Test method for erosion of wave soldering equipment using molten lead-free solder alloy - Part 3: Selection guidance of erosion test methods

IEC 62739-3:2017 describes the selection methodology of an appropriate evaluating test method for the erosion of the metal materials without or with surface processing intended to be used for lead-free wave soldering equipment as a solder bath and other components which are in contact with the molten solder.

Méthode d'essai de l'érosion de l'équipement de brasage à la vague utilisant un alliage à braser sans plomb fondu - Partie 3 : Recommandations pour la sélection des méthodes d’essai d’érosion

L’IEC 62739-3:2017 décrit la méthodologie de sélection d’une méthode d'essai appropriée pour évaluer l'érosion des matériaux métalliques sans ou avec traitement de surface, destinés à être utilisés comme bain de brasure pour les équipements de brasage à la vague sans plomb, ainsi que l'érosion d'autres composants qui entrent en contact avec la brasure fondue.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
05-Jan-2017
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
06-Jan-2017
Completion Date
06-Jan-2017
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IEC 62739-3
Edition 1.0 2017-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Test method for erosion of wave soldering equipment using molten lead-free
solder alloy –
Part 3: Selection guidance of erosion test methods
Méthode d'essai de l'érosion de l'équipement de brasage à la vague utilisant
un alliage à braser sans plomb fondu –
Partie 3: Recommandations pour la sélection des méthodes d’essai d’érosion
IEC 62739-3:2017-01(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62739-3
Edition 1.0 2017-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Test method for erosion of wave soldering equipment using molten lead-free
solder alloy –
Part 3: Selection guidance of erosion test methods
Méthode d'essai de l'érosion de l'équipement de brasage à la vague utilisant
un alliage à braser sans plomb fondu –
Partie 3: Recommandations pour la sélection des méthodes d’essai d’érosion
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.190; 31.240 ISBN 978-2-8322-8096-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62739-3:2017 © IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 General remarks .............................................................................................................. 7

5 Selection of the appropriate erosion test method ............................................................. 8

5.1 Correlation between test methods and stresses induced in the field ........................ 8

5.2 Recommended test method by materials ................................................................. 9

6 Common items for each test method .............................................................................. 10

6.1 Specimen preparation ........................................................................................... 10

6.2 Solder alloy ........................................................................................................... 10

6.3 Accelerated stress conditions................................................................................ 10

6.3.1 Test temperature ........................................................................................... 10

6.3.2 Rotation speed .............................................................................................. 10

6.3.3 Bending stress to the specimen ..................................................................... 11

6.4 Dross .................................................................................................................... 11

6.4.1 Dross generation and removal interval ........................................................... 11

6.4.2 Dross removal method ................................................................................... 11

6.4.3 Molten solder volume after dross removal ...................................................... 11

6.5 Erosion depth measurement method ..................................................................... 11

6.5.1 Post test treatment ........................................................................................ 11

6.5.2 Local erosion depth ....................................................................................... 12

6.5.3 General (uniform) erosion depth .................................................................... 13

6.5.4 Evaluation ..................................................................................................... 14

7 Overview of the test methods ........................................................................................ 14

7.1 Test methods ........................................................................................................ 14

7.2 Metal material without surface processing ............................................................. 14

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 14

7.2.2 Rotation test at 350 °C .................................................................................. 15

7.3 Metal material with surface processing.................................................................. 16

7.3.1 Test method .................................................................................................. 16

7.3.2 Rotation test at 450 °C .................................................................................. 16

7.3.3 Rotation test at 450 °C with 2 mm bending .................................................... 17

Annex A (informative) Selection of test temperature, test duration and bending stress ........ 18

A.1 Specimen without surface processing ................................................................... 18

A.2 Specimen with surface processing ........................................................................ 20

Annex B (informative) Maximum depth and other measurements ......................................... 23

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 23

B.2 Maximum depth measurement .............................................................................. 23

Annex C (informative) Erosion mechanism ........................................................................... 26

C.1 Specimen without surface processing ................................................................... 26

C.2 Specimen with surface processing ........................................................................ 26

C.3 Further guidance ................................................................................................... 27

Annex D (informative) Thermal acceleration for erosion ....................................................... 28

D.1 Specimen without surface processing ................................................................... 28

D.2 Specimen with surface processing ........................................................................ 28

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62739-3:2017 © IEC 2017 – 3 –

D.3 Further guidance document .................................................................................. 30

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 31

Figure 1 – Schematic example of wave soldering equipment ................................................... 8

Figure 2 – Example of dross removal tool ............................................................................. 11

Figure 3 – Schematic general definition of erosion depth ...................................................... 12

Figure 4 – Schematic definition of erosion depth by focal depth method ................................ 12

Figure 5 – Examples of local erosion .................................................................................... 13

Figure 6 – Example of evaluation region ............................................................................... 13

Figure 7 – Examples with non-erosion area .......................................................................... 14

Figure 8 – Examples without a non-erosion area and an example of a cross section ............. 14

Figure 9 – Configuration example of test equipment.............................................................. 15

Figure 10 – Configuration example of test equipment for rotation test at 450 °C with 2

mm bending .......................................................................................................................... 17

Figure A.1 – Specimen configuration for preliminary test ....................................................... 18

Figure A.2 – Erosion depth against molten solder temperature ............................................. 19

Figure A.3 – Erosion depth against rotation speed ................................................................ 19

Figure A.4 – Erosion depth against immersion time ............................................................... 20

Figure C.1 – Erosion mechanism for material with nitriding ................................................... 27

Figure D.1 – Tin (Sn) diffusion layer growth in the plasma nitriding layer for various

stainless steel ....................................................................................................................... 29

Table 1 – Location of erosion in the field and examples of problems ...................................... 8

Table 2 – Correlation between test methods and stresses induced in the field ........................ 9

Table 3 – Applicable test method depending on the materials ................................................. 9

Table 4 – Test conditions for rotation test at 350 °C .............................................................. 16

Table 5 – Test conditions for rotation test at 350 °C .............................................................. 16

Table A.1 – Erosion test results for the materials of gas nitriding and nitrocarburizing ......... 21

Table A.2 – Erosion test results for the materials of coating type surface processing ........... 22

Table B.1 – Measurement methods, features and accuracy................................................... 24

Table B.2 – Example of measurement equipment.................................................................. 25

Table D.1 – Plasma nitriding layer peeling off period (incubation period in Figure D.1) ........ 29

Table D.2 – Initial growth rate for tin (Sn) diffusion layer ....................................................... 30

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– 4 – IEC 62739-3:2017 © IEC 2017
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
TEST METHOD FOR EROSION OF WAVE SOLDERING
EQUIPMENT USING MOLTEN LEAD-FREE SOLDER ALLOY –
Part 3: Selection guidance of erosion test methods
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

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patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62739-3 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 91:

Electronics assembly technology.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
91/1368/CDV 91/1400/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62739-3:2017 © IEC 2017 – 5 –

A list of all the parts in the IEC 62739 series, under the general title Test method for erosion

of wave soldering equipment using molten lead-free solder alloy, can be found on the IEC

website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62739-3:2017 © IEC 2017
TEST METHOD FOR EROSION OF WAVE SOLDERING
EQUIPMENT USING MOLTEN LEAD-FREE SOLDER ALLOY –
Part 3: Selection guidance of erosion test methods
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62739 describes the selection methodology of an appropriate evaluating test

method for the erosion of the metal materials without or with surface processing intended to

be used for lead-free wave soldering equipment as a solder bath and other components which

are in contact with the molten solder.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60068-2-20:2008, Environmental testing – Part 2-20: Tests – Test T: Test methods for

solderability and resistance to soldering heat of devices with leads

IEC 61190-1-3, Attachment materials for electronic assembly – Part 1-3: Requirements for

electronic grade solder alloys and fluxed and non-fluxed solid solder for electronic soldering

applications

IEC 62739-1:2013, Test method for erosion of wave soldering equipment using molten lead-

free solder alloy – Part 1: Erosion test method for metal materials without surface processing

IEC 62739-2, Test method for erosion of wave soldering equipment using molten lead-free

solder alloy – Part 2: Erosion test method for metal materials with surface processing

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
erosion

phenomenon where a base material is dissolved and made thinner by coming into contact with

molten solder
[SOURCE: IEC 62739-1:2013, 3.1]
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62739-3:2017 © IEC 2017 – 7 –
3.2
lead-free solder

alloy that does not contain more than 0,1 % mass fraction of lead (Pb) as its constituent and

used for joining components to substrates or for coating surfaces

[SOURCE: IEC 60194:2015, 75.1904 modified – "mass fraction" is used instead of "weight"

and "as its constituent" has been added]
3.3
dross
oxide and other contaminants that form on the surface of molten solder
[SOURCE: IEC 60194:2015, 75.0410]
4 General remarks

Figure 1 shows a schematic example of wave soldering equipment showing a solder bath and

auxiliaries which are subjected to evaluation. Table 1 shows the location of the erosion in the

field, and an example of the problems. The tests specified in IEC 62739-1 and IEC 62739-2

are intended to provide an appropriate maintenance inspection cycle and replacement period

of a solder bath and other metal components, by assessing the anti-erosion capability of

material and other metal components, including surface processing, subjected to solder baths.

Except for the duration, test conditions such as molten solder temperature and rotation speed,

specified in IEC 62739-1 and IEC 6273-2, are predetermined. Thus, the erosion occurrence

durations vary depending upon the type of metal and the surface processing employed. For

this reason, an adequate test duration needs to be pre-set so as to clearly identify the non-

erosion which is used as the baseline of the erosion depth by the focal depth method and

which is also used to discriminate the type of metal and surface processing employed by

erosion depth on the specimen.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62739-3:2017 © IEC 2017
3 4
5 IEC
Key
1 Jet stream nozzle 6 Impeller shaft
2 Drive belt 7 Molten solder pump
3 Temperature sensor 8 Impeller
4 Motor 9 Heater
5 Molten solder 10 Solder bath
Molten solder flow directions are indicated by an arrow.
Figure 1 – Schematic example of wave soldering equipment
Table 1 – Location of erosion in the field
and examples of problems
Location of erosion in the field Example of problems
Solder bath inner wall Hole, molten solder leaking
Impeller shaft Thinning, impeller shaft breaking

Molten solder pump components such as impeller Soldering defects due to molten solder jet stream

disturbance
Jet stream nozzle Soldering defects due to molten solder jet stream
disturbance
Temperature sensor tube Hole, unintentional molten solder temperature,
insulation failure
Throw-in heater Hole insulation failure, electricity leak
5 Selection of the appropriate erosion test method
5.1 Correlation between test methods and stresses induced in the field

Table 2 shows the correlation between test methods and stresses induced in the field,

indicating the applicable material.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62739-3:2017 © IEC 2017 – 9 –
Table 2 – Correlation between test methods and stresses induced in the field
Test method Accelerated stress Applicable material Stress induced in the
(Applicable standard) conditions field

Rotation test at 350 °C High temperature (350 °C) Metal material without Assuming encroach due to

(IEC 62739-1) surface processing solid metal fusion by high
Molten lead-free solder
temperature molten lead-
flow
free solder.
Flux application
Assuming encroach due to
chemical erosion by flux.

Rotation test at 450 °C High temperature (450 °C) Metal material with surface Assuming encroach due to

(IEC 62739-2) processing solid metal fusion by high
Molten lead-free solder
temperature molten lead-
flow
free solder.

Rotation test at 450 °C High temperature (450 °C) Metal material with surface Assuming encroach due to

with 2 mm bending processing solid metal fusion by high
Molten lead-free solder
(IEC 62739-2) temperature molten lead-
flow
free solder.
Bent stress (2 mm)
Assuming encroach
acceleration by bending
stress on the metal surface
with surface processing.

This test method is conducted at a suitable temperature for metal material without surface processing to

produce appropriate erosion depth measurements. However, a sufficient test duration for each metal material

shall be predefined. For metal material with surface processing, erosion occurrence duration becomes too

long. Thus, this test method is not applicable for metal material with surface processing.

This test method is conducted at a suitable temperature for metal material with surface processing to enable

an appropriate erosion depth measurement. However, a sufficient test duration for each surface processing

shall be predefined. For metal material without surface processing, erosion progresses so fast that a non-

erosion area which is used for the baseline of the erosion depth cannot be obtained. Thus, this test method is

not applicable for metal material without surface processing.

This test method is suitable for metal material with surface processing when the rotation test at 450 °C takes

too long and additional acceleration is required. However, a sufficient test duration for each surface

processing shall be predefined. For metal material without surface processing, erosion progresses so fast that

a non-erosion area which is used for the baseline of the erosion depth cannot be obtained. Thus, this test

method is not applicable for metal material without surface processing.
5.2 Recommended test method by materials

Table 3 shows an appropriate test method depending on the material used with respect to

solder baths and auxiliaries.
Table 3 – Applicable test method depending on the materials
Metal materials and surface processing Applicable acceleration test method

Metal material Surface processing Rotation test at Rotation test at Rotation test at

350 °C 450 °C 450 °C with 2 mm
bending
SUS304 None A B B
SUS316 None A B B
Titan None A B B
Cast iron None A B B
SUS304, SUS316 Surface diffusion type B A A
SUS304, SUS316 Coating type B A A
“A” denotes recommended. “B” denotes not applicable.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62739-3:2017 © IEC 2017

Surface processing is classified as surface diffusion type which is forming a surface process

layer by diffusing nitrogen (for example) into material and coating type which is forming a

coating layer on the surface of the mater material. Examples of each type are given below.

a) Surface diffusion type: nitrogen supersaturated solid solution diffusion treatment, diffusion

penetration nitriding, gas nitriding, nitrocarburizing, plasma nitriding

b) Coating type: fine ceramic coating by chemical densified process, CrN coating by a

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) method, and alumina coating by thermal spray.
NOTE The erosion mechanism of the test is explained in Annex C.
6 Common items for each test method
6.1 Specimen preparation
The specimens shall be prepared as indicated below.

a) Basically, specimen shaping shall be carried out by punching, using a press machine.

However, for high hardness materials such as titan and cast iron which are not suitable for

punching, shaving shall be used.

b) Specimen edge burrs, etc., which are produced during specimen shaping and may cause

erosion, shall be removed by chamfering and such;
c) if necessary, surface processing shall be done after processes a) and b).

d) Care shall be taken to handle the specimen after fabrication, so as not to contaminate the

specimen by oil, or other contaminants, since this could affect the test result.
6.2 Solde
...

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