Electrostatics - Part 5-2: Protection of electronic devices from electrostatic phenomena - User guide

IEC TR 61340-5-2:2018 is available as IEC TR 61340-5-2:2018 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC TR 61340-5-2:2018, which has been developed to support IEC 61340-5-1, applies to activities that: manufacture, process, assemble, install, package, label, service, test, inspect, transport or otherwise handle electrical or electronic parts, assemblies and equipment with withstand voltages greater than or equal to 100 V HBM, 200 V CDM and 35 V for isolated conductors. Additional control elements or adjusted limits can be applicable for ESDS with lower withstand voltages. This second edition of IEC TR 61340-5-2 has been modified to provide guidance for users of IEC 61340-5-1:2016. The text has been arranged to follow the requirements of IEC 61340‑5‑1:2016 as closely as possible as well as providing specific guidance on each of the requirements of IEC 61340-5-1:2016.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Mar-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
28-Mar-2018
Completion Date
28-Mar-2018
Ref Project

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IEC TR 61340-5-2
Edition 2.0 2018-03
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Electrostatics –
Part 5-2: Protection of electronic devices from electrostatic phenomena –
User guide
IEC TR 61340-5-2:2018-03(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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IEC TR 61340-5-2
Edition 2.0 2018-03
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Electrostatics –
Part 5-2: Protection of electronic devices from electrostatic phenomena –
User guide
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 17.220.99; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-5445-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 61340-5-2:2018  IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 9

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 9

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 9

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 9

4 Personnel safety ............................................................................................................ 10

5 ESD control program ..................................................................................................... 10

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

5.1.1 ESD control program requirements ................................................................ 10

5.1.2 ESD coordinator ............................................................................................ 10

5.1.3 Tailoring ........................................................................................................ 10

5.2 ESD control program administrative requirements ................................................. 11

5.2.1 ESD control program plan .............................................................................. 11

5.2.2 Training plan ................................................................................................. 13

5.2.3 Product qualification ...................................................................................... 15

5.2.4 Compliance verification plan .......................................................................... 16

5.3 ESD control program technical requirements ........................................................ 20

5.3.1 Grounding/equipotential bonding systems ...................................................... 20

5.3.2 Personnel grounding ...................................................................................... 22

5.3.3 ESD protected areas (EPA) ........................................................................... 26

5.3.4 Packaging electronic products for shipment and storage ................................ 61

5.3.5 Marking ......................................................................................................... 65

6 Automated handling equipment (AHE) ........................................................................... 68

7 ESD control gloves and finger cots ................................................................................ 68

7.1 Introductory remarks ............................................................................................. 68

7.2 Types.................................................................................................................... 69

7.3 Testing and qualification ....................................................................................... 70

7.3.1 Properties to test ........................................................................................... 70

7.3.2 Resistance measurements ............................................................................. 70

7.3.3 Charge decay time measurements ................................................................. 72

7.3.4 Product charging test ..................................................................................... 73

8 Handtools ...................................................................................................................... 75

8.1 Introductory remarks ............................................................................................. 75

8.2 Testing and qualification ....................................................................................... 75

8.2.1 Qualification criteria ....................................................................................... 75

8.2.2 Resistance measurement .............................................................................. 75

8.2.3 Charge decay ................................................................................................ 78

Annex A (informative) Example ESD control program plan based on IEC 61340-5-1 ............ 81

A.1 Introductory remarks (Not part of the example) ..................................................... 81

A.2 Purpose ................................................................................................................ 81

A.3 Range ................................................................................................................... 81

A.4 Responsibilities ..................................................................................................... 81

A.5 References ........................................................................................................... 81

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IEC TR 61340-5-2:2018  IEC 2018 – 3 –

A.6 Definitions............................................................................................................. 81

A.7 ESD control program plan ..................................................................................... 81

A.8 Training plan ......................................................................................................... 82

A.8.1 Initial training ................................................................................................. 82

A.8.2 Refresher training .......................................................................................... 82

A.9 Product qualification ............................................................................................. 83

A.10 Compliance verification plan ................................................................................. 83

A.11 ESD protected area requirements ......................................................................... 83

A.11.1 General requirements .................................................................................... 83

A.11.2 Grounding plan .............................................................................................. 84

A.11.3 Personnel grounding plan .............................................................................. 84

A.12 Tailoring statement ............................................................................................... 84

A.13 Work surfaces ....................................................................................................... 85

A.14 Packaging ............................................................................................................. 85

A.15 Marking ................................................................................................................. 85

A.16 Compliance verification procedures ...................................................................... 86

A.16.1 Testing of wrist strap connection point ........................................................... 86

A.16.2 Checking for static generators ....................................................................... 86

A.16.3 Checking isolated conductors ........................................................................ 86

Annex B (informative) ESD control element considerations .................................................. 87

B.1 General remarks ................................................................................................... 87

B.2 ESD control footwear and flooring ......................................................................... 87

B.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 87

B.2.2 Ionizers ......................................................................................................... 90

B.2.3 Constant monitors ......................................................................................... 90

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 92

Figure 1 – Example assessment report showing trend report ................................................ 19

Figure 2 – Example of individually grounded benches – Recommended ................................ 21

Figure 3 – Example of a series ground connection of benches – Not recommended .............. 22

Figure 4 – Relationship between body voltage and resistance to ground ............................... 23

Figure 5 – Voltage reading on person walking across grounded conductive floor whilst

wearing two heelstraps ......................................................................................................... 25

Figure 6 – Ionization by alpha radiation ................................................................................ 45

Figure 7 – Corona ionization – Positive ................................................................................. 45

Figure 8 – Corona ionization – Negative ............................................................................... 45

Figure 9 – ESD sensitive part or assembly ............................................................................ 66

Figure 10 – Example of a warning label for ESDS ................................................................. 66

Figure 11 – Example of a packaging label ............................................................................. 67

Figure 12 – ESD control material marking ............................................................................. 67

Figure 13 – Glove or finger cot resistance testing (as worn) .................................................. 71

Figure 14 – Testing glove or finger cot resistance via a wrist strap system ............................ 72

Figure 15 – Product charging tests ....................................................................................... 75

Figure 16 – Tool resistance test ............................................................................................ 76

Figure 17 – Tool resistance to ground system ....................................................................... 77

Figure 18 – Charge decay test .............................................................................................. 79

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– 4 – IEC TR 61340-5-2:2018  IEC 2018

Figure 19 – Tool CPM waveforms ......................................................................................... 80

Figure A.1 – Sign indicating special handling conditions ....................................................... 85

Figure A.2 – Label indicating product is ESD sensitive .......................................................... 86

Figure B.1 – Voltage generated for three types of footwear all on the same flooring

system .................................................................................................................................. 90

Table 1 – Types of bands ...................................................................................................... 32

Table 2 – Ionizer selection checklist ..................................................................................... 49

Table A.1 – ESD control program compliance verification requirements ................................ 83

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IEC TR 61340-5-2:2018  IEC 2018 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTROSTATICS –
Part 5-2: Protection of electronic devices from
electrostatic phenomena – User guide
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

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9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

technical committee may propose the publication of a technical report when it has collected

data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard, for

example "state of the art".

IEC TR 61340-5-2, which is a Technical Report, has been prepared by IEC technical

committee 101: Electrostatics.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2007. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

This second edition of IEC TR 61340-5-2 has been modified to provide guidance for users of

IEC 61340-5-1:2016. The text has been arranged to follow the requirements of
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– 6 – IEC TR 61340-5-2:2018  IEC 2018

IEC 61340-5-1:2016 as closely as possible as well as providing specific guidance on each of

the requirements of IEC 61340-5-1:2016.
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
101/532/DTR 101/543/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 61340 series, published under the general title Electrostatics, can

be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
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IEC TR 61340-5-2:2018  IEC 2018 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

This user guide has been produced for individuals and organizations that are faced with

controlling electrostatic discharge (ESD). It provides guidance that can be used for

developing, implementing and monitoring an electrostatic discharge control program in

accordance with IEC 61340-5-1.

This user guide applies to activities that manufacture, process, assemble, install, package,

label, service, test, inspect or otherwise handle electrical or electronic parts, assemblies and

equipment susceptible to damage by electrostatic discharges greater than or equal to 100 V

using the human body model (HBM), 200 V charged device model (CDM) or 35 V on isolated

conductors. Isolated conductors were historically represented by the machine model (MM).

The MM test is no longer used for qualification of devices, only HBM and CDM. The MM is

retained in this document for process control of isolated conductors. These three levels were

selected for IEC 61340-5-1 as the baseline susceptibility threshold, since a large majority of

the ESD products on the market have a sensitivity of greater than 100 V HBM, 200 V CDM

and 35 V for isolated conductors. If ESD sensitive devices (ESDS) of less than these values

are being handled, additional controls can be implemented or some of the technical control

item requirements can be adjusted.

The requirements established for each of the ESD control items are specified for an ESD

control program designed for 100 V HBM, 200 V CDM and 35 V for isolated conductors. The

100 V HBM value is predicated on maximum voltage levels attainable on an individual when

they are grounded via techniques accepted throughout the electronics industry as outlined in

IEC 61340-5-1.

For organizations concerned with charged device model damage, IEC 61340-5-1 establishes

requirements concerning the use of insulators in the ESD protected area (EPA) based on

maximum electrostatic field limits.

Any contact and physical separation of materials or flow of solids, liquids, or particle-laden

gases can generate electrostatic charges. Common sources of ESD include charged:
personnel, conductors, common polymeric materials, and processing equipment. ESD
damage can occur when:
• a charged person or object comes into contact with an ESDS;

• an ESDS comes into direct contact with a highly conductive surface while exposed to an

electrostatic field;

• a charged ESDS comes into contact with another conductive surface which is at a different

electrical potential. This surface may or may not be grounded.

Examples of ESDS are microcircuits, discrete semiconductors, thick and thin film resistors,

hybrid devices, printed circuit boards and piezoelectric crystals. It is possible to determine

device and item susceptibility by exposing the device to simulated ESD events. The level of

sensitivity, determined by test using simulated ESD events, may not necessarily relate to the

level of sensitivity in a real life situation. However, the levels of sensitivity are used to

establish a baseline of susceptibility data for comparison of devices with equivalent part

numbers from different manufacturers. Three different models have been used for

qualification of electronic components – human body model (HBM), machine model (MM), and

charged device model (CDM). In current practice, devices are qualified only using HBM and

CDM susceptibility tests.

The general principles described in IEC 61340-5-1 are not limited in their applicability to

ESDS with ESD sensitivities defined in IEC 61340-5-1 (e.g. 100 V HBM). For organizations

that handle ESDS with withstand voltages higher or lower than those defined in

IEC 61340-5-1, the general principles of IEC 61340-5-1 can still be used. The organization

can modify some of the required limits specified in Tables 2 to 3 of IEC 61340-5-1:2016. The

program documentation identifies the lowest ESDS withstand voltage(s) that can be handled,

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– 8 – IEC TR 61340-5-2:2018  IEC 2018

and if different to those defined in IEC 61340-5-1, appropriate changes to the limits specified

in IEC 61340-5-1 can be made in the program documentation.

The fundamental ESD control principles that form the basis of IEC 61340-5-1 are as follows:

a) Avoid a discharge from any charged, conductive object (personnel, equipment) into the

sensitive device:

It is preferred that all conductors that may come into contact with ESDS including

personnel, are bonded or electrically connected to a known ground or contrived ground (as

on shipboard or on aircraft). This attachment creates an equipotential balance between all

items and personnel. Electrostatic protection can be maintained at a potential different

from “zero” voltage ground potential, as long as all items in the system are at the same

potential. If a conductor that cannot be grounded (e.g. isolated conductor) comes into

contact with an ESDS, the ESD risk should be evaluated and if necessary mitigated.

b) Avoid a discharge from any charged ESD sensitive device (the charging process that can

lead to a discharge can result from direct contact and separation or can be field induced):

Insulators cannot lose their electrostatic charge by grounding. It is preferred that

insulators should be removed from the vicinity of ESDS. Some insulators are essential to

the process or product and cannot be removed from the vicinity of the ESDS. Ionization or

other mitigating techniques can provide neutralization of charges on these essential

insulators (circuit board materials and some device packages are examples of essential

insulators). Assessment of the ESD hazard created by electrostatic charges on the

essential insulators in the work place is done to ensure that appropriate actions are

implemented, according to the risk.

c) Once outside of an electrostatic discharge protected area (hereafter referred to as an

EPA) it is generally not possible to control the above items, therefore, ESD protective

packaging can be used. ESD protection can be achieved by enclosing ESD sensitive

products in static protective materials, although the type of material depends on the

situation and destination. Inside an EPA, static dissipative materials may provide

adequate protection. Outside an EPA, low charging and static discharge shielding

materials are recommended. While all of these materials are not discussed in this

document, it is important to recognize the differences in their application. Requirements

and associated test methods for ESD protective packaging are specified in IEC 61340-5-3.

Each organization has different processes, and so there will be a different blend of ESD

prevention measures for an optimum ESD control program. It is vital that these measures are

selected, based on technical necessity and carefully documented in an ESD control program

plan, so that all concerned can be sure of the program requirements.

Training is an essential part of an ESD control program in order to ensure that the personnel

involved understand the equipment and procedures they are to use in order to be in

compliance with the ESD control program plan. Training is also essential in raising awareness

and understanding of ESD issues. Without training, personnel are often a major source of

ESD risk. With training, they become an effective first line of defence against ESD damage.

Regular compliance verification checks and tests are essential to ensure that equipment

remains effective and that the ESD control program is correctly implemented in compliance

with the ESD control program plan.
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IEC TR 61340-5-2:2018  IEC 2018 – 9 –
ELECTROSTATICS –
Part 5-2: Protection of electronic devices from
electrostatic phenomena – User guide
1 Scope

This part of IEC 61340, which has been developed to support IEC 61340-5-1, applies to

activities that: manufacture, process, assemble, install, package, label, service, test, inspect,

transport or otherwise handle electrical or electronic parts, assemblies and equipment with

withstand voltages greater than or equal to 100 V HBM, 200 V CDM and 35 V for isolated

conductors. Additional control elements or adjusted limits can be applicable for ESDS with

lower withstand voltages.
NOTE Isolated conductors were historically represented by MM.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the tex
...

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