Hz to 50 Hz, 15 m/s 0,1 oct/min -
Vibration
50 Hz to 500 Hz, 0,25 oct/min
30 m/s
(> 1 Kg)
3-axis
Vibration: -
5 Hz to 100 Hz to
circuit pack,
5 Hz, 10 m/s
0,25 oct/min 3
blades and
3-axis
racks
e d
Pull 5 N, 10 N and 100 N - ≥ 12
Q = 1 000 h Y
Endurance T /P 3
op, max nom
I = 2 000 h
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– 10 – IEC 61291-5-2:2017 © IEC 2017
Test Condition Duration Operating Samples
No failures are allowed
Tests may be performed sequentially or in parallel.

If the storage temperature is lower than the specified humidity temperature, another test at T and RH ≥ 85

stg,max
% is done.

If the maximum storage temperature is similar to the maximum operating temperature, the storage test at

T is not required and is replaced by the endurance test. The endurance test is performed at fixed pump

stg,max

current, output power or pump monitor current (nominal values given in the product specification (PS)). To check

any drift of the amplifier, relevant parameters [such as output power, pump parameters (if accessible) etc.] may

be measured during the test.
A reference to the temperature cycle test method is provided in Annex B.
T is the OFA minimum storage temperature;
stg,min
T is the OFA maximum storage temperature;
stg,max
T is the OFA maximum operating temperature;
op,max
P is the OFA nominal output power.
nom
Q: qualification, I: information.

Damp heat: the damp heat test at 85 °C/85 % RH has been advocated by some manufacturers, as justified

by observations of conditions within peculiar environments. These test conditions may be used for OFAs to

be deployed in very hard environments. Otherwise, the damp heat test at 40 °C/93 % RH may be used.

Either controlled shock test or drop test can be applied.
Mechanical test: shock (free drop, IEC 60068-2-27 and IEC 60068-2-31)
Mass Drop height
kg mm
0 ≤ mass < 10 100
10 ≤ mass < 25

Pigtail testing – pull test (the first figure in each row below is the outer diameter of the buffered or cabled

fibre to which the specified test conditions do apply)
reinforced fibre: 20 N to 100 N, 3 times,
5 s pulls
Cable
secondary coated fibre: 10 N, 3 times, 5 s
retention IEC 61300-2-4
pulls
(pull)
primary coated fibre: 5 N, 3 times, 5 s
pulls

It is essential that the evaluated OFA devices or sub-systems are entirely representative of

standard production and have passed all the production procedures and/or specified (where

applicable in the DS) burn-in and screening procedures.

Aspects of the test conditions not provided in this document are given in the relevant PS.

4.1.5 Structural similarity

Where a range of optical amplifier modules is produced by an OFAM, there can be some

significant structural similarity between different type codes. A combination of results from

different test programmes, where appropriate, is therefore permitted. Although an

understanding of similarity is necessary, it is also important to provide an assessment of

differences. All assessments should be compared on a test-by-test basis.

Consideration should be given to the fact that minor differences in technology or processing

can have a major impact on reliability, whilst not being apparent during quality assessment.

Evidence should be presented which demonstrates that all results are directly relevant.

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IEC 61291-5-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 11 –
Annex A
(normative)
Procedures for reliability testing of OFA components
A.1 General

This normative annex contains test lists and test conditions suitable to assess the reliability of

OFA components (seen as black boxes). These lists reflect the common practice in the OFA

manufacturing industry and are given as a reference, together with the relevant published IEC

documents, for OFA customers.

NOTE IEC references included in Clause A.2 are subject to updating to include new documents as they are

published.
A.2 Tests required for passive optical components

IEC 62005-9-1 describes the tests required for passive optical components used in the OFA

device or sub-system in controlled environment and in outside plant environment.

Refer to IEC 62005-9-2 for definition of the tests required on optical connectors.

A.3 Tests required for the doped fibre
Table A.1 indicates the tests required for the doped fibre.
Table A.1 – Tests required for the doped fibre
Test Condition
Proof test Proof test based on deployment condition
Hydrogen aging See note below
Fibre strip force (for non-hermetic fibre only) Mechanical stripping

Hydrogen aging: Regardless of hydrogen protection, the OFA maker shall be able to demonstrate that the OFA

will meet this requirement in the presence of as much as 10-2 atmosph
...

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