Effects of current on human beings and livestock - Part 1: General aspects

IEC 60479-1:2018(E) provides basic guidance on the effects of shock current on human beings and livestock.
This basic safety publication is primarily intended for use by technical committees in the preparation of standards in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and lSO/lEC Guide 51. It is not intended for use by manufacturers or certification bodies.

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Published
Publication Date
12-Dec-2018
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
13-Dec-2018
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IEC 60479-1
Edition 1.0 2018-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
Effects of current on human beings and livestock –
Part 1: General aspects
IEC 60479-1:2018-12(en)
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IEC 60479-1
Edition 1.0 2018-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
Effects of current on human beings and livestock –
Part 1: General aspects
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 13.200; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-6295-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60479-1:2018  IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 9

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 10

3.1 General definitions ................................................................................................ 10

3.2 Effects of sinusoidal alternating current in the range 15 Hz to 100 Hz ................... 11

3.3 Effects of direct current ......................................................................................... 12

4 Electrical impedance of the human body and livestock .................................................. 13

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 13

4.2 Internal impedance of the human body (Z ) ........................................................... 13

4.3 Impedance of the skin (Z ) .................................................................................... 13

4.4 Total impedance of the human body (Z ) .............................................................. 13

4.5 Factors affecting initial resistance of the human body (R ) .................................... 14

4.6 Values of the total impedance of the human body (Z ) .......................................... 14

4.6.1 Total body impedance dependence for large, medium and small surface

areas of contact ............................................................................................. 14

4.6.2 Sinusoidal alternating current 50/60 Hz for large surface areas of contact ..... 14

4.6.3 Sinusoidal alternating current 50/60 Hz for medium and small surface

areas of contact ............................................................................................. 17

4.6.4 Sinusoidal alternating current with frequencies up to 20 kHz and above ........ 20

4.6.5 Direct current ................................................................................................. 21

4.7 Value of the initial resistance of the human body (R ) ........................................... 22

4.8 Characteristics of the impedance of the body of livestock ..................................... 22

5 Effects of sinusoidal alternating current in the range of 15 Hz to 150 Hz ........................ 22

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 22

5.2 Threshold of perception ........................................................................................ 22

5.3 Threshold of reaction ............................................................................................ 22

5.4 Immobilization ....................................................................................................... 22

5.5 Threshold of let-go ................................................................................................ 23

5.6 Threshold of ventricular fibrillation ........................................................................ 23

5.7 Other effects related to electric shocks ................................................................. 23

5.8 Effects of current on the skin ................................................................................ 24

5.9 Description of time/current zones (see Figure 20) ................................................. 24

5.10 Application of heart-current factor (F).................................................................... 25

6 Effects of direct current ................................................................................................. 26

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 26

6.2 Threshold of perception and threshold of reaction ................................................. 26

6.3 Threshold of immobilization and threshold of let-go ............................................... 26

6.4 Threshold of ventricular fibrillation ........................................................................ 26

6.5 Other effects of current ......................................................................................... 27

6.6 Description of time/current zones (see Figure 22) ................................................. 27

6.7 Heart factor ........................................................................................................... 28

6.8 Effects of anodic versus cathodic DC currents ...................................................... 45

Annex A (normative) Measurements of the total body impedances Z made on living

human beings and on corpses and statistical analysis of the results .............................. 48

Annex B (normative) Influence of frequency on the total body impedance (Z ) ..................... 51

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IEC 60479-1:2018  IEC 2018 – 3 –

Annex C (normative) Total body resistance (R ) for direct current ........................................ 52

Annex D (informative) Examples of calculations of ZT .......................................................... 53

Annex E (informative) Theories of ventricular fibrillation ....................................................... 56

Annex F (informative) Quantities of upper limit of vulnerability (ULV)and lower limit of

vulnerability (LLV) ......................................................................................................... 57

Annex G (informative) Circuit simulation methods in electric shock evaluation ..................... 58

Annex H (normative) Effects of currents passing through the body of livestock .................... 61

H.1 General ................................................................................................................. 61

H.2 Principal consideration of the risk of ventricular fibrillation for livestock ................ 61

H.3 Characteristics of the impedance of the body of livestock ..................................... 62

H.4 Internal impedance of animals (Z ) ........................................................................ 62

H.5 Impedance of the hide and skin (Z ) ..................................................................... 63

H.6 Impedance (resistance) of the hoof (Z , R ) .......................................................... 63

h h

H.7 Total body impedance (Z ) ................................................................................... 63

H.8 Initial body resistance (R ) .................................................................................... 64

H.9 Values of the total body impedance (Z ) ............................................................... 64

H.10 Values of the initial resistance of the body (R ) ..................................................... 65

H.11 Effects on livestock of sinusoidal alternating current in the range from 15 Hz

to 100 Hz .............................................................................................................. 65

H.11.1 General ......................................................................................................... 65

H.11.2 Threshold of reaction ..................................................................................... 66

H.11.3 Threshold of ventricular fibrillation ................................................................. 66

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 69

Figure 1 – Impedances of the human body ............................................................................ 28

Figure 2 – Internal partial impedances Z of the human body ............................................... 29

Figure 3 – Simplified schematic diagram for the internal impedances of the human

body ..................................................................................................................................... 30

Figure 4 – Total body impedance Z (50 %) for a current path hand to hand, for large

surface areas of contact in dry, water-wet and saltwater-wet conditions for a percentile

rank of 50 % of the population for touch voltages U = 25 V to 700 V, AC 50/60 Hz ............. 31

Figure 5 – Dependence of the total impedance Z of one living person on the surface

area of contact in dry conditions and at touch voltage (50 Hz) .............................................. 32

Figure 6 – Dependence of the total body impedance Z on the touch voltage U for a current

T T

path from the tips of the right to the left forefinger compared with large surfaceareas of

contact from the right to the left hand in dry conditions measured on one living person, touch

voltage range U = 25 V to 200 V, AC 50 Hz, duration of current flow max. 25 ms ............... 33

Figure 7 – Dependence of the total body impedance Z for the 50 percentile rank of

a population of living human beings for large, medium and small surface areas of
2 2 2
contact (order of magnitude 10 000 mm , 1 000 mm and 100 mm respectively) in

dry conditions at touch voltages U = 25 V to 200 V AC 50/60 Hz ......................................... 34

Figure 8 – Dependence of the total body impedance Z for the 50 percentile rank of

a population of living human beings for large, medium and small surface areas of
2 2 2
contact (order of magnitude 10 000 mm , 1 000 mm and 100 mm respectively) in

water-wet conditions at touch voltages U = 25 V to 200 V, AC 50/60 Hz ............................. 35

Figure 9 – Dependence of the total body impedance Z for the 50 percentile rank of

a population of living human beings for large, medium and small surface areas of
2 2 2
contact (order of magnitude 10 000 mm , 1 000 mm and 100 mm respectively) in

saltwater-wet conditions at touch voltages U = 25 V to 200 V, AC 50/60 Hz ........................ 36

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– 4 – IEC 60479-1:2018  IEC 2018
Figure 10 – Values for the total body impedance Z measured on 10 living human

beings with a current path hand to hand and large surface areas of contact in dry

conditions at a touch voltage of 10 V and frequencies from 25 Hz to 20 kHz ........................ 37

Figure 11 – Values for the total body impedance Z measured on one living human

being with a current path hand to hand and large surface areas of contact in dry

conditions at a touch voltage of 25 V and frequencies from 25 Hz to 2 kHz ........................... 37

Figure 12 – Frequency dependence of the total body impedance Z of a population for

a percentile rank of 50 % for touch voltages from 10 V to 1 000 V and a frequency

range from 50 Hz to 150 kHz for a current path hand to hand or hand to foot, large

surface areas of contact in dry conditions ............................................................................. 38

Figure 13 – Statistical value of total body impedances Z and body resistances R for

T T

a percentile rank of 50 % of a population of living human beings for the current path

hand to hand, large surface areas of contact, dry conditions, for touch voltages up to

700 V, for AC 50/60 Hz and DC ............................................................................................ 38

Figure 14 – Dependence of the alteration of human skin condition on current density

i and duration of current flow .............................................................................................. 39

Figure 15 – Electrodes used for the measurement of the dependence of the

impedance of the human body Z on the surface area of contact .......................................... 40

Figure 16 – Oscillograms of touch voltages U and touch currents I for AC, current

T T
path hand to hand, large surface areas of contact in dry conditions taken from

measurements ...................................................................................................................... 41

Figure 17 – Occurrence of the vulnerable period of ventricles during the cardiac cycle ......... 42

Figure 18 – Triggering of ventricular fibrillation in the vulnerable period – Effects on

electro-cardiogram (ECG) and blood pressure ...................................................................... 42

Figure 19 – Fibrillation data for dogs, pigs and sheep from experiments and for

persons calculated from statistics of electrical accidents with transversal direction of

current flow hand to hand and touch voltages U = 220 V and 380 V AC with body

impedances Z (5 %) ............................................................................................................ 43

Figure 20 – Conventional time/current zones of effects of AC currents (15 Hz to

100 Hz) on persons for a current path corresponding to left hand to feet (see Table 11) ....... 44

Figure 21 – Oscillogram of touch voltages U and touch current I for DC, current path

T T

hand to hand, large surface areas of contact in dry conditions .............................................. 44

Figure 22 – Conventional time/current zones of effects of DC currents on persons for

a longitudinal upward current path (see Table 13) ................................................................. 45

Figure 23 – Let-go currents for 60 Hz sinusoidal current ....................................................... 45

Figure 24 – Effects of anodic versus cathodic DC currents .................................................... 46

Figure 25 – Pulsed DC stimulation of single heart cells ......................................................... 47

Figure G.1 – Electric shock in electrical model by Hart [33] including startle reaction

effect .................................................................................................................................... 59

Figure H.1 – Current flow and impedances of the relevant parts of the body of a cow

for current path from the nose to the legs.............................................................................. 62

Figure H.2 – Diagrams for an animal, for a current path from the nose to the four legs

(path A) and from the forelegs to the hindlegs (path B) ......................................................... 62

Figure H.3 – Diagram for the total body impedance for cattle for a percentage of 5 %

of the population ................................................................................................................... 65

Figure H.4 – Ventricular fibrillation for sheep ........................................................................ 66

Figure H.5 – Minimum fibrillating currents of sheep as a function of weight for a shock

duration of 3 s [55] ................................................................................................................ 67

Figure H.6 – Minimum fibrillating currents (averages) of various species of livestock as

a function of weight for a shock duration of 3 s [53] .............................................................. 68

Table 1 – Total body impedances Z for a current path hand to hand AC 50/60 Hz, for

large surface areas of contact in dry conditions ............................................................. 15

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IEC 60479-1:2018  IEC 2018 – 5 –

Table 2 – Total body impedances Z for a current path hand to hand AC 50/60 Hz, for

large surface areas of contact in water-wet conditions .......................................................... 16

Table 3 – Total body impedances Z for a current path hand to hand AC 50/60 Hz, for

large surface areas of contact in saltwater-wet conditions ..................................................... 17

Table 4 –Total body impedances Z for a current path hand to hand for medium

surface areas of contact in dry conditions at touch voltages U = 25 V to 200 V AC

50/60 Hz (values rounded to 25 Ω) ...................................................................................... 18

Table 5 – Total body impedances Z for a current path hand to hand for medium

surface areas of contact in water-wet conditions at touch voltages U = 25 V to 200 V

AC 50/60 Hz (values rounded to 25 Ω) .................................................................................. 19

Table 6 – Total body impedances Z for a current path hand to hand for medium

surface areas of contact in saltwater-wet conditions at touch voltages U = 25 V to

200 V AC 50/60 Hz (values rounded to 5 Ω) .......................................................................... 19

Table 7 – Total body impedances Z for a current path hand to hand for small surface

areas of contact in dry conditions at touch voltages U = 25 V to 200 V AC 50/60 Hz

(values rounded to 25 Ω) ...................................................................................................... 19

Table 8 – Total body impedances Z for a current path hand to hand for small surface

areas of contact in water-wet conditions at touch voltages U = 25 V to 200 V AC

50/60 Hz (values rounded to 25 Ω) ....................................................................................... 20

Table 9 – Total body impedances Z for a current path hand to hand for small surface

areas of contact in saltwater-wet conditions at touch voltages U = 25 V to 200 V AC

50/60 Hz (values rounded to 5 Ω) ......................................................................................... 20

Table 10 – Total body resistances R for a current path hand to hand, direct current,

for large surface areas of contact in dry conditions ............................................................... 21

Table 11 – Time/current zones for AC 15 Hz to 100 Hz for hand to feet pathway –

Summary of zones of Figure 20 ............................................................................................ 25

Table 12 – Heart-current factor F for different current paths .................................................. 26

Table 13 – Time/current zones for direct current for hand to feet pathway – Summary

of zones of Figure 22 ............................................................................................................ 28

Table A.1 – Total body impedances Z , electrodes type A for dry conditions and

deviation factors F (5 % and 95 %) ..................................................................................... 48

Table A.2 – Total body impedances Z , electrodes type B for dry, water-wet and

saltwater-wet conditions and deviation factors F (5 % and 95 %) ........................................ 48

Table A.3 – Total body impedances Z for dry, water-wet and saltwater-wet conditions

and deviation factors F (5 % and 95 %) .............................................................................. 48

Table A.4 – Deviation factors F (5 %) and F (95 %) for dry and water-wet conditions

D D

in the touch voltage range U = 25 V up to 400 V for large, medium and small surface

areas of contact .................................................................................................................... 50

Table D.1 – 50 percentile values for the total body impedance for a current path

hands-feet, medium surface area of contact for hands, large for feet, reduction factor

0,8, dry conditions, touch currents I and electrophysiological effects .................................. 54

Table G.1 – Body impedance examples (uncompensated) ..................................................... 59

Table H.1 – Impedance (resistance) of the hooves of cattle (Z , R ) for AC voltages up

h h

to 230 V, 50/60 Hz ................................................................................................................ 63

Table H.2 – Total body impedances Z for AC 50/60 Hz for cattle for touch voltages up

to 230 V ................................................................................................................................ 64

Table H.3 – Initial body resistance R for cattle .................................................................... 65

Table H.4 – Threshold of ventricular fibrillation for AC 50/60 Hz [53] [54] for different

species of livestock, for a shock duration of 3 s .................................................................... 67

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– 6 – IEC 60479-1:2018  IEC 2018
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
EFFECTS OF CURRENT ON HUMAN BEINGS
AND LIVESTOCK –
Part 1: General aspects
FOREWORD

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International Standard IEC 60479-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 64:

Electrical installations and protection against electric shock.

This first edition cancels and replaces IEC TS 60479-1:2005, Amendment 1:2016 and

IEC TR 60479-3:1998. This edition constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to

IEC TS 60479-1 and IEC TR 60479-3:

• The contents of IEC TR 60479-3 relating to aspects unique to the effects of current

passing through the bodies of livestock have been incorporated into a new Annex H

(normative).

It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60479-1:2018  IEC 2018 – 7 –
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
64/2275/CDV 64/2343/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60479 series, published under the general title Effects of current

on human beings and livestock, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this public
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