Determination of inrush current characteristics of lighting products

IEC 63129:2020 describes a method, based on measurements combined with calculations, to determine specific characteristics of the inrush current of single and/or multiple lighting products of the same type. Lighting products include the following:
light sources with integrated controlgear,
controlgear,
luminaires.

Détermination des caractéristiques du courant d'appel des produits d'éclairage

L'IEC 63129:2020 décrit une méthode, fondée sur des mesures associées à des calculs, pour déterminer les caractéristiques spécifiques du courant d'appel d'un et/ou de plusieurs produits d'éclairage du même type. Les produits d'éclairage comprennent:
les sources lumineuses à appareillage de commande intégré;
les appareillages de commande;
les luminaires.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
20-Apr-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
21-Apr-2020
Ref Project

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IEC 63129
Edition 1.0 2020-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Determination of inrush current characteristics of lighting products
Détermination des caractéristiques du courant d'appel des produits d'éclairage
IEC 63129 :2020-04(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 63129
Edition 1.0 2020-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Determination of inrush current characteristics of lighting products
Détermination des caractéristiques du courant d'appel des produits d'éclairage
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.140.01; 29.140.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-8205-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63129:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ....................................................................................... 8

5 General notes on measurements ..................................................................................... 8

6 Inrush current measurements .......................................................................................... 8

7 DC method (default method) .......................................................................................... 10

7.1 Measurement setup .............................................................................................. 10

7.2 Determining the value of the adjustment resistance .............................................. 11

7.2.1 Determining the value of R ....................................................................... 11

adj,1

7.2.2 Determining the value of R ....................................................................... 12

adj,k

7.3 Measurement and calculation of the inrush current characteristics ........................ 13

7.3.1 Inrush current characteristics for a single DUT (k = 1) ................................... 13

7.3.2 Inrush current characteristics for multiple DUTs ............................................. 14

8 Alternative AC method ................................................................................................... 14

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 14

8.2 Determining the value of the adjustment resistance .............................................. 15

8.2.1 Determining the value of R ....................................................................... 15

adj,1

8.2.2 Determining the value of R ....................................................................... 16

adj,k

8.3 Measurement and calculation of the inrush current characteristics ........................ 16

8.3.1 Measuring and calculating the inrush current for a single DUT ....................... 16

8.3.2 Measuring and calculating the inrush current for multiple DUTs ..................... 16

9 Additional alternative methods ....................................................................................... 17

Annex A (informative) Application of inrush current characteristics ...................................... 18

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 18

A.2 Matching of DUT inrush current characteristics with switch or MCB

specifications ........................................................................................................ 18

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 19

Figure 1 – Determination of the inrush current pulse durations t and t ........................ 9

H10 H50

Figure 2 – Measurement setup for the DC method (default method) ...................................... 10

Figure 3 – Switching unit....................................................................................................... 11

Figure 4 – Typical current rise and voltage decrease as a function of time after loading

C (step c)) followed by turning on the switching unit (step e)) as described under

step f) ................................................................................................................................... 12

Figure 5 – Determination of I (ignoring the current peaks for t < 100 µs) .......................... 14

max

Figure 6 – Measurement setup for the AC method (alternative method) ................................ 15

Figure 7 – Addition of m DUTs to the measurement circuit (both DC and AC methods) ......... 17

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 63129:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
DETERMINATION OF INRUSH CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS
OF LIGHTING PRODUCTS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

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rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 63129 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 34: Lamps

and related equipment.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
34/636/CDV 34/679/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 63129:2020 © IEC 2020

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 63129:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Inrush current is the transient current drawn by an electrical device after it is switched on via

an independent mains switch, the maximum amplitude of which is often much higher than in

steady state during normal operation. Inrush current occurs because of charging capacitances

during power up of a device.

Quantities such as peak inrush current and inrush current pulse duration are key parameters to

characterize the inrush current, which are important to consider when selecting the switchgear

of a lighting installation. This information is indispensable for electric installation planners,

lighting designers and installers to be able to guarantee compatibility of a lighting system with

other installation components like switches and overcurrent protection devices.

Careful selection of overcurrent protection devices, like circuit breakers, is important when

dealing with high inrush currents. The overcurrent protection should react quickly to overload

or short circuit but should not interrupt the circuit when an inrush current flows (i.e. false

tripping). Another unwanted adverse effect that could occur when inrush current is not

considered is welding of contacts of mechanical or electromechanical switches (manual or

automatic).

The aim of this document is to determine the peak inrush current and the inrush current pulse

duration of one or multiple lighting products of the same type.

This can serve as valuable information for installers in making the correct selection of

components like switches and overcurrent protection devices in an installation or conversely for

determination of the maximum number of lighting products of the same type that can be applied

in an installation with switches and overcurrent protection devices (see Annex A).

The resulting functional compatibility between switchgear and lighting products in an installation

is the main rationale for this document.

The rated voltage of lighting products which can be tested with this document is limited to 230

V AC only. Future inclusion of other voltages (for example 100 V AC, 120 V AC, 200 V AC, 277

V AC, 347 V AC) is not excluded.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 63129:2020 © IEC 2020
DETERMINATION OF INRUSH CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS
OF LIGHTING PRODUCTS
1 Scope

This document describes a method, based on measurements combined with calculations, to

determine specific characteristics of the inrush current of single and/or multiple lighting products

of the same type. Lighting products include the following:
• light sources with integrated controlgear,
• controlgear,
• luminaires.
The inrush current characteristics that are determined are
• the peak inrush current,
• the inrush current pulse duration.

This document applies to lighting products connected to low-voltage 230 V AC 50/60 Hz

electrical supply networks.

NOTE In Clause 6 it is stated that the methodology applies reference values for the reference (line) inductance and

the reference (short circuit) peak current which reflect the typical situation in a 230 V AC installation.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
bidirectional diode thyristor
DIAC

two-terminal thyristor having substantially the same switching behaviour in the first and third

quadrants of the current-voltage characteristic
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-521:2002, 521-04-66]
3.2
bidirectional triode thyristor
TRIAC

three-terminal thyristor having substantially the same switching behaviour in the first and third

quadrants of the current-voltage characteristic
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-521:2002, 521-04-67]
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 63129:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –
3.3
circuit-breaker

mechanical switching device, capable of making, carrying and breaking currents under normal

circuit conditions and also making, carrying for a specified duration and breaking currents under

specified abnormal circuit conditions such as those of short circuit
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-441:2000, 441-14-20]
3.4
control gear
controlgear

unit inserted between the power supply (IEV 151-13-75) and at

least one light source, which serves to supply the light source(s) with its (their) rated voltage or

rated current, and which can consist of one or more separate components

Note 1 to entry: The control gear can include means for igniting, dimming, correcting the power factor and

suppressing radio interference, and further control functions.

Note 2 to entry: The control gear consists of a power supply (IEV 151-13-76) and a control unit.

Note 3 to entry: The control gear can be partly or totally integrated in the light source.

Note 4 to entry: The terms "control gear" and "controlgear" are interchangeable. In IEC standards, the term

"controlgear" is commonly used.
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-845:—, 845-28-048]
3.5
inrush
inrush current

transient current associated with energizing of electrical apparatus or components

EXAMPLE Lighting products, transformers, cables, reactors.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-448:1995, 448-11-30, modified – In the definition, "electrical apparatus

or components" replaces "transformer, cables, reactors, etc." now given as examples.]

3.6
inrush current pulse duration

time period over which the value of the inrush current is larger than x % of the peak inrush

current
Note 1 to entry: See also Figure 1.
Note 2 to entry: Any RF noise should be disregarded.

Note 3 to entry: By this definition, the inrush current pulse duration t is the full width at half maximum (FWHM)

H50
of the current pulse.
Note 4 to entry: In this document values of x = 10 and x = 50 are used.
3.7
peak
peak inrush current
maximum of the absolute value of the inrush current

Note 1 to entry: The peak inrush current is typically reached when switch-on happens at the point in time that the

mains voltage is at its peak.
Note 2 to entry: See also Figure 1.
Note 3 to entry: Any RF noise should be disregarded.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 63129:2020 © IEC 2020
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
DIAC bidirectional diode thyristor
DUT device under test
MCB miniature circuit breaker
NTC negative temperature coefficient thermistor
TRIAC bidirectional triode thyristor
k number of DUTs (as represented by the corresponding measurement setup)
n maximum number of DUTs (intended to be characterized)
I reference (short circuit) peak current
ref
L reference (line) inductance
ref
I short circuit peak current (for k DUT)
adj,k
L inductance (for k DUT)
R adjustment resistance (for k DUT)
adj,k
I maximum current (as measured)
max
t time at which maximum current I is reached
max max
U maximum voltage (as measured at t )
max max
I peak inrush current (for k DUT)
peak,k

t inrush current pulse duration (for a threshold of x % of the peak inrush current and k

Hx,k
DUT)
5 General notes on measurements

In this document the term DUT (device under test) is used for the lighting product for which the

inrush current characteristics are determined according to the requirements of this document.

Controlgear shall be operated at maximum power (100 % light output) and with actual loads or

dummy loads as specified by the manufacturer.
6 Inrush current measurements

For the measurements, a reference (line) inductance of L = 100 µH and a reference (short

ref

circuit) peak current I = 400 A are used that reflect the average situation in 230 V

ref

installations. The values are based on tests conducted by switch manufacturers that suggest

that they represent an appropriate average value. When a different mains voltage is used, the

reference line inductance value and the reference peak current value may need to be adjusted.

Inrush current measurements could be done with one DUT and the result multiplied by the

number of devices in the installation considered.

However, this does not reflect the situation in installations as they can be typically found. When

different devices are connected in different parts of the circuit, the characteristics of the inrush

current as well as the resulting voltage drop in the line are different. Therefore, the reference

values defined above are used to simulate the average situation.

Measuring a number of k individual DUTs in one measurement setup is equivalent to using one

DUT while adjusting the impedance by a factor of k. Therefore, in particular the latter approach –

which is the default approach followed in this document – results in a characterization of the

inrush current of k DUTs connected to the same network.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 63129:2020 © IEC 2020 – 9 –

The peak inrush current I and the inrush current pulse duration t as a function of the

peak Hx

number k of DUTs (represented by the corresponding measurement setup) are the key

characteristics of interest. Therefore, typically a series of measurements is performed from k = 1

to the maximum number n of DUTs intended to be characterized. As a result, n pairs of peak

inrush current values and inrush current pulse duration values (I ; t ) are obtained. It is

peak,k Hx,k
suggested to present these in table form as a function of k.

If only one peak inrush current value without further explanation is given, this is interpreted as

I (k = 1).
peak

For illustration purposes, Figure 1 shows an exemplary inrush current pulse with the

corresponding peak inrush current I and inrush current pulse duration t and t with

peak H10 H50

threshold values of x = 10 % and x = 50 % of the peak inrush current, respectively.

NOTE 1 It is suggested to use a default value of n that is the ratio of the rated current of the MCB or switch,

respectively, divided by the rated current of the DUT.

It is not mandatory to perform all individual n measurements from k = 1 to k = n nor do the

individual measurements have to follow k in numerical order.

NOTE 2 It might be advised to start with k = 1, then k = n and select intermediate values for k in order to reduce

measurement time to establish the curves as described in Annex A.
Key
I peak inrush current
peak
t ; t inrush current pulse durations
H10 H50
Figure 1 – Determination of the inrush current pulse durations t and t
H10 H50
The DC method – as described in Clause 7 – shall be used as the default method.

In case the DC method is not suitable (e.g. zero crossing detection DUT or DUT with mains

transformer), the AC method, as described in Clause 8 may be used alternatively. The AC

method, however, is not preferred, as the mains voltage that is used in the AC method instead

of a defined sine wave from a voltage generator is subject to fluctuations that are not reflected

in the measurement setup. Thus, the results from the AC method are less accurate.

For k > 4 the AC method values typically do not deviate by more than 20 % with respect to the

DC method.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 63129:2020 © IEC 2020

Additional alternative methods allowing for a reduction of measurement time – as the

adjustment procedure does not need to be repeated for all values of n – may be generally used

as described in Clause 9 for both methods (DC and AC).
7 DC method (default method)
7.1 Measurement setup

The measurement setup to determine the inrush current of the DUT is given in Figure 2.

Current measurement shall be done by using a digital oscilloscope in combination with either a

current probe or a shunt resistor.

If a current probe with an iron core is used, care should be taken that the current probe does

not saturate in case of large currents. This can be verified by checking the specification of the

maximum I(t) of the probe. For high inrush currents of longer duration, a Rogowski current

probe can be applied instead.

The switching unit shall contain an electronic switch that ensures bounce-free switching. It may

be realized as depicted in Figure 3.
Key
U supply voltage
supply
DUT device under test
k number of DUTs (as represented by the corresponding measurement setup)
L inductance (for k DUTs)
I short circuit peak current
adj,k
R adjustment resistance (for k DUTs)
adj,k
R resistance of DUT connection wires (≤ 0,1 Ω)
DUT
R load resistance (R 47 Ω)
load,C1 load,C1 =
C load capacitance (C 750 µF)
1 1 =
A, B short circuit terminals
C, D DUT terminals
Figure 2 – Measurement setup for the DC method (default method)
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 63129:2020 © IEC 2020 – 11 –
Key
S: Switch
Q TRIAC (Q8025R5 or equivalent)
D DIAC (DB3 or equivalent)
C = 47 nF
R = 1 kΩ
Figure 3 – Switching unit
7.2 Determining the value of the adjustment resistance
7.2.1 Determining the value of R
adj,1

In subclause 7.2.1 the procedure is explained to determine the value of the adjustment

resistance R with one DUT connected to the circuit. R shall be adjusted in such a way

adj,1 adj,1

that the short circuit peak current I , measured by the digital oscilloscope (see Figure 2)

adj,1
reaches the reference value of I 400 A using the following procedure:
ref =

a) Set up a measurement for k = 1 according to Figure 2 using a supply voltage with

U = 230 V with L = L and R . Start with an arbitrary value of R , for instance
RMS 1 ref adj,1 adj,1
0,5 Ω.
b) Connect terminals A and B establishing a short circut.
c) Turn on switch 2, then turn on switch 1.

d) Measure the voltage across the capacitor, C , with an oscilloscope (oscilloscope not shown

in Figure 2). Wait until this voltage has stabilized at 325 V, the supply voltage peak value.

e) Turn on the switching unit and record the voltage across C and the current (according to

Figure 2) as a function of time.

f) Now with capacitor C starting to discharge, the current will rise, while the voltage across

C will decrease, see Figure 4.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 63129:2020 © IEC 2020

Figure 4 – Typical current rise and voltage decrease as a function of time after loading

C (step c)) followed by turning on the switching unit (step e)) as described under

step f)
...

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