<p>Performance of voltage sourced converter (VSC) based high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission - Part 1: Steady-state conditions</p>

IEC TR 63363-1:2022(E) is to present the "state of the art" with respect to general guidance on the steady-state performance demands of VSC HVDC transmission systems. It concerns the steady-state performance of two-terminal VSC HVDC transmission systems utilizing converters with power flow capability in both directions.
Different configurations of a VSC HVDC transmission system are covered in this document, including the symmetrical monopolar, asymmetrical monopolar, bipolar with earth return, bipolar with dedicated metallic return and rigid bipolar configurations.
There are many variations between different VSC HVDC transmission systems. This document does not consider these in detail; consequently, it cannot be used directly as a specification for a particular project, but rather to provide the general basis for the system steady-state performance demands.
Normally, the performance specifications are based on a complete system including two VSC HVDC converter stations. However, sometimes a VSC HVDC transmission system can also be separately specified and purchased from multiple vendors instead of single turnkey vendor. In such cases, due consideration can be given to the coordination of each part with the overall VSC HVDC system performance objectives and the interface of each with the system can be clearly defined. The major components of the VSC HVDC transmission system are presented in IEC 62747.
Referring to IEC 62747, an HVDC substation/converter station is defined as that part of the VSC HVDC transmission system which consists of one or more VSC converter units installed in a single location together with buildings, reactors, filters, reactive power supply, control, monitoring, protective, measuring and auxiliary equipment. The AC substations are not covered in this document.
This document provides guidance and supporting information on the procedure for system design and the technical issues involved in the system design of VSC HVDC transmission projects for both owners and contractors. This document can be used as the basis for drafting a procurement specification and as a guide during project implementation.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-May-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
30-May-2022
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IEC TR 63363-1:2022 - <p>Performance of voltage sourced converter (VSC) based high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission - Part 1: Steady-state conditions</p>
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IEC TR 63363-1
Edition 1.0 2022-05
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Performance of voltage sourced converter (VSC) based high-voltage direct
current (HVDC) transmission –
Part 1: Steady-state conditions
IEC TR 63363-1:2022-05(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TR 63363-1
Edition 1.0 2022-05
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Performance of voltage sourced converter (VSC) based high-voltage direct
current (HVDC) transmission –
Part 1: Steady-state conditions
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 29.200; 29.240.01 ISBN 978-2-8322-2198-3

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 63363-1:2022  IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 9

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ...................................................................... 10

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 10

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 11

4 Classifications of VSC HVDC systems ........................................................................... 12

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 12

4.2 Symmetrical monopolar HVDC system .................................................................. 12

4.3 Asymmetrical monopolar HVDC system ................................................................ 13

4.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 13

4.3.2 ASMP with earth return .................................................................................. 13

4.3.3 ASMP with metallic return .............................................................................. 13

4.4 Bipolar HVDC system ........................................................................................... 14

4.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 14

4.4.2 Bipolar HVDC with earth return ...................................................................... 14

4.4.3 Rigid bipolar configuration ............................................................................. 14

4.4.4 Bipolar HVDC with dedicated metallic return .................................................. 15

4.5 Back-to-back HVDC system .................................................................................. 15

4.6 Interface transformer arrangements ...................................................................... 15

4.7 Switching and reconfiguration ............................................................................... 16

4.7.1 Converter station and DC yard switching ....................................................... 16

4.7.2 Transition station switching ............................................................................ 17

4.7.3 Connecting multiple converters ...................................................................... 18

4.7.4 DC gas-insulated metal enclosed switchgear (DC GIS) .................................. 22

5 Environmental information ............................................................................................. 22

6 Rated power, current and voltage .................................................................................. 24

6.1 Rated power ......................................................................................................... 24

6.2 Rated DC current .................................................................................................. 24

6.3 Rated DC voltage .................................................................................................. 25

7 Steady-state operation .................................................................................................. 25

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 25

7.2 PQ diagram........................................................................................................... 25

7.3 UQ diagram .......................................................................................................... 26

7.4 Reactive power exchange ..................................................................................... 27

8 Overload and equipment capability ................................................................................ 28

8.1 Overload ............................................................................................................... 28

8.2 Equipment capability ............................................................................................. 28

8.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 28

8.2.2 Converter valve capability .............................................................................. 29

8.2.3 Capability of oil-cooled transformers and dry type reactors ............................ 29

8.2.4 Capability of other converter station equipment ............................................. 29

9 Converter station types and operation modes ................................................................ 29

9.1 Converter station types ......................................................................................... 29

9.2 Operation modes .................................................................................................. 31

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC TR 63363-1:2022  IEC 2022 – 3 –

9.2.1 Reduced direct voltage operation .................................................................. 31

9.2.2 Full direct voltage operation ........................................................................... 31

9.2.3 Operating sequences ..................................................................................... 31

10 AC system ..................................................................................................................... 33

10.1 General ................................................................................................................. 33

10.2 AC voltage ............................................................................................................ 34

10.2.1 Steady-state voltage range ............................................................................ 34

10.2.2 Negative sequence voltage ............................................................................ 34

10.3 Frequency ............................................................................................................. 34

10.3.1 Rated frequency ............................................................................................ 34

10.3.2 Steady-state frequency range ........................................................................ 34

10.3.3 Short-term frequency variation ....................................................................... 34

10.3.4 Frequency variation during emergency .......................................................... 35

10.4 AC voltage and frequency operation ranges .......................................................... 35

10.5 System impedance ................................................................................................ 35

10.6 Positive and zero-sequence surge impedance....................................................... 36

10.7 Other sources of harmonics .................................................................................. 36

11 Reactive power .............................................................................................................. 36

11.1 General ................................................................................................................. 36

11.2 VSC HVDC systems .............................................................................................. 36

12 HVDC transmission line, earth electrode line and earth electrode .................................. 37

12.1 General ................................................................................................................. 37

12.2 Overhead line(s) ................................................................................................... 37

12.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 37

12.2.2 Electrical parameters ..................................................................................... 37

12.3 Cable(s) ................................................................................................................ 38

12.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 38

12.3.2 Electrical parameters ..................................................................................... 38

12.4 Transmission line combined with overhead line and cable section ......................... 39

12.5 Electrode line ........................................................................................................ 39

12.6 Earth electrode ..................................................................................................... 39

12.7 Gas insulated line ................................................................................................. 39

13 Reliability ...................................................................................................................... 39

14 HVDC control ................................................................................................................ 39

14.1 General ................................................................................................................. 39

14.2 Control objectives ................................................................................................. 40

14.3 Control structure ................................................................................................... 40

14.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 40

14.3.2 HVDC bipole/station control ........................................................................... 41

14.3.3 HVDC pole control ......................................................................................... 42

14.3.4 Converter and valve control ........................................................................... 43

14.4 Measurement ........................................................................................................ 43

15 Telecommunication ........................................................................................................ 44

15.1 Types of telecommunication links .......................................................................... 44

15.2 Classification of data to be shared ........................................................................ 44

15.3 Fast response telecommunication ......................................................................... 44

16 Auxiliary systems ........................................................................................................... 45

16.1 General ................................................................................................................. 45

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC TR 63363-1:2022  IEC 2022

16.2 Electrical auxiliary system ..................................................................................... 45

16.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 45

16.2.2 Auxiliary power supplies ................................................................................ 45

16.2.3 Batteries and uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) ....................................... 46

16.2.4 Emergency supply ......................................................................................... 46

16.3 Mechanical auxiliary system .................................................................................. 47

17 Audible noise ................................................................................................................. 48

17.1 General ................................................................................................................. 48

17.2 Public nuisance..................................................................................................... 48

17.2.1 Valves and valve coolers ............................................................................... 48

17.2.2 Interface transformers ................................................................................... 48

17.2.3 Reactors ........................................................................................................ 48

17.3 Noise in working areas .......................................................................................... 49

18 AC side harmonics ........................................................................................................ 49

18.1 General ................................................................................................................. 49

18.2 Harmonic sources ................................................................................................. 50

18.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 50

18.2.2 Converter generated harmonics ..................................................................... 50

18.2.3 Pre-existing network harmonics ..................................................................... 50

18.3 Total harmonic distortion ....................................................................................... 51

19 DC side harmonics ........................................................................................................ 51

19.1 General ................................................................................................................. 51

19.2 Coupling between parallel AC and DC circuits ...................................................... 52

20 Power line carrier (PLC) interference ............................................................................. 53

20.1 General ................................................................................................................. 53

20.2 Performance specification ..................................................................................... 54

21 Radio frequency interference ......................................................................................... 54

21.1 General ................................................................................................................. 54

21.2 RFI from HVDC systems ....................................................................................... 54

21.2.1 RFI sources ................................................................................................... 54

21.2.2 RFI propagation ............................................................................................. 55

22 Power losses ................................................................................................................. 55

Annex A (informative) Fundamental PQ equations of the VSC converter station................... 56

Annex B (informative) Reactive power exchange of the VSC converter station ..................... 58

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 59

Figure 1 – Symmetrical monopolar VSC HVDC system ......................................................... 13

Figure 2 – Asymmetrical monopolar VSC HVDC system with earth return ............................. 13

Figure 3 – Asymmetrical monopolar VSC HVDC system with metallic return ......................... 13

Figure 4 – Bipolar VSC HVDC system with earth return ........................................................ 14

Figure 5 – Rigid bipolar VSC HVDC system .......................................................................... 15

Figure 6 – Bipolar HVDC system with dedicated metallic return ............................................ 15

Figure 7 – DC switching of line conductors ........................................................................... 17

Figure 8 – DC switching – Overhead line to cable ................................................................. 18

Figure 9 – Examples of VSC HVDC system with two converter units per pole ....................... 19

Figure 10 – Example of PQ diagram of the VSC converter .................................................... 26

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IEC TR 63363-1:2022  IEC 2022 – 5 –

Figure 11 – Example of UQ diagram of the VSC converter .................................................... 27

Figure 12 – Reactive power exchanges of the VSC converter station at PCC ........................ 28

Figure 13 – AC/DC converter station types in the U/I diagram ............................................... 30

Figure 14 – Operating sequence transitions of the VSC HVDC system .................................. 32

Figure 15 – Example of the AC grid voltage and frequency operation ranges ........................ 35

Figure 16 – Hierarchical structure of an HVDC control system .............................................. 41

Figure 17 – HVDC pole control ............................................................................................. 43

Figure 18 – Harmonic contribution by the VSC converter ...................................................... 50

Figure 19 – Amplification of the pre-existing network harmonics ........................................... 51

Figure 20 – Example of separate AC and DC tower configurations ........................................ 52

Figure 21 – Example of hybrid AC and DC tower configuration ............................................. 53

Figure A.1 – Simple configuration of the VSC converter station to AC grid ............................ 56

Figure A.2 – Example of power-circle diagrams of the VSC converter ................................... 57

Figure B.1 – Simplified equivalent AC grid at PCC of the VSC converter station ................... 58

Table 1 – Information supplied for HVDC substation ............................................................. 22

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– 6 – IEC TR 63363-1:2022  IEC 2022
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PERFORMANCE OF VOLTAGE SOURCED CONVERTER (VSC) BASED
HIGH-VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT (HVDC) TRANSMISSION –
Part 1: Steady-state conditions
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

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9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC TR 63363-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 115: High Voltage Direct

Current (HVDC) transmission for DC voltages above 100 kV and IEC subcommittee 22F: Power

electronics for electrical transmission and distribution systems. It is a Technical Report.

The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
115/281/DTR 115/298/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this Technical Report is English.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC TR 63363-1:2022  IEC 2022 – 7 –

A list of all parts in the IEC 63363 series, published under the general title Performance of

voltage sourced converter (VSC) based high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission, can

be found on the IEC website.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC TR 63363-1:2022  IEC 2022
INTRODUCTION

High-voltage direct current (HVDC) is an established technology that has been in commercial

use for more than 60 years. With the changes in demands due to evolving environmental needs,

installation of HVDC systems has increased dramatically in the last 30 years and almost half of

the world's HVDC projects were commissioned after the year 2000. HVDC has become a

common tool in the design of future global transmission systems.

An HVDC system transmits more electrical power over longer distances than a similar

alternating current (AC) transmission system, which means fewer transmission lines are needed,

saving both money and land and simplifying approvals. In addition to significantly lowering

electrical losses over long distances, HVDC transmission is also very stable and easily

controlled, and can stabilize and interconnect AC power networks that are otherwise

incompatible. Typically, an HVDC system provides unique or superior capabilities in the

following aspects:
– long distance bulk power transmission;
– asynchronous interconnections;
– long distance cable;
– controllability;
– lower losses;
– environmental concerns;
– limitation of short-circuit currents.

The voltage sourced converter (VSC) HVDC transmission system is a new generation of HVDC

transmission technology, which can increase the reliability of power grids and provide an

alternative to connecting wind farms or solar farms to power grids, providing power to islands,

connecting asynchronous grids and building direct current (DC) grids. VSC HVDC can provide:

– independent decoupled control of active and reactive power;

– power supply for weak or even passive networks without a need for AC network to provide

commutating voltage;

– simultaneous support of both active and reactive power to the AC power systems, which is

beneficial for enhancing system reliability and improving power quality.

Simply due to these technical merits, the market demand for VSC HVDC transmission

technology is spreading widely over the world. VSC HVDC has been selected for a number of

transmission projects aimed at exchanging energy between areas and connection of remote

renewable energy sources such as offshore wind farms to onshore.

With the fast development of the VSC HVDC power transmission industry, IEC standardization

work has been carried out accordingly. Up to the time of writin
...

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