Synthetic quartz crystal - Specifications and guidelines for use

IEC 60758:2016 applies to synthetic quartz single crystals intended for manufacturing piezoelectric elements for frequency control, selection and optical applications. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- order rearrangement and review of terms and definitions;
- abolition as a standard of the infrared absorbance coefficient α3410;
- addition of the value measurement explanation by FT-IR equipment in annex;
- addition of the synthetic quartz crystal standards for optical applications.

Cristal de quartz synthétique - Spécifications et lignes directrices d'utilisation

L'IEC 60758:2016 s'applique aux monocristaux de quartz synthétique destinés à être utilisés pour la fabrication d'éléments piézoélectriques pour la commande et le choix de la fréquence, ainsi que les applications optiques.
Cette cinquième édition annule et remplace la quatrième édition parue en 2008. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
- réorganisation et révision des termes et définitions;
- suppression du coefficient d'absorption dans l'infrarouge α3410 comme norme;
- ajout en annexe d'une explication pour la mesure de la valeur a par les équipements IRTF;
- ajout des normes relatives au cristal de quartz synthétique à usage optique.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-May-2016
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
18-May-2016
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IEC 60758
Edition 5.0 2016-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Synthetic quartz crystal – Specifications and guidelines for use

Cristal de quartz synthétique – Spécifications et lignes directrices d'utilisation

IEC 60758:2016-05(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60758
Edition 5.0 2016-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Synthetic quartz crystal – Specifications and guidelines for use

Cristal de quartz synthétique – Spécifications et lignes directrices d'utilisation

INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.140 ISBN 978-2-8322-5053-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60758:2016 © IEC 2016
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 9

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 9

4 Specification for synthetic quartz crystal ........................................................................ 13

4.1 Standard values .................................................................................................... 13

4.1.1 Shape of synthetic quartz for optical applications .......................................... 13

4.1.2 Orientation of the seed .................................................................................. 13

4.1.3 Inclusion density ............................................................................................ 13

4.1.4 Striae in synthetic quartz for optical applications ........................................... 14

4.1.5 Infrared quality indications of α and α for piezoelectric
3 500 3 585

applications ................................................................................................... 14

4.1.6 Grade classification by α value and Schlieren method for optical

applications ................................................................................................... 15

4.1.7 Frequency-temperature characteristics of synthetic quartz for

piezoelectric applications ............................................................................... 15

4.1.8 Etch channel density ρ................................................................................... 15

4.1.9 Internal transmittance for optical applications ................................................ 16

4.2 Requirements and measuring methods ................................................................. 17

4.2.1 Orientation ..................................................................................................... 17

4.2.2 Handedness .................................................................................................. 18

4.2.3 Synthetic quartz crystal dimensions ............................................................... 18

4.2.4 Seed dimensions ........................................................................................... 19

4.2.5 Imperfections ................................................................................................. 19

4.2.6 Evaluation of infrared quality by α measurement ........................................... 22

4.2.7 Frequency versus temperature characteristics for piezoelectric

applications ................................................................................................... 24

4.2.8 Striae in synthetic quartz for optical applications ........................................... 25

4.2.9 Growth band in synthetic quartz for optical applications ................................. 25

4.2.10 Etch channel density ..................................................................................... 26

4.2.11 Internal transmittance for optical applications ................................................ 27

4.3 Marking ................................................................................................................. 27

4.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 27

4.3.2 Shipping requirements ................................................................................... 28

5 Specification for lumbered synthetic quartz crystal ........................................................ 28

5.1 Standard values .................................................................................................... 28

5.1.1 Tolerance of dimensions ................................................................................ 28

5.1.2 Reference surface flatness ............................................................................ 29

5.1.3 Angular tolerance of reference surface .......................................................... 29

5.1.4 Centrality of the seed..................................................................................... 30

5.2 Requirements and measuring methods ................................................................. 31

5.2.1 As-grown quartz bars used for lumbered quartz bars ..................................... 31

5.2.2 Dimensions of lumbered synthetic quartz crystal ............................................ 31

5.2.3 Identification on reference surface ................................................................. 31

5.2.4 Measurement of reference surface flatness ................................................... 31

5.2.5 Measurement of reference surface angle tolerance ........................................ 31

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IEC 60758:2016 © IEC 2016 – 3 –

5.2.6 Centrality of the seed..................................................................................... 31

5.3 Delivery conditions ................................................................................................ 32

5.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 32

5.3.2 Marking ......................................................................................................... 32

5.3.3 Packing ......................................................................................................... 32

5.3.4 Making batch ................................................................................................. 32

6 Inspection rule for synthetic quartz crystal and lumbered synthetic quartz crystal .......... 32

6.1 Inspection rule for as-grown synthetic quartz crystal ............................................. 32

6.1.1 Inspection ...................................................................................................... 32

6.1.2 Lot-by-lot test ................................................................................................ 32

6.2 Inspection rule for lumbered synthetic quartz crystal ............................................. 33

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 33

6.2.2 Lot-by-lot test ................................................................................................ 34

7 Guidelines for the use of synthetic quartz crystal for piezoelectric applications .............. 34

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 34

7.1.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 34

7.1.2 Synthetic quartz crystal ................................................................................. 34

7.2 Shape and size of synthetic quartz crystal ............................................................ 35

7.2.1 Crystal axis and face designation .................................................................. 35

7.2.2 Seed .............................................................................................................. 36

7.2.3 Shapes and dimensions ................................................................................. 36

7.2.4 Growth zones ................................................................................................ 37

7.3 Standard method for evaluating the quality of synthetic quartz crystal ................... 37

7.4 Other methods for checking the quality of synthetic quartz crystal......................... 38

7.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 38

7.4.2 Visual inspection ........................................................................................... 38

7.4.3 Infrared radiation absorption method ............................................................. 38

7.4.4 Miscellaneous ................................................................................................ 39

7.5 α grade for piezoelectric quartz ............................................................................. 40

7.6 Optional grading (only as ordered), in inclusions, etch channels, Al content .......... 40

7.6.1 Inclusions ...................................................................................................... 40

7.6.2 Etch channels ................................................................................................ 40

7.6.3 Al content ...................................................................................................... 40

7.6.4 Swept quartz ................................................................................................. 41

7.7 Ordering ............................................................................................................... 42

Annex A (informative) Frequently used sampling procedures ............................................. 43

A.1 Complete volume counting .................................................................................... 43

A.2 Commodity Y-bar sampling – Method 1 ................................................................. 43

A.3 Commodity Y-bar sampling – Method 2 ................................................................. 43

A.4 Use of comparative standards for 100 % crystal inspection ................................... 44

Annex B (informative) Numerical example .......................................................................... 45

Annex C (informative) Example of reference sample selection ........................................... 46

Annex D (informative) Explanations of point callipers ......................................................... 47

Annex E (informative) Infrared absorbance α value compensation ...................................... 48

E.1 General ................................................................................................................. 48

E.2 Sample preparation, equipment set-up and measuring procedure ......................... 48

E.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 48

E.2.2 Sample preparation ....................................................................................... 48

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– 4 – IEC 60758:2016 © IEC 2016

E.2.3 Equipment set-up .......................................................................................... 48

E.2.4 Measurement procedure ................................................................................ 49

E.3 Procedure to establish correction terms ................................................................ 49

E.4 Calculation of compensated (corrected) absorbance values .................................. 51

Annex F (informative) Differences of the orthogonal axial system for quartz between

IEC standard and IEEE standard ................................................................................... 52

Annex G (informative) α value measurement consistency between dispersive infrared

spectrometer and fourier transform infrared spectrometer .............................................. 54

G.1 General ................................................................................................................. 54

G.2 Experiment ........................................................................................................... 54

G.3 Experimental result ............................................................................................... 55

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 58

Figure 1 – Quartz crystal axis and cut direction ..................................................................... 17

Figure 2 – Idealized sections of a synthetic quartz crystal grown on a Z-cut seed ................. 19

Figure 3 – Typical example of cutting wafers of AT-cut plate, minor rhombohedral-cut

plate, X-cut plate, Y-cut plate and Z-cut plate ....................................................................... 21

Figure 4 – Frequency-temperature characteristics deviation rate of the test specimen ....... 25

Figure 5 – Typical schlieren system setup ............................................................................. 25

Figure 6 – Lumbered synthetic quartz crystal outline and dimensions along X-, Y- and

Z-axes .................................................................................................................................. 29

Figure 7 – Angular deviation for reference surface ................................................................ 30

Figure 8 – Centrality of the seed with respect to the dimension along the Z- or Z'-axis .......... 31

Figure 9 – Quartz crystal axis and face designation .............................................................. 36

Figure 10 – Synthetic quartz crystal grown on a Z-cut seed of small X-dimensions ............... 37

Figure 11 – Example of a relation between the αvalue and the Q value at wave number

3 500 cm ............................................................................................................................ 39

Figure D.1 – Point callipers ................................................................................................... 47

Figure D.2 – Digital point callipers ........................................................................................ 47

Figure E.1 – Schematic of measurement set-up .................................................................... 49

Figure E.2 – Graph relationship between averaged α and measured α at two wave

numbers of α and α ............................................................................................. 50

3 500 3 585

Figure F.1 – Left- and right-handed quartz crystals ............................................................... 53

Figure G.1 – Relationship of α between measuring value and reference value ...................... 57

Table 1 – Inclusion density grades for piezoelectric applications ........................................... 14

Table 2 – Inclusion density grades for optical applications .................................................... 14

Table 3 – Infrared absorbance coefficient grades for piezoelectric applications ..................... 14

Table 4 – Infrared absorbance coefficient grades and Schlieren method for optical

applications .......................................................................................................................... 15

Table 5 – Etch channel density grades for piezoelectric applications .................................... 16

Table 6 – Test conditions and requirements for the lot-by-Iot test for group A ....................... 33

Table 7 – Test conditions and requirements for the lot-by-lot test for group B ....................... 33

Table 8 – Test conditions and requirements for the lot-by-lot test.......................................... 34

Table B.1 – Commodity bar sampling, method 1 ................................................................... 45

Table B.2 – Commodity bar sampling .................................................................................... 45

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IEC 60758:2016 © IEC 2016 – 5 –

Table E.1 – Example of calibration data at α ................................................................ 50

3 585

Table E.2 – Example of calibration data at α ................................................................ 50

3 500
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60758:2016 © IEC 2016
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SYNTHETIC QUARTZ CRYSTAL –
SPECIFICATIONS AND GUIDELINES FOR USE
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and in

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indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60758 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 49:

Piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic devices and associated materials for frequency

control, selection and detection.

This bilingual version (2017-11) corresponds to the monolingual English version, published in

2016-05.

This fifth edition cancels and replaces the fourth edition, published in 2008. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
• order rearrangement and review of terms and definitions;
• abolition as a standard of the infrared absorbance coefficient α
3 410;
• addition of the α value measurement explanation by FT-IR equipment in annex;
• addition of the synthetic quartz crystal standards for optical applications.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60758:2016 © IEC 2016 – 7 –
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
49/1185/FDIS 49/1190/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.
The French version of this standard has not been voted upon.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60758:2016 © IEC 2016
INTRODUCTION

The reason for adding synthetic quartz crystal for optical application to this International

Standard is as follows.

Quartz crystal produced for optical applications is produced by many of the same suppliers

manufacturing quartz for electronic applications. The equipment and methods to produce

optical quartz are similar to those used in the production of electronic quartz. Also, with a few

exceptions the characterization methods of electronic and optical material are similar.

Therefore, IEC 60758 serves as the proper basis for including addenda related to quartz crystal

for optical applications.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60758:2016 © IEC 2016 – 9 –
SYNTHETIC QUARTZ CRYSTAL –
SPECIFICATIONS AND GUIDELINES FOR USE
1 Scope

This International Standard applies to synthetic quartz single crystals intended for

manufacturing piezoelectric elements for frequency control, selection and optical applications.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.
IEC 60068-1:2013, Environmental testing – Part 1: General and guidance

IEC 60122-1:2002, Quartz crystal units of assessed quality – Part 1: Generic specification

IEC 60410, Sampling plans and procedures for inspection by attributes

IEC 61994 (all parts), Piezoelectric and dielectric devices for frequency control and selection –

Glossary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 61994 and the

following apply.
3.1
hydrotherm
...

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