Flow battery energy systems for stationary applications - Part 2-1: Performance general requirements and test methods

IEC 62932-2-1:2020 specifies methods of test and requirements for the flow battery system (FBS) and the flow battery energy system (FBES) for the verification of their performances. This document is applicable to FBES or FBS which are designed and used for service in stationary locations (i.e. not generally to be moved from place to place). This document does not cover testing of the system for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).

Systèmes de production d'énergie à batteries d'accumulateurs à circulation d'électrolyte pour les applications stationnaires - Partie 2-1: Exigences générales de performances et méthodes d’essai

L’IEC 62932-2-1:2020 spécifie les méthodes d’essai et les exigences applicables au système de batterie d’accumulateur à circulation d’électrolyte (FBS) et au système de production d’énergie à batterie d’accumulateur à circulation d’électrolyte (FBES) pour la vérification de leurs performances.
Le présent document s’applique au FBES ou au FBS conçu et utilisé sur des sites stationnaires (c’est-à-dire généralement non destinés à être déplacés d’un lieu à un autre).
Le présent document ne couvre pas les essais de compatibilité électromagnétique (CEM) du FBES ou du FBS.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Feb-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
18-Feb-2020
Ref Project

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IEC 62932-2-1
Edition 1.0 2020-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Flow battery energy systems for stationary applications –
Part 2-1: Performance general requirements and test methods
IEC 62932-2-1:2020-02(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2020 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester. If you have any questions about IEC

copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address below or

your local IEC member National Committee for further information.
IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé info@iec.ch
CH-1211 Geneva 20 www.iec.ch
Switzerland
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigendum or an amendment might have been published.

IEC publications search - webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform Electropedia - www.electropedia.org

The advanced search enables to find IEC publications by a The world's leading online dictionary on electrotechnology,

variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical containing more than 22 000 terminological entries in English

committee,…). It also gives information on projects, replaced and French, with equivalent terms in 16 additional languages.

and withdrawn publications. Also known as the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary

(IEV) online.
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished

Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published IEC Glossary - std.iec.ch/glossary

details all new publications released. Available online and 67 000 electrotechnical terminology entries in English and

once a month by email. French extracted from the Terms and Definitions clause of

IEC publications issued since 2002. Some entries have been

IEC Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/csc collected from earlier publications of IEC TC 37, 77, 86 and

If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or CISPR.
need further assistance, please contact the Customer Service
Centre: sales@iec.ch.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62932-2-1
Edition 1.0 2020-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Flow battery energy systems for stationary applications –
Part 2-1: Performance general requirements and test methods
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 29.220.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-7853-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62932-2-1:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 6

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 6

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 6

4 General requirements ...................................................................................................... 7

5 General test conditions .................................................................................................... 7

5.1 Accuracy of measuring instruments ......................................................................... 7

5.1.1 Voltage measurement ...................................................................................... 7

5.1.2 Current measurement ...................................................................................... 7

5.1.3 Electric energy measurement .......................................................................... 7

5.1.4 Temperature measurement .............................................................................. 7

5.1.5 Time measurement .......................................................................................... 7

5.2 Ambient temperature............................................................................................... 7

5.3 Point of connection (POC) and point of measurement (POM) .................................. 8

5.4 Test object .............................................................................................................. 9

5.5 Test object unit (TOU) selection .............................................................................. 9

6 Test methods ................................................................................................................... 9

6.1 Determination of energy at a constant power .......................................................... 9

6.1.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9

6.1.2 Test procedures ............................................................................................... 9

6.2 Determination of maximum deliverable output power ............................................ 10

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 10

6.2.2 Test procedures ............................................................................................. 10

6.3 Determination of maximum receivable input power ................................................ 11

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 11

6.3.2 Test procedures ............................................................................................. 11

6.4 Determination of energy efficiency at a constant power level ................................ 12

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 12

6.4.2 Test procedures ............................................................................................. 12

6.5 Determination of cycle life ..................................................................................... 13

Annex A (informative) Testing of discharge power vs energy or energy efficiency ................ 14

Figure 1 – Flow battery energy system .................................................................................... 5

Figure 2 – POM/POC interconnection cases a), b), c) ............................................................. 8

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62932-2-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FLOW BATTERY ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR STATIONARY APPLICATIONS –
Part 2-1: Performance general requirements and test methods
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC Publication(s)"). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between

any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62932-2-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 21:

Secondary cells and batteries, in collaboration with IEC technical committee 105: Fuel cell

technologies.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
21/1028/FDIS 21/1036/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62932 series, published under the general title Flow battery energy

systems for stationary applications, can be found on the IEC website.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62932-2-1:2020 © IEC 2020

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62932-2-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

A flow battery system (FBS) can be utilized as a main part of a flow battery energy system

(FBES). Such an FBES can consist of:
– a flow battery system,
– a power conversion system,
– other equipment and surroundings.

The FBES is connected to the external power input or output via a point of connection (POC).

This document includes the domain of the FBES, as shown in Figure 1. Auxiliary energy to the

battery management system (BMS), battery support system (BSS), and power conversion

system (PCS) may be supplied by one of the following:
– direct connection to the external power source;
– the internal power source of the FBES or FBS itself.
Figure 1 – Flow battery energy system
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62932-2-1:2020 © IEC 2020
FLOW BATTERY ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR STATIONARY APPLICATIONS –
Part 2-1: Performance general requirements and test methods
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62932 specifies methods of test and requirements for the flow battery system

(FBS) and the flow battery energy system (FBES) for the verification of their performances.

This document is applicable to FBES or FBS which are designed and used for service in

stationary locations (i.e. not generally to be moved from place to place).

This document does not cover testing of the system for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 62932-1, Flow battery energy systems for stationary applications – Part 1: Terminology and

general aspects

IEC 62932-2-2, Flow battery energy systems for stationary applications – Part 2-2: Safety

requirements

IEC 61427-2, Secondary cells and batteries for renewable energy storage – General

requirements and methods of test – Part 2: On-grid applications
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document the terms and definitions given in IEC 62932-1 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/.
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp.
3.2 Abbreviated terms
BMS battery management system
BSS battery support system
FBES flow battery energy system
FBS flow battery system
PCS power conversion system
POC point of connection
POM point of measurement
TOU test object unit
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62932-2-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –
4 General requirements

The FBES or FBS shall be designed to withstand mechanical stresses, vibrations and shocks

during transportation, handling and use.

The manufacturer shall provide documentation for transportation, installation, commissioning,

operation, maintenance, and disposal of the FBES or FBS.

The FBES or FBS shall be characterized by appropriate performance parameters, including

rated power, rated energy, rated energy efficiency, maximum output and input powers. More

information, such as energy or energy efficiency at different power levels (see Annex A), will

help the user know and use the FBES or FBS better.

Safety related requirements and methods of test shall be in accordance with IEC 62932-2-2.

5 General test conditions
5.1 Accuracy of measuring instruments
5.1.1 Voltage measurement

The instruments used shall be of an accuracy class equal to 1 % or better. The internal

resistance of the voltmeter used shall be at least 1 kΩ/V.
5.1.2 Current measurement
The instruments used shall be of an accuracy class equal to 1 % or better.

Particular attention shall be given to the accuracy of DC and AC current measurement devices

as any degraded accuracy or instability will negatively impact the precision of energy and

efficiency determinations.
5.1.3 Electric energy measurement
The instruments used shall be of an accuracy class equal to 1 % or better.

Particular attention shall be given to the accuracy of DC and AC power and energy

measurement devices as any degraded accuracy or instability will negatively impact the

precision of energy and efficiency determinations.
5.1.4 Temperature measurement

The instruments used shall have a resolution of 0,5 K and the accuracy of the instruments shall

be ±1 K or better.
5.1.5 Time measurement

The instruments used shall have a resolution of 1 s and the accuracy of the instruments shall

be 1 % of the measured time interval or better.
5.2 Ambient temperature

All tests of an FBES or FBS shall be carried out at an ambient temperature of 25 °C ± 5 K u

...

IEC 62932-2-1
Edition 1.0 2020-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Flow battery energy systems for stationary applications –
Part 2-1: Performance general requirements and test methods
Systèmes de production d’énergie à batteries d’accumulateurs à circulation
d’électrolyte pour les applications stationnaires –
Partie 2-1: Exigences générales de performances et méthodes d’essai
IEC 62932-2-1:2020-02(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2020 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester. If you have any questions about IEC

copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address below or

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les coordonnées ci-après ou contactez le Comité national de l'IEC de votre pays de résidence.

IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé info@iec.ch
CH-1211 Geneva 20 www.iec.ch
Switzerland
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigendum or an amendment might have been published.

IEC publications search - webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform Electropedia - www.electropedia.org

The advanced search enables to find IEC publications by a The world's leading online dictionary on electrotechnology,

variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical containing more than 22 000 terminological entries in English

committee,…). It also gives information on projects, replaced and French, with equivalent terms in 16 additional languages.

and withdrawn publications. Also known as the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary

(IEV) online.
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished

Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published IEC Glossary - std.iec.ch/glossary

details all new publications released. Available online and 67 000 electrotechnical terminology entries in English and

once a month by email. French extracted from the Terms and Definitions clause of

IEC publications issued since 2002. Some entries have been

IEC Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/csc collected from earlier publications of IEC TC 37, 77, 86 and

If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or CISPR.
need further assistance, please contact the Customer Service
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62932-2-1
Edition 1.0 2020-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Flow battery energy systems for stationary applications –
Part 2-1: Performance general requirements and test methods
Systèmes de production d’énergie à batteries d’accumulateurs à circulation
d’électrolyte pour les applications stationnaires –
Partie 2-1: Exigences générales de performances et méthodes d’essai
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.220.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-8537-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62932-2-1:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 6

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 6

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 6

4 General requirements ...................................................................................................... 7

5 General test conditions .................................................................................................... 7

5.1 Accuracy of measuring instruments ......................................................................... 7

5.1.1 Voltage measurement ...................................................................................... 7

5.1.2 Current measurement ...................................................................................... 7

5.1.3 Electric energy measurement .......................................................................... 7

5.1.4 Temperature measurement .............................................................................. 7

5.1.5 Time measurement .......................................................................................... 7

5.2 Ambient temperature............................................................................................... 7

5.3 Point of connection (POC) and point of measurement (POM) .................................. 8

5.4 Test object .............................................................................................................. 9

5.5 Test object unit (TOU) selection .............................................................................. 9

6 Test methods ................................................................................................................... 9

6.1 Determination of energy at a constant power .......................................................... 9

6.1.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9

6.1.2 Test procedures ............................................................................................... 9

6.2 Determination of maximum deliverable output power ............................................ 10

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 10

6.2.2 Test procedures ............................................................................................. 10

6.3 Determination of maximum receivable input power ................................................ 11

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 11

6.3.2 Test procedures ............................................................................................. 11

6.4 Determination of energy efficiency at a constant power level ................................ 12

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 12

6.4.2 Test procedures ............................................................................................. 12

6.5 Determination of cycle life ..................................................................................... 13

Annex A (informative) Testing of discharge power vs energy or energy efficiency ................ 14

Figure 1 – Flow battery energy system .................................................................................... 5

Figure 2 – POM/POC interconnection cases a), b), c) ............................................................. 8

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62932-2-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FLOW BATTERY ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR STATIONARY APPLICATIONS –
Part 2-1: Performance general requirements and test methods
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC Publication(s)"). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between

any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62932-2-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 21:

Secondary cells and batteries, in collaboration with IEC technical committee 105: Fuel cell

technologies.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
21/1028/FDIS 21/1036/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62932 series, published under the general title Flow battery energy

systems for stationary applications, can be found on the IEC website.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62932-2-1:2020 © IEC 2020

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62932-2-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

A flow battery system (FBS) can be utilized as a main part of a flow battery energy system

(FBES). Such an FBES can consist of:
– a flow battery system,
– a power conversion system,
– other equipment and surroundings.

The FBES is connected to the external power input or output via a point of connection (POC).

This document includes the domain of the FBES, as shown in Figure 1. Auxiliary energy to the

battery management system (BMS), battery support system (BSS), and power conversion

system (PCS) may be supplied by one of the following:
– direct connection to the external power source;
– the internal power source of the FBES or FBS itself.
Figure 1 – Flow battery energy system
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62932-2-1:2020 © IEC 2020
FLOW BATTERY ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR STATIONARY APPLICATIONS –
Part 2-1: Performance general requirements and test methods
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62932 specifies methods of test and requirements for the flow battery system

(FBS) and the flow battery energy system (FBES) for the verification of their performances.

This document is applicable to FBES or FBS which are designed and used for service in

stationary locations (i.e. not generally to be moved from place to place).

This document does not cover testing of the system for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 62932-1, Flow battery energy systems for stationary applications – Part 1: Terminology and

general aspects

IEC 62932-2-2, Flow battery energy systems for stationary applications – Part 2-2: Safety

requirements

IEC 61427-2, Secondary cells and batteries for renewable energy storage – General

requirements and methods of test – Part 2: On-grid applications
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document the terms and definitions given in IEC 62932-1 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/.
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp.
3.2 Abbreviated terms
BMS battery management system
BSS battery support system
FBES flow battery energy system
FBS flow battery system
PCS power conversion system
POC point of connection
POM point of measurement
TOU test object unit
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IEC 62932-2-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –
4 General requirements

The FBES or FBS shall be designed to withstand mechanical stresses, vibrations and shocks

during transportation, handling and use.

The manufacturer shall provide documentation for transportation, installation, commissioning,

operation, maintenance, and disposal of the FBES or FBS.

The FBES or FBS shall be characterized by appropriate performance parameters, including

rated power, rated energy, rated energy efficiency, maximum output and input powers. More

information, such as energy or energy efficiency at different power levels (see Annex A), will

help the user know and use the FBES or FBS better.

Safety related requirements and methods of test shall be in accordance with IEC 62932-2-2.

5 General test conditions
5.1 Accuracy of measuring instruments
5.1.1 Voltage measurement

The instruments used shall be of an accuracy class equal to 1 % or better. The internal

resistance of the voltmeter used shall be at least 1 kΩ/V.
5.1.2 Current measurement
The instruments used shall be of an accuracy class equal to 1 % or better.

Particular attention shall be given to the accuracy of DC and AC current measurement devices

as any degraded accuracy or instability will negatively impact the precision of energy and

efficiency determinations.
5.1.3 Electric energy measurement
The instruments used shall be of an accuracy class equal to 1 % or better.

Particular attention shall be given to the accuracy of DC and AC power and energy

measurement devices as any degraded accuracy or instability will negatively impact the

precision of energy and efficiency determinations.
5.1.4 Temperature measurement

The instruments used shall have a resolution of 0,5 K and the accuracy of the instruments shall

be ±1 K or better.
5.1.5 Time measurement

The instruments used shall have a resolution of 1 s and the accuracy of the instruments shall

be 1 % of the measured time interval or better.
5.2 Ambient temperature

All tests of an FBES or FBS shall be carried out at an ambient temperature of 25 °C ± 5 K unless

otherwise specified in a test clause or agreed by the manufacturer and user. The ambient

temperature shall be measured and reported. The measuring instrument or probe shall be

shielded from draught and radiant heating.
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During a test, the FBES or FBS will operate spontaneously at a temperature different to the

ambient one due to energy conversion inefficiencies, internal frictional or ohmic losses and

similar.

For any test, the average ambient temperature and the temperature of the fluids entering the

flow battery cell or stack shall be recorded and reported. The location of the fluid temperature

probe shall be described.
5.3 Point of connection (POC) and point of measurement (POM)

The POC and POM shall be selected according to relevant examples and conditions a), b) or c)

of Figure 2. The power and the energy value are to be measured at the corresponding POM of

the FBS, FBES and the auxiliary equipment.
a) Case a), auxiliary b) Case b), auxiliary energy/power c) Case c), auxiliary

energy/power as DC is supplied as AC is supplied below the POC by energy/power as AC supplied

by the FBS the FBES or FBS via an auxiliary POC from the
grid
Key
P DC power entering or exiting the FBS (W)
E DC energy entering or exiting the FBS (Wh)
P AC power entering or exiting the FBES (W)
E AC energy entering or exitingthe FBES (Wh)
P auxilary power (W)
aux
auxilary energy (Wh)
aux

η and η conversion efficiency of the transmitter in different positions. If there is no transmitter, the conversion

efficiency value is 1

η product of the conversion efficiencies of all the transmitters in the dashed wire frame in Figure 2 c). If

there is no transmitter, the conversion efficiency value is 1
η conversion efficiency of the PCS
PCS
Figure 2 – POM/POC interconnection cases a), b), c)
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IEC 62932-2-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 9 –
5.4 Test object

In the definition of the test object, the boundary shall physically cover or include the following:

– for the FBS: BMS, BSS, pumps;
– for the FBES: BMS, BSS, pumps, PCS;
– for the TOU: BMS, BSS, pumps, with or without PCS.

In an FBES or FBS or TOU, the auxiliary energy either at DC or AC level has to be taken into

account.

To ensure transparency in data, the relevant and appropriate POM and POC as defined in

Figure 2, conditions a), b) or c) shall be recorded and reported.

A schematic layout of the components forming the test units and their interconnection points

shall accompany the test object description.
5.5 Test object unit (TOU) selection
– The FBES or FBS shall be tested in a defined layout.

– When due to test facility, costs or similar limitations this is not possible or desirable then a

representative test object unit (TOU) shall be defined and tested instead.

– This test object unit (TOU) shall encompass all components as defined in the test boundary

for an FBES or an FBS.
– These components shall be sized to match the TOU if needed or possible.

– The final assembly of the TOU shall faithfully represent the full-sized FBES or FBS so that

the test data obtained therewith can be extrapolated to them.

– The tested FBS, FBES or TOU shall be fully described in the relevant test report.

– Auxiliary energy data shall be scaled to the size of the TOU tested.

– All tests shall be carried out with the same and identical FBS, FBES or TOU throughout the

duration of the test.
6 Test methods
6.1 Determination of energy at a constant power
6.1.1 General

This test is for determining the discharge energy of the FBES or FBS at the constant power

mode, by measuring the total discharge energy outputs from the FBES or FBS and the auxiliary

energy consumed by auxiliary equipment (e.g. BMS, BSS and pumps).

The FBES, FBS or TOU (collectively the "test unit"), as defined in 5.4 and 5.5, shall be in a

stable temperature condition prior to measurements. The temperature and concentration of

electroactive species in the fluid entering the cell or stack shall be recorded and reported.

6.1.2 Test procedures
The test shall be in accordance with the following procedures:

a) The test unit shall be connected to a load circuit which can charge or discharge the test unit

as needed. Adequate equipment shall be in place to determine the auxiliary energy of the

auxiliary equipment during the determination.

b) The test unit shall be fully charged with the method declared by the manufacturer.

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c) The test unit shall be discharged with a constant power until the end-of-discharge is reached.

This power shall be kept constant to within ±2 %. The criteria of end-of-discharge shall be

declared and implemented in the test circuit.

NOTE 1 The criteria of end-of-discharge are typically the attainment of specified discharge duration or cut-off

voltage or the percentage of retained energy to the rated energy.

d) The total discharged energy from the test unit and the auxilary energy consumption during

discharge in c) shall be measured and recorded.

NOTE 2 The total discharged energy can be defined as the integral of the constant discharge power over the

discharge duration in hours or be determined directly by the energy measuring instrument.

e) Any change of the state of charge or state of health of the test unit, change in the power

consumption of the auxiliaries, or the use of different discharge power, ambient/electrolyte

temperature or end-of-discharge parameters will result in different energy values. For this

reason, any energy statement has to be accompanied by the declaration of the conditions

operative during its determination.

f) To verify a manufacturer declared value, i.e. the rated energy value, three consecutive and

identical energy determinations shall be carried out at rated power.

g) To show compliance with the rated energy value declared by the manufacturer, the

experimentally determined average energy of three consecutive cycles shall be equal to or

greater than the rated value.
6.2 Determination of maximum deliverable output power
6.2.1 General

The maximum deliverable output power is affected by the discharge time, the state of charge,

the ambient temperature and the auxiliary power needs for the FBES/FBS or TOU operation.

Any maximum deliverable output power value determined is hence representative or applicable

only to the specific operation condition of the FBES/FBS or TOU as mentioned above.

6.2.2 Test procedures

The test for the determining the maximum deliverable output power shall be in accordance with

the following procedures:

a) The duration of discharge t shall be defined before the test. The defined duration of 1/50

rated energy to rated power is recommended. The manufacturer shall, alternatively, declare

the duration time used.

b) The test unit shall be charged to a desired state of charge according to the method declared

by the manufacturer.

c) The test unit shall be discharged at a constant selected power level until the end-of-

discharge is reached. The duration time of discharge shall be recorded. The power level

shall be kept constant to within ±2 %. It shall be noted that the selected discharge power

level shall not cause irreversible damage to the unit.

d) If the duration of discharge t is higher than the defined duration value t , repeat b) and c)

with an increased power level until the determined duration value t of discharge is achieved.

All the other conditions (such as ambient temperature, end-of-discharge) shall be kept

constant. It is recommended to conduct the test from higher power to lower power.

e) If the duration of discharge t is lower than the defined duration t , repeat b) and c) with a

decreased power level until the defined duration t of discharge is achieved. All the other

conditions (such as ambient temperature, end-of-discharge) shall be kept constant.

f) The maximum deliverable output power value and the corresponding auxilary power

supplied shall be recorded. The maximum deliverable output power value shall be

accompanied with the duration of discharge t , the state of charge and ambient temperature.

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IEC 62932-2-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 11 –

g) To verify a manufacturer-declared maxmum output power value, the declared power

maxmum output shall be selected to conduct the procedure under c). The measured

duration time of discharge shall be not less than that delared by the manufacturer.

NOTE It is possible that the test procedure is not executable due to maximum power limitations of the PCS. If the

power level is higher than the maximum power limitations of the PCS, the maximum power of the PCS is defined as

the measured maximum output power.
6.3 Determination of maximum receivable input power
6.3.1 General

The maximum receivable input power is affected by the charge time, the state of charge, the

ambient temperature and the auxiliary power needs for the FBES/FBS or TOU operation. Any

maximum admissible input power value determined is hence representative or applicable only

to the specific operation condition of the FBES/FBS or TOU, as mentioned above.
6.3.2 Test procedures

The test for determining the maximum receivable energy input shall be in accordance with the

procedures as follows:
a) The duration of charge t shall be de
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