Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-36: Testing and measurement techniques - IEMI immunity test methods for equipment and systems

IEC 61000-4-36:2020 is available as IEC 61000-4-36:2020 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 61000-4-36:2020 provides methods to determine test levels for the assessment of the immunity of equipment and systems to intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) sources. It introduces the general IEMI problem, IEMI source parameters, derivation of test limits and summarises practical test methods. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2014. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- addition of a hyperband and mesoband radiated transients immunity test method in
- Annex H;
- addition of a calibration method of sensors for radiated hyperband and mesoband transient fields and measurement uncertainty in Annex I.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
22-Mar-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
23-Mar-2020
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IEC 61000-4-36:2020 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-36: Testing and measurement techniques - IEMI immunity test methods for equipment and systems
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IEC 61000-4-36
Edition 2.0 2020-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
BASIC EMC PUBLICATION
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) –
Part 4-36: Testing and measurement techniques – IEMI immunity test methods
for equipment and systems
IEC 61000-4-36:2020-03(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 61000-4-36
Edition 2.0 2020-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
BASIC EMC PUBLICATION
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) –
Part 4-36: Testing and measurement techniques – IEMI immunity test methods
for equipment and systems
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.100.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-7942-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 61000-4-36:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 7

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 10

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ...................................................................... 10

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 10

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 14

4 General ......................................................................................................................... 15

5 IEMI environments and interaction ................................................................................. 16

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 16

5.2 IEMI environments ................................................................................................ 17

5.2.1 Technical capability groups ........................................................................... 17

5.2.2 IEMI deployment scenarios ............................................................................ 17

5.2.3 Radiated IEMI environment summary ............................................................ 17

5.2.4 Published conducted IEMI environments........................................................ 18

5.3 Interaction with victim equipment, systems and installations ................................. 18

5.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 18

5.3.2 Protection level .............................................................................................. 19

6 Test methods ................................................................................................................. 20

6.1 Derivation of applicable test methods .................................................................... 20

6.2 Derivation of transfer functions ............................................................................. 21

6.3 Radiated tests using IEMI simulator ...................................................................... 22

6.4 Radiated tests using a reverberation chamber ...................................................... 22

6.5 Complex waveform injection (CWI) ....................................................................... 22

6.6 Damped sinusoidal injection (DSI) ........................................................................ 22

6.7 Electrostatic discharge (ESD) ............................................................................... 22

6.8 Electrically fast transient (EFT) ............................................................................. 22

6.9 Antenna port injection ........................................................................................... 23

7 Test parameters ............................................................................................................ 23

7.1 Derivation of immunity test parameters ................................................................. 23

7.2 Radiated test parameters ...................................................................................... 23

7.2.1 Generic hyperband test parameters (skilled capability group) ........................ 23

7.2.2 Generic mesoband test parameters (skilled capability group)......................... 25

7.2.3 Generic hypoband test parameters (skilled capability group) ......................... 27

7.3 Generic conducted IEMI test parameters............................................................... 28

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 28

7.3.2 Characteristics and performance of the fast damped oscillatory wave

generator ....................................................................................................... 29

7.4 Tailored test level derivation ................................................................................. 30

7.5 Relevance of EMC immunity data ......................................................................... 30

Annex A (informative) Failure mechanisms and performance criteria ................................... 31

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 31

A.2 Failure mechanisms .............................................................................................. 31

A.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

A.2.2 Noise ............................................................................................................. 32

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IEC 61000-4-36:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –

A.2.3 Parameter offset and drifts ............................................................................ 32

A.2.4 System upset or breakdown ........................................................................... 33

A.2.5 Component destruction .................................................................................. 33

A.3 Effect of pulse width.............................................................................................. 34

A.4 Performance criteria ............................................................................................. 34

A.5 References ........................................................................................................... 35

Annex B (informative) Developments in IEMI source environments ...................................... 37

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 37

B.2 IEMI environment .................................................................................................. 38

B.3 IEMI sources ......................................................................................................... 39

B.4 Published radiated IEMI environments .................................................................. 43

B.4.1 IEC 61000-2-13 [B.14] ................................................................................... 43

B.4.2 Mil-Std-464C ................................................................................................. 43

B.4.3 Selection of parameters for mesoband immunity test ..................................... 45

B.4.4 International Telecommunication Union (ITU) ................................................ 47

B.5 Summary .............................................................................................................. 47

B.6 References ........................................................................................................... 48

Annex C (informative) Interaction with buildings ................................................................... 50

C.1 Building attenuation .............................................................................................. 50

C.2 Coupling to cables ................................................................................................ 51

C.3 Low voltage cable attenuation ............................................................................... 52

C.4 References ........................................................................................................... 53

Annex D (informative) Relation between plane wave immunity testing and immunity

testing in a reverberation chamber ........................................................................................ 55

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 55

D.2 Relation between measurements of shielding effectiveness in the two

environments ........................................................................................................ 56

D.3 Relation between immunity testing in the two environments .................................. 59

D.4 Additional aspects ................................................................................................. 61

D.5 References ........................................................................................................... 61

Annex E (informative) Complex waveform injection – Test method ....................................... 64

E.1 General ................................................................................................................. 64

E.2 Prediction ............................................................................................................. 64

E.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 64

E.2.2 Example ........................................................................................................ 68

E.3 Construction ......................................................................................................... 70

E.4 Injection ................................................................................................................ 74

E.5 Summary .............................................................................................................. 76

E.6 References ........................................................................................................... 76

Annex F (informative) Significance of test methodology margins .......................................... 78

F.1 General ................................................................................................................. 78

F.2 Examples .............................................................................................................. 78

F.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 78

F.2.2 Negative contributions ................................................................................... 79

F.2.3 Positive contributions..................................................................................... 81

F.2.4 Summary ....................................................................................................... 83

F.3 References ........................................................................................................... 83

Annex G (informative) Intentional EMI – The issue of jammers ............................................ 84

G.1 General ................................................................................................................. 84

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– 4 – IEC 61000-4-36:2020 © IEC 2020

G.2 Effects .................................................................................................................. 84

G.3 Published accounts of jamming ............................................................................. 85

G.4 Risk assessment ................................................................................................... 85

G.5 Mitigation .............................................................................................................. 85

G.6 References ........................................................................................................... 86

Annex H (normative) Hyperband and mesoband radiated transients immunity test

method ................................................................................................................................. 88

H.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 88

H.2 Test equipment ..................................................................................................... 88

H.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 88

H.2.2 Test facility .................................................................................................... 88

H.2.3 Hyperband transient pulse radiating test system ............................................ 89

H.2.4 Mesoband transient pulse radiating test system ............................................. 89

H.2.5 Measurement chain ....................................................................................... 89

H.3 Field uniformity assessment .................................................................................. 90

H.3.1 Field uniformity assessment in an anechoic chamber ..................................... 90

H.3.2 Field uniformity in GTEM waveguide .............................................................. 93

H.4 Test set-up ........................................................................................................... 93

H.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 93

H.4.2 Arrangement of table-top equipment .............................................................. 95

H.4.3 Arrangement of floor-standing equipment ...................................................... 95

H.4.4 Arrangement of wiring .................................................................................... 95

H.5 Test procedure ...................................................................................................... 96

H.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 96

H.5.2 Laboratory reference conditions ..................................................................... 96

H.5.3 Execution of the test ...................................................................................... 96

H.5.4 Evaluation of test results ............................................................................... 98

H.6 Test report ............................................................................................................ 98

H.7 References ........................................................................................................... 99

Annex I (informative) Calibration method and measurement uncertainty of sensors for

the measurement of radiated hyperband and mesoband transient fields .............................. 100

I.1 General ............................................................................................................... 100

I.2 Calibration method in TEM waveguides in IEC 61000-4-20:2010, Annex E [I.1] ... 100

I.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 100

I.2.2 Probe calibration requirements .................................................................... 101

I.2.3 Field probe calibration procedure in case of a one-port TEM waveguide ...... 102

I.3 Calibration procedures for D-dot sensors in the time domain............................... 103

I.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 103

I.4 Measurement uncertainty .................................................................................... 105

I.5 References ......................................................................................................... 106

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 107

Figure 1 – Example of radiated and conducted IEMI interaction with a building .................... 19

Figure 2 – Assessment options ............................................................................................. 21

Figure 3 – Examples of ports ................................................................................................ 23

Figure 4 – Example of hyperband waveform.......................................................................... 25

Figure 5 – Example of mesoband waveform .......................................................................... 27

Figure 6 – Typical hypoband/narrowband waveform .............................................................. 28

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IEC 61000-4-36:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –

Figure 7 – Waveform of the damped oscillatory wave (open circuit voltage) .......................... 29

Figure A.1 – IEMI induced offset of sensor output – Corruption of information ...................... 32

Figure A.2 – Collision of an induced disturbance with data bits [A.1] ..................................... 33

Figure A.3 – Examples of destruction on a chip [A.2] ............................................................ 33

Figure A.4 – Generic failure trend as a function of pulse width .............................................. 34

Figure B.1 – A comparison of HPEM and IEMI spectra [B.6] ................................................. 37

Figure B.2 – Representation of typical IEMI radiation and coupling onto systems [B.3] ........ 39

Figure B.3 – Parameter space in power/frequency occupied by sophisticated IEMI (i.e.

DEW) sources in comparison to common RF systems [B.1]................................................... 40

Figure B.4 – Peak power and energy from continuous and pulsed (durations shown)

microwave sources, narrowband and wideband .................................................................... 40

Figure B.5 – Peak powers of various types of pulsed hypoband/narrowband sources [B.1] ... 41

Figure B.6 – Peak versus average power for microwave sources with duty factors

indicated ............................................................................................................................... 41

Figure B.7 – Phase coherence leading to a compact HPM source with N scaling of

output power ......................................................................................................................... 42

Figure B.8 – Briefcase mesoband DS source sold by Diehl-Rheinmetall [B.3] ....................... 42

Figure B.9 – A do-it-yourself electromagnetic weapon made from an oven magnetron

[B.13] .................................................................................................................................... 43

Figure B.10 – Wideband (mesoband and hyperband) EME derived from [B.17] ..................... 45

Figure B.11 – Plot of entire narrowband system weight as a function of output

microwave power for land-mobile and land-transportable systems ........................................ 48

Figure C.1 – Typical unprotected low-rise building plane wave E-field attenuation

collected from references ...................................................................................................... 50

Figure C.2 – Cable coupling and resonance region ............................................................... 52

Figure C.3 – Mains cable attenuation profile ......................................................................... 53

Figure E.1 – LLSC reference field measurement set-up ........................................................ 65

Figure E.2 – LLSC induced current measurement set-up ...................................................... 66

Figure E.3 – Typical LLSC magnitude-only transfer function ................................................. 66

Figure E.4 – Prediction of induced current using minimum phase constraints ........................ 67

Figure E.5 – IEC 61000-2-9 early-time (E1) HEMP environment ........................................... 68

Figure E.6 – Overlay of transfer function and threat (frequency domain) ............................... 69

Figure E.7 – Predicted current .............................................................................................. 69

Figure E.8 – Example of de-convolution result ...................................................................... 71

Figure E.9 – Damped sinusoidal waveforms – Ten-component fit .......................................... 71

Figure E.10 – Approximated and predicted transient ............................................................. 72

Figure E.11 – Approximated and predicted transient (0 ns to 100 ns) .................................... 72

Figure E.12 – Approximation and prediction transient – Frequency domain comparison ........ 73

Figure E.13 – Variation in error for an increasing number of damped sinusoids .................... 74

Figure E.14 – Complex injection set-up ................................................................................. 75

Figure E.15 – Amplifier requirements for various current levels ............................................. 75

Figure E.16 – Comparison of predicted (green) and injected (red) current ............................. 76

Figure F.1 – Variation in induced currents as a result of configuration .................................. 79

Figure F.2 – Comparison of HPD and VPD induced currents ................................................. 80

Figure F.3 – System variability .............................................................................................. 80

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– 6 – IEC 61000-4-36:2020 © IEC 2020

Figure F.4 – Comparison of single- and multi-port injection ................................................... 81

Figure F.5 – Example of transfer functions and worst-case envelope .................................... 82

Figure F.6 – Comparison of individual and worst-case transfer function predictions .............. 82

Figure F.7 – Comparison between predicted and measured induced currents ....................... 83

Figure H.1 – Measurement chain for field uniformity assessment and transient

responses ............................................................................................................................. 89

Figure H.2 – Test set-up for field uniformity assessment in anechoic chamber ...................... 91

Figure H.3 – Example of test set-up for table-top equipment/system ..................................... 94

Figure H.4 – Example of test set-up for floor-standing equipment/system ............................. 94

Figure H.5 – Example of test set-up in GTEM waveguide ...................................................... 95

Figure I.1 – Example of the measurement points for the validation ...................................... 102

Figure I.2 – Set-up for calibration of E-field probe in one-port TEM waveguide ................... 103

Figure I.3 – Cone and ground plane sensor calibration set-up ............................................. 104

Table 1 – Possible IEMI deployment scenarios ..................................................................... 17

Table 2 – Summary of high power radiated IEMI source output (rE ) by capability group .... 18

far

Table 3 – Examples of protection levels ................................................................................ 19

Table 4 – Generic hyperband test parameters (skilled capability group) ................................ 24

Table 5 – Radiated hyperband test waveform and other pulse parameters ............................ 24

Table 6 – Generic mesoband test parameters (skilled capability group) ................................ 25

Table 7 – Comparison of quality factor (Q) with bandratio ..................................................... 26

Table 8 – Radiated mesoband waveform and other pulse parameters ................................... 26

Table 9 – Generic hypoband/narrowband test parameters (skilled capability group) ............. 27

Table 10 – Conducted IEMI test levels .................................................................................. 28

Table 11 – Open circuit specifications ................................................................................... 29

Table 12 – Short circuit specifications ................................................................................... 30

Table A.1 – Recommended performance criteria ................................................................... 35

Table B.1 – IEMI environments from IEC 61000-2-13 ............................................................ 43

Table B.2 – Hypoband/narrowband HPM environment from [B.17] ........................................ 44

Table B.3 – Wideband (mesoband/hyperband) HPM environment from [B.17] ....................... 44

Table C.1 – Shielding effectiveness measurements for various power system buildings

and rooms............................................................................................................................. 51

Table E.1 – Time waveform norms ........................................................................................ 70

Table I.1 – Calibration frequencies...................................................................................... 102

Table I.2 – Type B expanded uncertainties for sensor calibrations in GTEM cell field

generation system .............................................................................................................. 105

Table I.3 – Type B expanded uncertainties for sensor calibrations in the cone and

ground plane cell field generation system ........................................................................... 106

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IEC 61000-4-36:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC) –
Part 4-36: Testing and measurement techniques –
IEMI immunity test methods for equipment and systems
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