Fixed energy high intensity proton cyclotron within the energy range of 10 MeV to less than 30 MeV

IEC 63175:2021 is applicable to hydrogen ion H- acceleration proton cyclotrons with one or more fixed energies within the range of 10 MeV to less than 30 MeV and a beam intensity equal to or greater than 300 μA. This document specifies the performance and safety requirements, structure, technical requirements, test methods, identification, packing, transportation, storage and accompanying documents for such cyclotrons. This document is intended for manufacturers of high intensity proton cyclotron within the energy range of 10 MeV to less than 30 MeV, and responsible organizations where such cyclotrons are installed.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Nov-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
29-Nov-2021
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IEC 63175
Edition 1.0 2021-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Fixed energy high intensity proton cyclotron within the energy range of 10 MeV
to less than 30 MeV
IEC 63175:2021-11(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 63175
Edition 1.0 2021-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Fixed energy high intensity proton cyclotron within the energy range of 10 MeV
to less than 30 MeV
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 27.120.01 ISBN 978-2-8322-1054-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63175:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Cyclotron composition and operational conditions ............................................................ 9

4.1 Composition ............................................................................................................ 9

4.2 Normal operating conditions .................................................................................... 9

4.2.1 Environmental requirements ............................................................................ 9

4.2.2 Electricity requirements ................................................................................... 9

4.2.3 Compressed air ............................................................................................... 9

4.2.4 Nitrogen .......................................................................................................... 9

4.2.5 Lightning and electric shock protection .......................................................... 10

4.2.6 Ion source media ........................................................................................... 10

5 Technical requirements ................................................................................................. 10

5.1 Warning signs ....................................................................................................... 10

5.2 Performance index ................................................................................................ 10

5.3 Main subsystems performance index .................................................................... 10

5.3.1 Ion source ..................................................................................................... 10

5.3.2 Radio frequency system ................................................................................ 10

5.3.3 Vacuum system ............................................................................................. 10

5.3.4 Control system .............................................................................................. 11

5.3.5 Interlock system for radiation safety .............................................................. 11

5.3.6 Water cooling system .................................................................................... 11

5.3.7 Stripping extraction efficiency ........................................................................ 12

5.4 Electrical safety .................................................................................................... 12

5.4.1 Protective grounding ...................................................................................... 12

5.4.2 Insulation resistance ...................................................................................... 12

5.4.3 Dielectric strength .......................................................................................... 12

5.4.4 Touch current ................................................................................................ 12

5.5 Radiation safety .................................................................................................... 12

5.6 EMC ..................................................................................................................... 12

5.6.1 Surge immunity .............................................................................................. 12

5.6.2 EFT immunity ................................................................................................ 12

5.6.3 Emission ........................................................................................................ 12

5.6.4 Immunity ........................................................................................................ 13

5.7 Operation .............................................................................................................. 13

6 Test methods ................................................................................................................. 13

6.1 General requirements ........................................................................................... 13

6.1.1 Test environmental conditions ....................................................................... 13

6.1.2 Test equipment .............................................................................................. 13

6.2 Warning signs check ............................................................................................. 13

6.3 Performance test .................................................................................................. 14

6.3.1 Beam nominal energy .................................................................................... 14

6.3.2 Beam intensity ............................................................................................... 14

6.3.3 Beam spot size .............................................................................................. 14

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IEC 63175:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

6.3.4 Comprehensive beam efficiency .................................................................... 15

6.4 Main subsystem performance test ......................................................................... 16

6.4.1 Ion source beam intensity .............................................................................. 16

6.4.2 Radio frequency system ................................................................................ 16

6.4.3 Vacuum system ............................................................................................. 17

6.4.4 Control system .............................................................................................. 17

6.4.5 Interlock system for radiation safety .............................................................. 17

6.4.6 Water cooling system .................................................................................... 18

6.4.7 Stripping extraction efficiency ........................................................................ 18

6.5 Electrical safety .................................................................................................... 18

6.5.1 Protective grounding ...................................................................................... 18

6.5.2 Insulation resistance ...................................................................................... 18

6.5.3 Dielectric strength .......................................................................................... 18

6.5.4 Touch current ................................................................................................ 18

6.6 Radiation safety .................................................................................................... 19

6.7 Operation test ....................................................................................................... 19

7 Inspection rules ............................................................................................................. 19

7.1 Summary .............................................................................................................. 19

7.2 Inspection items .................................................................................................... 19

7.3 Criterion rule ......................................................................................................... 20

8 Signage, packing, transportation, storage and accompanying documents ...................... 20

8.1 Signage ................................................................................................................ 20

8.1.1 Cyclotron signs .............................................................................................. 20

8.1.2 Labels ........................................................................................................... 20

8.2 Packing ................................................................................................................. 20

8.3 Transportation ...................................................................................................... 20

8.4 Storage ................................................................................................................. 21

8.5 Accompanying documentation ............................................................................... 21

8.5.1 Instructions .................................................................................................... 21

8.5.2 Supplier’s declaration of conformity ............................................................... 21

8.5.3 Other documentation ..................................................................................... 21

Annex A (informative) Measurement of unloaded quality factor by the manufacturer ............ 22

Annex B (informative) Magnetic field mapping ..................................................................... 23

Figure 1 – Schematic diagram of beam spot diameter test .................................................... 15

Figure 2 – Schematic diagram of beam spot diameter test result........................................... 15

Figure A.1 – Connection of resonant cavity and network analyzer ......................................... 22

Figure A.2 – S curve measured with a network analyzer .................................................... 22

Figure B.1 – Distribution of measuring points in the cyclotron central plane .......................... 24

Table 1 – Environmental conditions of the test ...................................................................... 13

Table 2 – Inspection items of 10 MeV to less than 30 MeV cyclotron..................................... 19

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– 4 – IEC 63175:2021 © IEC 2021
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FIXED ENERGY HIGH INTENSITY PROTON CYCLOTRON WITHIN
THE ENERGY RANGE OF 10 MeV TO LESS THAN 30 MeV
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

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2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

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indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 63175 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 45: Nuclear instrumentation. It is

an International Standard.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
45/930/FDIS 45/932/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement,

available at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by

IEC are described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 63175:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 63175:2021 © IEC 2021
INTRODUCTION

Particle accelerators have a wide application in the field of nuclear physics, radiation

hardening, accelerator-driven energy system (nuclear reactor), and of course radioisotopes

production, etc.. Proton cyclotron is one particular class of particle accelerators used for

example for the acceleration of negative hydrogen ions.

This document specifies the performance and safety requirements, structure, technical

requirements, test methods, identification, packing, transportation, storage and accompanying

documents for proton cyclotrons.
Annex A and Annex B are both informative.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 63175:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
FIXED ENERGY HIGH INTENSITY PROTON CYCLOTRON WITHIN
THE ENERGY RANGE OF 10 MeV TO LESS THAN 30 MeV
1 Scope

This document is applicable to hydrogen ion H acceleration proton cyclotrons with one or

more fixed energies within the range of 10 MeV to less than 30 MeV and a beam intensity

equal to or greater than 300 μA.

This document specifies the performance and safety requirements, structure, technical

requirements, test methods, identification, packing, transportation, storage and accompanying

documents for such cyclotrons.

This type of cyclotrons is intended for industrial use, including medical isotope and neutron

production. Therapeutic medical applications are excluded from the scope of this document.

This document is intended for manufacturers of high intensity proton cyclotron within the

energy range of 10 MeV to less than 30 MeV, and responsible organizations where such

cyclotrons are installed.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
IEC 60038:2009, IEC standard voltages

IEC 60204-1:2016, Safety of machinery – Electrical equipment of machines – Part 1: General

requirements

IEC 60243-1:2013, Electric strength of insulating materials – Test methods – Part 1: Tests at

power frequencies

IEC 60364-1:2005, Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 1: Fundamental principles,

assessment of general characteristics, definitions

IEC 60364-5-51:2005, Electrical installations of buildings – Part 5-51: Selection and erection

of electrical equipment – Common rules
IEC 61000-4-4:2012, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-4: Testing and
measurement techniques – Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test
IEC 61000-4-5:2014, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-5: Testing and
measurement techniques – Surge immunity test

IEC 61000-6-2:2016, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-2: Generic standards –

Immunity standard for industrial environments

IEC 61000-6-4:2018, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-4: Generic standards –

Emission standard for industrial environments
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 63175:2021 © IEC 2021

IEC 61010-1:2010, Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control,

and laboratory use – Part 1: General requirements
IEC 61010-1:2010/AMD1:2016

IEC 61140:2016, Protection against electric shock – Common aspects for installation and

equipment
IEC 62305 (all parts), Protection against lighting
ISO/IEC Guide 37:2012, Instructions for use of products by consumers

ISO 780:2015, Packaging – Distribution packaging – Graphical symbols for handling and

storage of packages
ISO 8573-1:2010, Compressed air – Part 1: Contaminants and purity classes
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online Browsing Platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
cyclotron

device that uses static magnetic field to make charged particles to whirl and to be repeatedly

accelerated by radio frequency electric field with fixed frequency
3.2
beam energy
kinetic energy of charged particles in a beam through a cyclotron device
3.3
beam intensity
total charge of charged particles passing through a section in unit time
3.4
phase shift

difference between the phase of charged particle cyclotron motion and radio frequency

voltage at the gap crossing
Note 1 to entry: The expression of phase shift is shown in Formula (B.2).
3.5
unloaded quality factor

quality factor when the resonator is not connected to any external circuit (no load)

Note 1 to entry: When the resonator is in a stable resonant state, the unloaded quality factor 𝑄𝑄 is defined as:

𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑠𝑠𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑒𝑒 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒

𝑄𝑄 = 2𝜋𝜋 ×
(1)

𝐸𝐸𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑖𝑑𝑑𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑖𝑖𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒 𝑇𝑇𝑜𝑜 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖𝑒𝑒 𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑒𝑐𝑐𝑇𝑇𝑒𝑒

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 63175:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –

Note 2 to entry: One example of actual measurement and calculation methods for unloaded quality factor is

shown in Annex A.
4 Cyclotron composition and operational conditions
4.1 Composition
Generally, the cyclotron consists of the following components:
a) ion source and injection system;
b) magnet system;
c) radio frequency system;
d) vacuum system;
e) extraction system;
f) power supply system;
g) control system;
h) interlock system for radiation safety;
i) beam monitoring system;
j) water cooling system and pneumatic system.
4.2 Normal operating conditions
4.2.1 Environmental requirements
Environmental requirements are as follows:
a) ambient temperature: 15 °C to 35 °C;
b) relative humidity: 35 % to 65 %, no condensation;

c) indoor and outdoor pressure difference: maintain sufficient negative pressure;

d) control room: ambient temperature is 15 °C to 26 °C with relative humidity lower than 60 %

and no condensation.
4.2.2 Electricity requirements
Electrical requirements for cyclotron power supply environment are as follows:

a) power supply: a three-phase five-wire (TN-S, IEC 60364-1:2005) or a three-phase four-

wire (TN-C-S, IEC 60364-1:2005) AC system. In case of a four-wire system, the cyclotron

has to be cabled as a single consumer with five-wire after the first power entry panel;

b) voltage: listed in Table 1 of IEC 60038:2009, the supply voltage shall not differ from the

nominal voltage of the system by more than ±10 %;
c) frequency: 50/60 Hz ±1 Hz.
4.2.3 Compressed air

Instructions for use shall specify the operating condition range for compressed air supply

(ISO 8573-1:2010 [1.4.1]).
4.2.4 Nitrogen

In case nitrogen is used for venting the cyclotron main tank when the cyclotron is under

maintenance, instructions for use shall specify the operating conditions.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 63175:2021 © IEC 2021
4.2.5 Lightning and electric shock protection

Lightning and electric shock protection in the cyclotron workplace shall be designed according

to IEC 62305.
4.2.6 Ion source media

Cyclotron uses hydrogen for the ion source. Instructions for use shall specify the operating

condition range of hydrogen for the ion source.
5 Technical requirements
5.1 Warning signs

Warning signs shall follow the requirements in 16.2 of IEC 60204-1:2016 or applicable

requirements which may differ between nations or organizations.
5.2 Performance index

High intensity cyclotron accelerates the negative hydrogen ions, and the ion beam quality

shall satisfy the following performance indexes:

a) beam nominal energy: beam nominal energy value shall be specified in the instructions for

use;

b) beam intensity: the sum of beam intensity in all directions shall be specified in the

instructions for use;

c) beam spot size: the diameter of beam spot which contains 95 % of the total beam at the

extraction foil shall be equal to or less than 50 % of the magnetic gap; magnetic gap here

means the sector gap at the extraction point;

d) comprehensive beam efficiency: equal to or greater than 5 % for external ion source.

5.3 Main subsystems performance index
5.3.1 Ion source

Beam quality (intensity and emittance) provided from the ion source shall be sufficient based

on the efficiency defined in 5.2.
5.3.2 Radio frequency system

Under the condition of fixed working frequency, radio frequency system shall satisfy:

a) frequency relative instability: less than or equal to 1 × 10 ;
b) voltage relative instability of Dee plate: less than or equal to ±5 × 10 .
5.3.3 Vacuum system

Provided the vacuum gauge is properly positioned in the vacuum chamber, non-hydrogen gas

load working pressure and hydrogen gas load working pressure of the vacuum chamber

-4 -4
should be lower than 3 × 10 Pa and 8 × 10 Pa respectively to avoid beam loss.

If the vacuum system is restarted after venting the cyclotron main chamber with dry nitrogen,

the above pre-working pressure requirements shall be within the time guided by instruction

manual and no more than 6 h.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 63175:2021 © IEC 2021 – 11 –
5.3.4 Control system
The basic functions of the control system shall include:
a) cyclotron start-up and shut-down by automatic program or manual control;

b) setting, adjustment and display of the main operating parameters of the cyclotron;

c) display and alarm of operation state and fault of the cyclotron in case of deviation from its

normal operation;
d) logbook, real time chart and data logging function;

e) acknowledge by the operator of alarms and interlock before allowing the beam to restart

after clearance of the alarm or interlock condition.
5.3.5 Interlock system for radiation safety

The purpose of the cyclotron safety interlock system is to ensure personal safety of the staff

and avoid exposure to ionizing radiation. When the cyclotron hall is occupied, the cyclotron

cannot be switched on. No one is allowed to enter the cyclotron hall when the cyclotron is in

operation. The manufacturer of the cyclotron shall provide an interface allowing the reception

of interlock signals from the responsible organization. The signals shall shut down the beam

during irradiation and shall prevent start of irradiation if hazardous condition exist. The

instruction for use shall describe the characteristics of the signals and the number of

inputs/outputs provided. The responsible organization where the cyclotron is installed shall

provide a building interlock system for radiation safety that includes:

a) Interlock with the operation of the protective door: when the protective door is open, the

cyclotron is not allowed to supply beam.

b) Interlock with the onsite dose monitoring device: the system monitors the dose (including

prompt gamma and neutron) in the cyclotron hall, and the interlock system shall alarm and

cut off the beam supply when emergency occurs.
NOTE 1 Onsite dose monitor
...

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