Internet of things (IoT) - Application of sensor network for wireless gas meters

ISO/IEC TR 30148:2019 (E) describes:
– the structure of wireless gas meter networks, and
– the application protocol of wireless gas meter networks

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Oct-2019
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
22-Oct-2019
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ISO/IEC TR 30148
Edition 1.0 2019-10
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Internet of things (IoT) –
Application of sensor network for wireless gas meters
ISO/IEC TR 30148:2019-10(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TR 30148
Edition 1.0 2019-10
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Internet of things (IoT) –
Application of sensor network for wireless gas meters
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 17.120.10; 35.110 ISBN 978-2-8322-7524-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – ISO/IEC TR 30148:2019 © ISO/IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ....................................................................................... 7

5 Network structure ............................................................................................................ 8

6 Application layer protocol ................................................................................................ 9

6.1 Overview................................................................................................................. 9

6.1.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9

6.1.2 AL function ...................................................................................................... 9

6.1.3 AL structure ..................................................................................................... 9

6.2 User application process ....................................................................................... 10

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 10

6.2.2 Functions of UAP ........................................................................................... 10

6.2.3 User application object .................................................................................. 10

6.3 Device management application process .............................................................. 10

6.4 Application sub-layer ............................................................................................ 11

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 11

6.4.2 Functions of application sub-layer.................................................................. 11

6.4.3 Communication models .................................................................................. 11

6.4.4 Application sub-layer communication service ................................................. 14

6.4.5 Connection service ........................................................................................ 14

6.4.6 Data transmission service .............................................................................. 20

6.5 Application sub-layer message format ................................................................... 22

6.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 22

6.5.2 ASL general message format ......................................................................... 22

6.5.3 Message formats ........................................................................................... 24

Annex A (informative) Security ............................................................................................. 27

A.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 27

A.2 Security scenario analysis..................................................................................... 27

A.3 Security services .................................................................................................. 28

Figure 1 – The structure of the wireless gas networks ............................................................. 8

Figure 2 – AL structure ........................................................................................................... 9

Figure 3 – R/R model interaction process ............................................................................. 12

Figure 4 – P/S model interaction process .............................................................................. 13

Figure 5 – R/S model interaction process .............................................................................. 13

Figure A.1 – Security framework ........................................................................................... 27

Table 1 – ASL services ......................................................................................................... 14

Table 2 – Link services provided by the application layer ...................................................... 15

Table 3 – Parameters of the LINK. Request primitive ............................................................ 15

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ISO/IEC TR 30148:2019 © ISO/IEC 2019 – 3 –

Table 4 – Parameters of the LINK. Response primitive ......................................................... 16

Table 5 – Connect services provided by the application layer ............................................... 16

Table 6 – Parameters of the CONNECT. Request primitive ................................................... 17

Table 7 – Parameters of the CONNECT. Response primitive ................................................ 18

Table 8 – Release services provided by the application layer ................................................ 18

Table 9 – Parameters of the RELEASE. Response primitive ................................................. 19

Table 10 – Parameters of the RELEASE. Confirm primitive ................................................... 19

Table 11 – Parameters of the RELEASE. Notification primitive.............................................. 20

Table 12 – Data transmission services provided by the application layer............................... 20

Table 13 – ASLDE-DATA. Request parameters ..................................................................... 20

Table 14 – ASLDE-DATA. Confirm parameters ..................................................................... 21

Table 15 – DATA. Indication parameters ............................................................................... 21

Table 16 – Application sub-layer general message format ..................................................... 22

Table 17 – Message control field format ................................................................................ 22

Table 18 – Message type subfield value ............................................................................... 22

Table 19 – Format of the security control .............................................................................. 23

Table 20 – Security control subfield value ............................................................................. 23

Table 21 – Value of transmission model subfields ................................................................. 23

Table 22 – Operation code field value ................................................................................... 25

Table 23 – Value of command code field ............................................................................... 25

Table 24 – Acknowledgement message ................................................................................ 26

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– 4 – ISO/IEC TR 30148:2019 © ISO/IEC 2019
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) –
APPLICATION OF SENSOR NETWORK FOR WIRELESS GAS METERS
FOREWORD

1) ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical Commission)

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Standard, for example "state of the art".

ISO/IEC TR 30148, which is a Technical Report, has been prepared by subcommittee SC 41:

Internet of Things and related technologies, of ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1:

Information technology.
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Draft TR Report on voting
JTC1-SC41/90/DTR JTC1-SC41/104/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for the approval of this Technical Report can be found in the

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ISO/IEC TR 30148:2019 © ISO/IEC 2019 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

With the improvement of wireless communication technologies and the demand for intelligent

products required by home automation, factory automation and so on, wireless gas meter

systems can develop in terms of safety, reliability, and convenience. Wireless gas meters can

not only avoid the errors from manual meter reading and issues such as unstable signals

during traditional gas meter reading, but also achieve functions such as dynamic rates,

energy management, event alarm service, real-time data collection and analysis.

From the perspective of gas meter companies, the promotion of wireless gas meters is

conducive to reducing labour costs and improving efficiency. From the point of view of gas

meter manufacturers, the implementation of wireless gas meters will also help them to reduce

costs. Consumers will readily accept the lower cost and increased convenience of wireless

gas meters. So in the near future, with significant cost benefits and technical advantages,

wireless gas meters will become more important in the market.
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– 6 – ISO/IEC TR 30148:2019 © ISO/IEC 2019
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) –
APPLICATION OF SENSOR NETWORK FOR WIRELESS GAS METERS
1 Scope
This document describes
– the structure of wireless gas meter networks, and
– the application protocol of wireless gas meter networks.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org./
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http//www.iso.org./obp
3.1
access point
equipment that is used to connect each wireless gas meter to other networks
3.2
acquisitor

equipment that is used for data acquisition, data transmission, and data relay for wireless gas

meters
3.3
application layer

layer that performs calculation, processing and management of data collected by the sensing

layer
3.4
application sub-layer
layer that provides services for the application layer
3.5
entity

unit that connects to other units defined in the wireless gas meter networks reference

architecture with a distinct set of attributes
3.6
gateway

device that is used to connect wireless gas meter networks to outside IP networks

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ISO/IEC TR 30148:2019 © ISO/IEC 2019 – 7 –
3.7
handheld device

portable device that is used for provisioning firmware updates and monitoring device status

3.8
message

data unit conveyed between client and server that represents a specific service request or

response
3.9
user application object
information processing element for a specific process
3.10
user application process

active process that is used to implement data collection and processing at the upper layer of

the application layer
3.11
wireless gas meter

instrument for recording the quantity of gas passing through a particular outlet, which

exchanges data with external devices with a microprocessor and a wireless communication

chip as its core
3.12
wireless gas meter system
system that is composed of remote meter reading management, payment management,
accounting management, gas management and data management
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
AL application layer
APDU application layer protocol data unit
ASL application sub-layer
ASLDE application sub-layer data entity
ASLME application sub-layer management entity
DMAP device management application process.
GPRS general packet radio services
ID identifier
MIB management information base
PDU protocol data unit
R/R request/response
P/S publisher/subscriber
R/S report source/sink
SAP service access point
UAP user application process
UAO user application object
VCR virtual communication relationship
VCR_ID virtual communication relationship identifier
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– 8 – ISO/IEC TR 30148:2019 © ISO/IEC 2019
5 Network structure

The overall structure of the wireless gas meter networks can be divided into three levels: the

underlying wireless gas meter networks, the internet/mobile networks, the data

centre/application server/cloud management platform. The gateway obtains data information

such as balance, valve opening and closing, and device health status, and sends to the data

centre. The cloud management platform can control and manage at any time, and users query

information through the application server. They are shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 – The structure of the wireless gas networks
The components of the wireless gas meter networks are as follows.
a) Security manager

Application software that supervises various operational security aspects of a multi-device

network (e.g. certification function), usually through interaction with wireless gas meter in

the supervised device(s). See Annex A.
b) Application server

It is installed in the gas supplier or gas management centre. It is a platform for accessing

the Internet and managing user applications. Users can perform business management

operations such as gas meter recharging, gas meter status monitoring and gas data

storage through the application.
c) Cloud management platform

It is installed in the gas supplier or gas management centre. It is a platform for controlling

and managing wireless gas meters. It has functions such as equipment management,
network management, network security management and time synchronization.
d) Gateway

It is installed at a place without potential explosion risks and far away from where gas is

used. It is important for a gateway to be a safe distance from wireless gas meters. It can

cover all gas meters to manage network nodes remotely. It can receive management and

control messages from the remote management platform. The main functions are as

follows: transmission and storage of wireless gas meter status information; conversion of

wireless protocol to wired protocol; management of wireless gas meter; information

security management for gas meter identification.
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ISO/IEC TR 30148:2019 © ISO/IEC 2019 – 9 –
e) Wireless gas meter

Instrument intended to measure, memorize and display the quantity of gas passing the

flow sensor. It is installed in locations where there are potential explosion risks and meets

the explosion-proof performance functions. If it is exposed to weather it should also be

weather-proof against dust and water entry and the effect of UV sunlight exposure and

ambient temperature ranges expected at the installed location, if these would impair its

function and safety. Wireless connections may include short distance wireless, GPRS,

long range wireless and narrowband IoT.
6 Application layer protocol
6.1 Overview
6.1.1 General

AL describes the interaction processes and services between wireless gas meter and wireless

gas meter system.
This AL for wireless gas meter networks includes:
– structure and functions;
– three communication models;
– application services and corresponding service primitives;
– message format.
6.1.2 AL function
The AL describes UAP, ASL and DMAP. The DMAP is a special type of UAP, which is

dedicated to managing the device and its communications services. DMAP can realize system

management functions. AL defines application objects to interact with the wireless gas meter

system. It can also define communication services to support interaction between gas meter

application processes and ASL.
6.1.3 AL structure
Application layer structure is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2 – AL structure
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– 10 – ISO/IEC TR 30148:2019 © ISO/IEC 2019

UAP collects data from the wireless gas meter and processes the data; UAP consists of one

or more UAOs. DMAP includes the network management module, the security management

module and the MIB module. The network management is responsible for managing the

attributes of network equipment which is related to communication and networking processes.

The security management manages the attributes associated with network security. The

information in the MIB exists in the form of attributes to monitor and configure wireless

network parameters for gas meters. ASL includes data entities and management entities.

Data entities provide data communication services, send data to the network layer and

receive data from it. The management entity implements the data interaction with the MIB.

UAP and DMAP interact with AL.

ASLDE–SAP and ASLME–SAP are interfaces for communication among parts. ASL provides

transparent data transmission services between ASL and UAP.
6.2 User application process
6.2.1 General

According to the ISO/OSI reference model defined, the UAP is performed for specific

applications in the network and an integral part of distributed applications in wireless gas

meter networks.
6.2.2 Functions of UAP
The functions of the user application process mainly include the following.

– It can collect gas consumption, balance and remaining power in home and industrial sites

through a wireless gas meter. After processing this information, it is transmitted to the

computer control centre through the data channel.

– It can generate and issue an alarm, and the UAO itself will send an alarm signal when an

operating condition is abnormal. This alarm information includes data anomalies, low

power and damage caused by external factors, etc.
6.2.3 User application object

A user process consists of one or more user application objects. Each user application object

can be defined according to different functions. The user application object is defined as the

data acquisition, processing and distribution.

Each user application object is addressed based on the object ID. This parameter uses index

addressing when its internal parameters are operated remotely.
6.3 Device management application process

Each device contains a DMAP. The DMAP includes a security device management function.

The DMAP cooperates with system manager and the security manager to enable the use of

system resources by the wireless gas meter and the wireless gas meter system. For example,

the DMAP may ask to join the network, ask for communication bandwidth, request a

communication configuration, and report its health. The system manager and the security

manager of the wireless gas meter authorize the wireless gas meter to join the network,

allocate communication bandwidth, configure the wireless gas meter, and collect health

reports. These health reports are stored in the wireless gas meter system manager and are

used to make communication configuration decisions.
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ISO/IEC TR 30148:2019 © ISO/IEC 2019 – 11 –
6.4 Application sub-layer
6.4.1 General

Subclause 6.4 describes the interaction and application scenarios of the three communication

models used in the application layer of a wireless gas meter system and the corresponding

message format.
6.4.2 Functions of application sub-layer

The application sub-layer for a wireless gas meter system in the network provides data

communication services, including sending data to the network layer and receiving data from

the network layer, receiving data from the user application process and sending data to the

user application process.

– Data transmission service: provide end-to-end transparent data communication services

for the user application process and device management application process.

– Data communication services provided by the application sub-layer support three types of

communication model:

1) R/R communication model: it is mainly used in the transmission of dynamic, aperiodic

data and command; in addition, it needs to maintain the serial number of the

information which is used to match the response information from the wireless gas

meter.

2) P/S communication model: it supports preconfigured, periodic information transmission.

For example, data of gas meter collected by wireless gas meter is sent. The Alert-

Report will be a use case scenario of P/S. Once any alarm occurs, the alarm

information will be published, and subscribers can obtain that information (if they

subscribe to it).

3) R/S communication model: it supports the aperiodic information transmission, such as

alarm, event, etc.
6.4.3 Communication models
6.4.3.1 Request/Response model

By using the R/R model, the wireless gas meter system can realize the information acquisition

or setting operation of the parameters of the wireless gas meter application objects.

The interactive process of the R/R model is shown in Figure 3.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – ISO/IEC TR 30148:2019 © ISO/IEC 2019
Figure 3 – R/R model interaction process

First, the resource requestor encapsulates the operation data into an APDU according to the

message format, and informs the request side access point to transfer the data unit. After

receiving the data unit from the client access point, the response side access point will

indicate to the resource responder that the data unit has arrived. The resource responder

resolves the received APDU according to the message format. If it is a command message,

the resource responder will remove the message header and extract the operation code and

data load. Then the resource responder performs the corresponding action based on the

content. If it is a data message, the resource responder will remove the message header and

the data load will be extracted and performed.

In contrast, if some operations need to confirm the received message, the resource responder

needs to return the confirmation message and encapsulates the APDU according to the

message format, then the resource responder access point initiates a response and tells the

access point to send the data unit. After receiving the data unit from the resource responder

access point, the resource requestor access point will indicate to the resource requestor that

the data unit has arrived. The resource requestor resolves
...

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