Electric double-layer capacitors for use in hybrid electric vehicles - Test methods for electrical characteristics

IEC 62576:2018 is also available as IEC 62576:2018 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 62576:2018 describes the methods for testing electrical characteristics of electric double-layer capacitor cells (hereinafter referred to as capacitor) to be used for peak power assistance in hybrid electric vehicles. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2009. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) information on applicability of this document has been added in Clause 1;
b) the definitions of some terms in Clause 3 have been improved;
c) the description of test procedures in Clause 4 has been clarified;
d) information on endurance cycling test has been added (Annex E).

Condensateurs électriques à double couche pour véhicules électriques hybrides - Méthodes d'essai des caractéristiques électriques

IEC 62576:2018 est disponible sous forme de IEC 62576:2018 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.
L'IEC 62576:2018 décrit les méthodes d'essai des caractéristiques électriques des cellules de condensateur électrique à double couche (ci-après dénommé "condensateur") utilisées pour l'assistance en puissance de crête dans les véhicules électriques hybrides. Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2009. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
a) des informations sur le champ d'application du présent document ont été ajoutées dans l'Article 1;
b) les définitions de certains termes de l'Article 3 ont été améliorées;
c) la description des procédures d'essai de l'Article 4 a été clarifiée;
d) des informations sur l'essai cyclique d'endurance ont été ajoutées (Annexe E).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Feb-2018
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
20-Feb-2018
Completion Date
20-Feb-2018
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
IEC 62576:2018 - Electric double-layer capacitors for use in hybrid electric vehicles - Test methods for electrical characteristics
English and French language
60 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

IEC 62576
Edition 2.0 2018-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Electric double-layer capacitors for use in hybrid electric vehicles –
Test methods for electrical characteristics
Condensateurs électriques à double couche pour véhicules électriques hybrides –
Méthodes d'essai des caractéristiques électriques
IEC 62576:2018-02(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2018 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester. If you have any questions about IEC

copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address below or

your local IEC member National Committee for further information.

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite

ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie

et les microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'IEC ou du Comité national de l'IEC du pays du demandeur. Si vous avez des

questions sur le copyright de l'IEC ou si vous désirez obtenir des droits supplémentaires sur cette publication, utilisez

les coordonnées ci-après ou contactez le Comité national de l'IEC de votre pays de résidence.

IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé info@iec.ch
CH-1211 Geneva 20 www.iec.ch
Switzerland
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigenda or an amendment might have been published.
IEC Catalogue - webstore.iec.ch/catalogue Electropedia - www.electropedia.org

The stand-alone application for consulting the entire The world's leading online dictionary of electronic and

bibliographical information on IEC International Standards, electrical terms containing 21 000 terms and definitions in

Technical Specifications, Technical Reports and other English and French, with equivalent terms in 16 additional

documents. Available for PC, Mac OS, Android Tablets and languages. Also known as the International Electrotechnical

iPad. Vocabulary (IEV) online.

IEC publications search - webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform IEC Glossary - std.iec.ch/glossary

The advanced search enables to find IEC publications by a 67 000 electrotechnical terminology entries in English and

variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical French extracted from the Terms and Definitions clause of

committee,…). It also gives information on projects, replaced IEC publications issued since 2002. Some entries have been

and withdrawn publications. collected from earlier publications of IEC TC 37, 77, 86 and

CISPR.
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished

Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published IEC Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/csc

details all new publications released. Available online and If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or

also once a month by email. need further assistance, please contact the Customer Service

Centre: sales@iec.ch.
A propos de l'IEC

La Commission Electrotechnique Internationale (IEC) est la première organisation mondiale qui élabore et publie des

Normes internationales pour tout ce qui a trait à l'électricité, à l'électronique et aux technologies apparentées.

A propos des publications IEC

Le contenu technique des publications IEC est constamment revu. Veuillez vous assurer que vous possédez l’édition la

plus récente, un corrigendum ou amendement peut avoir été publié.
Catalogue IEC - webstore.iec.ch/catalogue Electropedia - www.electropedia.org
Application autonome pour consulter tous les renseignements
Le premier dictionnaire en ligne de termes électroniques et
bibliographiques sur les Normes internationales,
électriques. Il contient 21 000 termes et définitions en anglais
Spécifications techniques, Rapports techniques et autres
et en français, ainsi que les termes équivalents dans 16
documents de l'IEC. Disponible pour PC, Mac OS, tablettes
langues additionnelles. Egalement appelé Vocabulaire
Android et iPad.
Electrotechnique International (IEV) en ligne.
Recherche de publications IEC -
Glossaire IEC - std.iec.ch/glossary
webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform
67 000 entrées terminologiques électrotechniques, en anglais

La recherche avancée permet de trouver des publications IEC et en français, extraites des articles Termes et Définitions des

en utilisant différents critères (numéro de référence, texte, publications IEC parues depuis 2002. Plus certaines entrées

comité d’études,…). Elle donne aussi des informations sur les antérieures extraites des publications des CE 37, 77, 86 et

projets et les publications remplacées ou retirées. CISPR de l'IEC.

IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished Service Clients - webstore.iec.ch/csc

Restez informé sur les nouvelles publications IEC. Just Si vous désirez nous donner des commentaires sur cette

Published détaille les nouvelles publications parues. publication ou si vous avez des questions contactez-nous:

Disponible en ligne et aussi une fois par mois par email. sales@iec.ch.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62576
Edition 2.0 2018-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Electric double-layer capacitors for use in hybrid electric vehicles –
Test methods for electrical characteristics
Condensateurs électriques à double couche pour véhicules électriques hybrides –
Méthodes d'essai des caractéristiques électriques
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.060.99; 43.120 ISBN 978-2-8322-5341-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Tests methods ............................................................................................................... 10

4.1 Capacitance, internal resistance, and maximum power density ............................. 10

4.1.1 Circuit for measurement ................................................................................ 10

4.1.2 Test equipment .............................................................................................. 10

4.1.3 Measurement procedure ................................................................................ 11

4.1.4 Calculation method for capacitance ............................................................... 12

4.1.5 Calculation method for internal resistance ..................................................... 12

4.1.6 Calculation method for maximum power density ............................................ 13

4.2 Voltage maintenance characteristics ..................................................................... 13

4.2.1 Circuit for measurement ................................................................................ 13

4.2.2 Test equipment .............................................................................................. 14

4.2.3 Measurement procedures .............................................................................. 15

4.2.4 Calculation of voltage maintenance rate ........................................................ 16

4.3 Energy efficiency .................................................................................................. 16

4.3.1 Circuit for test ................................................................................................ 16

4.3.2 Test equipment .............................................................................................. 16

4.3.3 Measurement procedures .............................................................................. 17

4.3.4 Calculation of energy efficiency ..................................................................... 18

Annex A (informative) Endurance test: continuous application of rated voltage at high

temperature .......................................................................................................................... 20

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 20

A.2 Test procedure ...................................................................................................... 20

A.2.1 Test condition ................................................................................................ 20

A.2.2 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 20

A.2.3 Judgment criteria ........................................................................................... 20

Annex B (informative) Heat equilibrium time of capacitors .................................................... 22

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 22

B.2 Heat equilibrium time of capacitors ....................................................................... 22

Annex C (informative) Charging/discharging efficiency and measurement current ................ 24

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 24

C.2 Charging efficiency, discharging efficiency, and current ........................................ 24

Annex D (informative) Procedures for setting the measurement current of capacitor

with uncertain nominal internal resistance ............................................................................. 26

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 26

D.2 Current setting procedures for measurement of capacitor ..................................... 26

D.3 Example of setting current for determining capacitor characteristics ..................... 26

Annex E (informative) Endurance cycling test ...................................................................... 27

E.1 General ................................................................................................................. 27

E.2 Test method .......................................................................................................... 27

E.2.1 Test temperature ........................................................................................... 27

E.2.2 Test equipment .............................................................................................. 27

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018 – 3 –

E.2.3 Preconditioning .............................................................................................. 27

E.2.4 Initial measurements ..................................................................................... 27

E.2.5 Test steps ...................................................................................................... 27

E.2.6 Test ............................................................................................................... 28

E.2.7 End of test criteria ......................................................................................... 28

E.2.8 Post treatment ............................................................................................... 29

E.2.9 Final measurement ........................................................................................ 29

E.2.10 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 29

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 30

Figure 1 – Basic circuit for measuring capacitance, internal resistance and maximum

power density ....................................................................................................................... 10

Figure 2 – Voltage–time characteristics between capacitor terminals in capacitance

and internal resistance measurement .................................................................................... 11

Figure 3 – Basic circuit for measuring the voltage maintenance characteristics ..................... 14

Figure 4 – Time characteristics of voltage between capacitor terminals in voltage

maintenance test .................................................................................................................. 15

Figure 5 – Voltage-time characteristics between capacitor terminals in

charging/discharging efficiency test ...................................................................................... 17

Figure B.1 – Heat equilibrium times of capacitors (from 85 °C to 25 °C) ................................ 22

Figure B.2 – Heat equilibrium times of capacitors (from –40 °C to 25 °C) .............................. 23

Figure B.3 – Temperature changes of capacitors' central portions ........................................ 23

Figure E.1 – Endurance cycling test steps ............................................................................ 28

Table D.1 – Example of setting current for measurement of capacitor ................................... 26

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITORS FOR USE IN
HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES – TEST METHODS
FOR ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC

Publication(s)"). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and

non-governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates

closely with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined

by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62576 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 69: Electric

road vehicles and electric industrial trucks.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2009. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) information on applicability of this document has been added in Clause 1;
b) the definitions of some terms in Clause 3 have been improved;
c) the description of test procedures in Clause 4 has been clarified;
d) information on endurance cycling test has been added (Annex E).
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018 – 5 –
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
69/486/CDV 69/539/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018
INTRODUCTION

The electric double-layer capacitor (capacitor) is used as an energy storage system for

vehicles. Capacitor-installed electric vehicles are commercialized with an eye to improving

fuel economy by recovering regenerative energy, and by peak power assistance during

acceleration, etc. Although standards for capacitors already exists (IEC 62391 series), those

for electric vehicles involve patterns of use, usage environment, and values of current that are

quite different from those assumed in the existing standards. Standard evaluation and test

methods will be useful for both auto manufacturers and capacitor suppliers to speed up the

development and lower the costs of such capacitors. With these points in mind, this document

aims to provide basic and minimum specifications in terms of the methods for testing

electrical characteristics, and to create an environment that supports the expanding market of

electric vehicles and large capacity capacitors. Additional practical test items to be

standardized should be reconsidered after technology and market stabilization of capacitors

for electric vehicles. Regarding endurance, which is important in practical use, just a basic

concept is set forth in the informative annexes.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018 – 7 –
ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITORS FOR USE IN
HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES – TEST METHODS
FOR ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
1 Scope

This document describes the methods for testing electrical characteristics of electric

double-layer capacitor cells (hereinafter referred to as "capacitor") used for peak power

assistance in hybrid electric vehicles.
All the tests in this document are type tests.

This document can also be applicable to the capacitor used in idling reduction systems (start

and-stop systems) for the vehicles.

This document can also be applicable to the capacitor modules consisting of more than one

cell.
NOTE Annex E provides information on endurance cycling test.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
ambient temperature
temperature of the air, in the immediate vicinity of a capacitor
3.2
applied voltage
voltage (V) applied between the terminals of a capacitor
3.3
calculation end voltage

voltage (V) at a selected end point for calculating the characteristics including capacitance

under a state of voltage decrease during discharge
3.4
calculation start voltage

voltage (V) at a selected start point for calculating the characteristics including capacitance

under a state of voltage decrease during discharge
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018
3.5
capacitance
ability of a capacitor to store electrical charge (F)
3.6
charge accumulated electrical energy

amount of charged energy (J) accumulated from the beginning to the end of charging

3.7
charge current
current (A) required to charge a capacitor
3.8
charging efficiency

efficiency under specified charging conditions, and ratio (%) of stored energy to charge

accumulated electrical energy

Note 1 to entry: This value is calculated from the internal resistance of a capacitor.

Note 2 to entry: Refer to Formula C.8.
3.9
constant voltage charging

charging during which the voltage is maintained at a constant value regardless of charge

current or temperature
3.10
discharge accumulated electrical energy

amount of discharged energy (J) accumulated from the beginning to the end of discharging

3.11
discharge current
current (A) required to discharge a capacitor
3.12
discharging efficiency

efficiency under specified discharging conditions, and ratio (%) of discharge accumulated

electrical energy to stored energy

Note 1 to entry: This value is calculated from the internal resistance of a capacitor.

Note 2 to entry: Refer to Formula C.10.
3.13
electric double-layer capacitor
capacitor

device that stores electrical energy using a double layer in an electrochemical cell, and whose

positive and negative electrodes are of the same material

Note 1 to entry: The electrolytic capacitor is not included in capacitor of this document.

3.14
energy efficiency

ratio (%) of discharge accumulated electrical energy to charge accumulated electrical energy

under specified charging and discharging conditions
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018 – 9 –
3.15
internal resistance

combined resistance (Ω) of constituent material specific resistance and inside connection

resistance of a capacitor
3.16
maximum power density
greatest electrical power output of a capacitor per mass (W/kg) or volume (W/l)
3.17
nominal internal resistance

nominal value of the internal resistance (R ) to be used in design and measurement condition

setting (Ω), generally at the ambient temperature
3.18
post-treatment

discharging and storage of a capacitor under specified ambient conditions (temperature,

humidity, and pressure) after tests

Note 1 to entry: Generally, post-treatment implies that a capacitor is discharged and stored until its inner

temperature attains thermal equilibrium with the surrounding temperature before its electrical characteristics are

measured.
3.19
pre-conditioning

charging and discharging and storage of a capacitor under specified ambient conditions

(temperature, humidity, and pressure) before testing.

Note 1 to entry: Generally, pre-conditioning implies that a capacitor is discharged and stored until its inner

temperature attains thermal equilibrium with the surrounding temperature, before its electrical characteristics are

measured.
3.20
rated voltage

maximum DC voltage (V) that may be applied continuously for a certain time under the upper

category temperature to a capacitor so that a capacitor can exhibit specified demand

characteristics
Note 1 to entry: This voltage is the setting voltage in capacitor design.

Note 2 to entry: The endurance test using the rated voltage is described in Annex A.

3.21
ambient temperature

temperature of air in the vicinity of the device under test, in this document (25 ± 2) °C

3.22
stored energy
energy (J) stored in a capacitor
3.23
upper category temperature

highest ambient temperature at which a capacitor is designed to operate continuously

3.24
voltage maintenance characteristics

ability of a capacitor to maintain the voltage, with its terminals open, after a specified time

period subsequent to the charging
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018
3.25
voltage maintenance rate
ratio of voltage maintenance

ratio of the voltage at the open-ended terminals to the charge voltage after a specified time

period subsequent to the charging of a capacitor
4 Tests methods
4.1 Capacitance, internal resistance, and maximum power density
4.1.1 Circuit for measurement

The capacitance and the internal resistance shall be measured by using the constant current

and constant voltage charging and the constant current discharging. Figure 1 shows the basic

circuit to be used for the measurement.
Power supply
IEC
Key
I constant-current
U constant-voltage
A DC ammeter
V DC voltage recorder
S changeover switch
Cx capacitor under test
constant current discharger
a) constant current charging
b) constant voltage charging
Figure 1 – Basic circuit for measuring capacitance, internal resistance
and maximum power density
4.1.2 Test equipment

The test equipment shall be capable of constant current charging, constant voltage charging,

constant current discharging, and continuous measurement of the current and the voltage

between the capacitor terminals in time-series as shown in Figure 2. The test equipment shall

be able to set the current and the voltage with the accuracy equal to ±1 % or less, and to measure

the current and voltage with accuracy equal to ±0,1 %.

The power supply shall provide the constant charge current for the capacitor charge with 95 %

efficiency, set the duration of constant voltage charge, and provide a discharge current

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 62576:2018 © IEC 2018 – 11 –

corresponding to the specified discharge efficiency. The DC voltage recorder shall be capable

of conducting measurements and recording with a sampling interval of 10 ms or less.

Magnified figure
Time (s)
IEC
Key
U rated voltage (V)
U calculation start voltage (V)
U calculation end voltage (V)
∆U voltage drop (V)
T constant voltage charging duration (s)
Figure 2 – Voltage–time characteristics between capacitor terminals
in capacitance and internal resistance measurement
4.1.3 Measurement procedure

Measurements shall be carried out in accordance with the following procedures using the test

equipment specified in 4.1.2.
a) Pre-conditioning

Before measurement, the capacitors shall be fully charged and fully discharged, and then

incubated for 2 h to 6 h under the ambient temperature or that specified by the related

standards.
NOTE 1 The heat equilibrium time, which provides a reference for th
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.