Environmental testing - Part 2-55: Tests - Test Ee and guidance - Loose cargo testing including bounce

IEC 60068-2-55:2013 provides a standard procedure for determining the ability of a specimen to withstand specified severities of bounce, e. g. when transported as loose cargo on wheeled vehicles. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition, published in 1987, and constitutes a technical revision. The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below: This new edition allows for loose cargo testing in a more general sense. The test is no longer aligned with a special testing machine but allows for use of any suitable equipment such as electrodynamic or servo-hydraulic shaker tables. Moreover, sinusoidal and random vibration can be used. The previous rotation table motions are included in Annex A as historical methods.
This publication is to be read in conjunction with IEC 60068-1:1988.

Essais d'environnement - Partie 2-55: Essais - Essai Ee et guide - Essais de chargement sans arrimage y compris l'essai de rebondissement

La CEI 60068-2-55:2013 fournit une procédure normalisée permettant de déterminer l'aptitude d'un spécimen à résister à des sévérités spécifiées de rebondissement, lorsqu'il est transporté par exemple sans arrimage sur des véhicules à roues. Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition, publiée en 1987. Elle constitue une révision technique. Les modifications principales par rapport à l'édition précédente sont les suivantes: Cette nouvelle édition prévoit des essais de chargement sans arrimage dans un sens plus général. L'essai n'est plus conduit à l'aide d'un appareil spécial d'essai mais permet d'utiliser tout matériel approprié tel que les tables vibrantes électrodynamiques ou servo-hydrauliques. De plus, les vibrations sinusoïdales et aléatoires peuvent être utilisées. Les mouvements antérieurs de la table de rotation sont inclus dans l'Annexe A à titre de méthodes historiques.
Cette publication doit être lue conjointement avec la CEI 60068-1:1988.

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Publication Date
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IEC 60068-2-55
Edition 2.0 2013-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Environmental testing –
Part 2-55: Tests – Test Ee and guidance – Loose cargo testing including bounce
Essais d’environnement –
Partie 2-55: Essais – Essai Ee et guide – Essais de chargement sans arrimage y
compris l’essai de rebondissement
IEC 60068-2-55:2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60068-2-55
Edition 2.0 2013-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Environmental testing –
Part 2-55: Tests – Test Ee and guidance – Loose cargo testing including bounce
Essais d’environnement –
Partie 2-55: Essais – Essai Ee et guide – Essais de chargement sans arrimage y
compris l’essai de rebondissement
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX R
ICS 19.040; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-83220-644-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – 60068-2-55 © IEC:2013
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................... 6

4 Requirements for the test apparatus ................................................................................. 7

4.1 General test description .......................................................................................... 7

4.2 Characteristics of the testing machine ..................................................................... 7

4.3 Motion of the platform .............................................................................................. 7

4.4 Tolerances on the horizontal accuracy of platform ................................................... 8

4.5 Control .................................................................................................................... 8

4.6 Mounting ................................................................................................................. 8

4.7 Horizontal motion of specimen................................................................................. 8

5 Severities ......................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 Severity for sinusoidal motion of the platform .......................................................... 8

5.2 Severity for random motion of the platform .............................................................. 9

5.3 Severity for mixed mode motion of the platform ....................................................... 9

5.4 Severity for use of special bounce testing machines ................................................ 9

6 Preconditioning ................................................................................................................ 9

7 Initial measurements and functional performance test ...................................................... 9

8 Testing ............................................................................................................................. 9

9 Recovery ........................................................................................................................ 10

10 Final measurements ....................................................................................................... 10

11 Information to be given in the relevant specification........................................................ 11

12 Information to be given in the test report ........................................................................ 11

Annex A (normative) Guidance ............................................................................................ 12

Annex B (informative) Comparison amongst impact tests ..................................................... 17

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 18

Figure A.1 – Typical arrangement of barriers and typical reference point positions ............... 13

Figure A.2 – Basic drive motion of a mechanical bounce tester ............................................. 14

Table B.1 – Comparison of different impact tests .................................................................. 17

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60068-2-55 © IEC:2013 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING –
Part 2-55: Tests – Test Ee and guidance –
Loose cargo testing including bounce
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60068-2-55 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 104:

Environmental conditions, classification and methods of test.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition, published in 1987, and constitutes

a technical revision.
The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below:

This new edition allows for loose cargo testing in a more general sense. The test is no longer

aligned with a special testing machine but allows for use of any suitable equipment such as

electrodynamic or servo-hydraulic shaker tables. Moreover, sinusoidal and random vibration

can be used. The previous rotation table motions are included in Annex A as historical

methods.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – 60068-2-55 © IEC:2013
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
104/592/FDIS 104/598/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.

This standard should be used in conjunction with IEC 60068-1.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 60068 series, under the general title Environmental testing,

can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
60068-2-55 © IEC:2013 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

This test is applicable to specimens which, during transportation on the load-carrying platform

of wheeled vehicles either not fastened down or with some degree of freedom, may be

subjected to dynamic stresses resulting from random shock conditions (bounce). The test may

also be used as a simple means of assessing the satisfactory design of a specimen so far as

its structural integrity is concerned.

NOTE In practice, this test is primarily applicable to equipment-type specimens and packages.

Although the test is performed using a vibrating platform, it is not considered as a vibration

test, but as an impact test. Vibration tests should be conducted according to the appropriate

standards from IEC 60068-2.

In Clause 11, specification writers will find a list of details to be considered for inclusion in

specifications and, in Annex A, the necessary accompanying guidance.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – 60068-2-55 © IEC:2013
ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING –
Part 2-55: Tests – Test Ee and guidance –
Loose cargo testing including bounce
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60068 provides a standard procedure for determining the ability of a

specimen to withstand specified severities of bounce, e. g. when transported as loose cargo

on wheeled vehicles.

This test is primarily intended for specimens prepared for transportation, including specimens

in their transport case when the latter may be considered as part of the specimen itself or

packages. This test should not be used as a low-frequency vibration test.

Although primarily intended for electrotechnical products, this standard is not restricted to

them and may be used in other fields where desired.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.
IEC 60068-1, Environmental testing – Part 1: General and guidance

IEC 60068-2-6, Environmental testing – Part 2-6: Tests – Test Fc: Vibration (sinusoidal)

IEC 60068-2-64, Environmental testing – Part 2-64: Tests – Test Fh: Vibration, broadband

random and guidance

IEC 60068-2-80, Environmental testing – Part 2-80: Tests – Test Fi: Vibration – Mixed mode

ISO 13355, Packaging – Complete, filled transport packages and unit loads – Vertical random

vibration test

ASTM D4169-09, Standard Practice for Performance Testing of Shipping Containers and

Systems
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
bounce testing machine

testing machine with a vibrating platform driven by rotating shafts and eccentrics

Note 1 to entry: Bounce testing machines typically have a fixed displacement amplitude and a variable frequency.

___________
A new edition of IEC 60068-1 is currently under consideration.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
60068-2-55 © IEC:2013 – 7 –
3.2
checkpoint
point located on the vibration table

Note 1 to entry: For the purpose of this standard, the checkpoints have to be located on the vibration table,

regardless of the position of the specimen.
3.3
reference point

point, chosen from amongst the checkpoints, whose signal is used to control the test, such

that the requirements of this standard are satisfied
3.4

standard acceleration due to the earth's gravity, which itself varies with altitude and

geographical latitude

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this standard, the value of g is rounded up to the nearest whole number,

that is 10 m/s .
4 Requirements for the test apparatus
4.1 General test description

The specimen is installed on a vibrating platform without a fixture and occasionally bounces,

according to the mass and stiffness of the platform and the specimen, and the prescribed

motion. No direct control is imposed on the specimen motion. Wherever possible, the test

severity applied to the specimen shall be related to the operational environment to which the

specimen will be subjected during transportation.

The relevant specification shall state the criteria upon which the acceptance or rejection of the

specimen is to be based. Normally, for this test the specimen is not functioning and it is

sufficient that it should survive the testing.
4.2 Characteristics of the testing machine

The testing machine shall consist of a horizontal platform coupled to a shaker or a similar

drive mechanism. If prescribed by the relevant specification, special bounce testing machines

may be used (see Clause A.3).

The platform shall be of at least 24 mm and not to exceed 32 mm plywood firmly attached to a

suitable stiff frame, if required, with appropriate barriers (see 4.7). It shall be of sufficient size

to support the specimen. Furthermore, the characteristics of the testing machine shall allow

for the prescribed motion of the platform, see 4.3.
4.3 Motion of the platform

The motion of the platform shall be vertical linear, also when loaded by the specimen and any

other devices necessary for conducting the test. A rotary motion of the platform is not possible

when connected to a shaker table. The relevant specification can prescribe sinusoidal or

random vibration of the platform.

The deflections of the platform resulting from the bouncing specimen shall be negligible. This

can be achieved by sufficient strength and stiffness of the supporting stiff frame.

If prescribed by the relevant specification, other kinds of motion can be used that require

special bounce testing machines, such as circulating (see A.3.1) or non-synchronous (A.3.2)

motion of the platform.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – 60068-2-55 © IEC:2013
4.4 Tolerances on the horizontal accuracy of platform

The testing machine shall be installed so that at its lowest point (bottom dead centre of the

motion), the platform is horizontal within the following tolerance:

– ±0,5° in the longitudinal and lateral axes (respectively pitching and rolling angles).

Any allowances for play of the drive mechanism are included in this value.
4.5 Control

The motion of the platform is controlled. Acceleration or displacement control is permissible. If

the platform is driven mechanically by eccentrics, actual eccentricity and control of the shaft

speed may be used. It is not necessary to measure the response of the specimen.

The impacts of the specimen on the platform are very likely to influence the actual motion of

the platform. The occurrence of high-frequency oscillations resulting from these impacts shall

be considered, as this may lead to signal distortion without appropriate filtering. In the case of

the reference point being influenced by the impacting, and the stated tolerances not being

able to be met, the achieved result shall be stated in the test report.
4.6 Mounting

For the purpose of this test, the specimen is never fastened or otherwise fixed to the platform

during testing.
4.7 Horizontal motion of specimen

The horizontal motion of the specimen shall be limited by suitable barriers of sufficient

strength and stiffness.

The maximum horizontal clearance shall be small compared to the size of the specimen but

large enough to allow for free vertical movement. Normally, this is achieved by a clearance of

approximately 10 mm on each side.

A suitable barrier arrangement is described in Clause A.2 and shown in Figure A.1.

5 Severities

NOTE Severity is described by the motion of the platform and the testing duration.

5.1 Severity for sinusoidal motion of the platform

If sinusoidal vibration is required, the relevant specification should refer to IEC 60068-2-6 and

prescribe the amplitude and frequency of the motion together with the testing duration.

The duration of testing shall be selected from the severities given below. These severities

represent the nominal duration of testing, exclusive of recovery periods (see Clause 8), to be

applied. The test duration depends on the specimen and the purpose of the test:
– 180 min;
– 90 min;
– 60 min;
– 15 min;
– 5 min.

The duration of testing shall be divided equally between the specified attitudes or as required

by the relevant specification, see Clause 8.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
60068-2-55 © IEC:2013 – 9 –
The following values are often applied:

Sinusoidal motion of the platform according to IEC 60068-2-6, peak displacement amplitude

of 12,75 mm ±0,5 mm at a frequency of 4,75 Hz ±0,05 Hz. This is equivalent to a peak

acceleration amplitude of approximately 1,1 g . A typical test duration for robustness testing

of shipping containers is 60 min.

NOTE The test severity given here corresponds to widely used test procedures. However, it is considered as very

conservative and not related to the operational or transportation environment.
5.2 Severity for random motion of the platform

If random vibration is required, the relevant specification should refer to IEC 60068-2-64 and

prescribe the ASD spectrum of the motion together with the test duration.

The duration of testing shall be divided equally between the specified attitudes or as required

by the relevant specification, see Clause 8.
5.3 Severity for mixed mode motion of the platform

If mixed mode vibration is required, the relevant specification should refer to IEC 60068-2-80

and prescribe the mixed mode spectrum of the motion together with the test duration.

NOTE 1 Mixed mode produces a stochastic bouncing of packaged specimens. Digital vibration control systems

require long loop times at these low frequencies and it may be some time before the test starts and equalization is

achieved.

NOTE 2 Bouncing motion generated with a pure random or pure sine vibration is unsuitable for reproducing the

motion required for unfixed packaged specimens.
5.4 Severity for use of special bounce testing machines

If the relevant specification requires use of a special bounce testing machine (see Clause A.3),

the kind of motion and the testing duration shall be specified.
6 Preconditioning

If the relevant specification calls for preconditioning it shall then prescribe the conditions.

7 Initial measurements and functional performance test

The specimen shall be submitted to visual, dimensional, functional and any other checks as

prescribed by the relevant specification.
8 Testing

The specimen, with or without its transport case or packaging as required by the relevant

specification, is placed in the middle of the platform without being fixed.

A vibration test is carried out with an excitation as prescribed by the test severity (see

Clause 5).

One or several points on the platform not reached by the bouncing specimen is/are chosen as

reference points. If necessary, multi-point control may be used, provided that this is stated in

the test report. However, it is only expected to use multi-point control for very large, heavy

equipment. In that case, the reference points shall be located on each side of the specimen

on the platform. No additional check points are required.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – 60068-2-55 © IEC:2013

In case of sinusoidal motion of the platform, IEC 60068-2-6 applies, in case of random motion,

IEC 60068-2-64 applies. The requirements of the respective standards shall be fulfilled for the

reference points on the platform.

NOTE 1 The vibration testing standards IEC 60068-2-6 and IEC 60068-2-64 impose additional uniformity

requirements on multiple check points that are not applicable for bounce tests according to this standard.

The test may be interrupted for inspection of the specimen, or to prevent excessive

temperature rises, provided that the testing duration is properly achieved.

NOTE 2 Excessive temperature rises may occur in specimens which contain highly resilient structures or parts,

except possibly for the severity of 5 min. In such cases it may be necessary, in order to prevent an excessive

temperature rise within the specimen, to carry out the test in a series of phases (each of, say, 5 min bouncing

followed by a recovery period of 5 min or longer) as required by the relevant specification.

If pre-tests are necessary for adjustment of the testing machine, this time shall not be

deducted from the test duration.

Where the aspect ratio of the specimen (the ratio of its longest side to its shortest) does not

exceed 3:1 and the mass does not exceed 50 kg, the specimen shall be subjected to bounce

on each of its attitudes (for example the two bases and the lateral surface for a cylinder and

six sides for a rectangular (parallelepipedal) object).

For specimens of greater mass or aspect ratio, or of a different form, the test shall be carried

out as required by the relevant specification.

In this case, it can be necessary to further constrain the horizontal and overturning movement

of the specimen. The vertical movement should not be restrained. The measures used for

constraining movement should be stated in the test report.

Where there is only a limited number of faces on which the specimen would be transported,

the relevant specification shall state the attitude(s) of the specimen for the test (see

Clause A.5) and the test duration to be applied to each attitude.

If required by the relevant specification, specimens of any aspect ratio may be stacked,

provided that the overall height does not exceed 600 mm. The relevant specification shall

state what special arrangements, if any, are needed to constrain the movement of the topmost

specimen.

Special bounce testing machines designed for circular or non-synchronous motion of the

platform may be used for testing if prescribed by the relevant specification. Test procedures

for these cases are described in Clause A.3.
9 Recovery

It is sometimes necessary to provide a period of time after testing and before final

measurements in order to allow the specimen to attain the same conditions, for example of

temperature, as existed for the initial measurements. The relevant specification shall then

prescribe the conditions for recovery.
10 Final measurements

The specimen shall be submitted to visual, dimensional and functional checks and any others

as prescribed by the relevant specification.

The relevant specification shall provide the criteria upon which the acceptance or rejection of

the specimen shall be based.
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60068-2-55 © IEC:2013 – 11 –
11 Information to be given in the relevant specification
When this test is included in a relevant specification, the following details
...

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