Sensing devices for non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) systems

IEC TS 63297:2021 is an attempt to provide classification of NILM sensing devices for use in NILM systems, according to the state of the art of NILM technologies.
The classification of NILM analytics and NILM systems, as well as performance indicators for NILM systems, can be considered in the future.
NILM systems produce estimated disaggregation into energy usages. When accurate measurement and analysis of energy consumption and/or other electrical parameters is needed (e.g. for monitoring the electrical installation), systems based on standardized measuring devices (e.g. PMD, PQI or meters) are used.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Mar-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
05-Mar-2021
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IEC TS 63297
Edition 1.0 2021-03
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
Sensing devices for non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) systems
IEC TS 63297:2021-03(en)
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TS 63297
Edition 1.0 2021-03
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
Sensing devices for non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) systems
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 17.220.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-9444-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TS 63297:2021  IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Elements of a NILM system ............................................................................................. 8

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 NILM sensing device ............................................................................................... 9

4.3 NILM analytics ........................................................................................................ 9

5 Classification of NILM sensing devices (NSD) ................................................................. 9

5.1 General ................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Definition of NSD classes...................................................................................... 10

5.3 Other NSD parameters .......................................................................................... 11

6 Operation of NILM systems............................................................................................ 12

Annex A (informative) Introduction of NILM process ............................................................. 13

A.1 Example of NILM process ..................................................................................... 13

A.2 Data and techniques for NILM ............................................................................... 13

A.3 Examples of NILM sensing devices (NSD) ............................................................ 14

Annex B (informative) Data bit rate ...................................................................................... 16

Annex C (informative) Measuring equipment compared to NILM sensing devices ................. 17

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 17

C.2 Types of measuring equipment ............................................................................. 17

C.3 Overview of requirements for measuring equipment .............................................. 17

C.4 Relationship between NILM sensing devices and measuring equipment ................ 19

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 20

Figure 1 – Principle of non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) ................................................... 5

Figure 2 – Elements of a NILM system .................................................................................... 8

Figure 3 – Component view of a NILM sensing device (NSD) .................................................. 9

Figure 4 – Framework for NILM systems operation ............................................................... 12

Figure A.1 – Example of NILM System implementation ......................................................... 13

Figure A.2 – Example of NILM sensing device installed in a home panelboard ...................... 14

Figure C.1 – Notion of accuracy class ................................................................................... 18

Table 1 – Classification of NSDs according to the input sampling frequency ......................... 10

Table 2 – Classification of NSDs according to output data rate ............................................. 10

Table 3 – Classification of NSDs according to the data bit rate ............................................. 10

Table A.1 – Example of data and techniques used in NILM systems ..................................... 14

Table A.2 – Examples of NILM sensing devices and typical specification .............................. 15

Table B.1 – Examples of data bit rate calculation .................................................................. 16

Table C.1 – Overview of measuring equipment ..................................................................... 17

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IEC TS 63297:2021  IEC 2021 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SENSING DEVICES FOR NON-INTRUSIVE
LOAD MONITORING (NILM) SYSTEMS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

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rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC TS 63297 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 85: Measuring equipment for

electrical and electromagnetic quantities. It is a Technical Specification.
The text of this Technical Specification is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
85/727/DTS 85/750/RVDTS

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.

The language used for the development of this Technical Specification is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC TS 63297:2021  IEC 2021

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• transformed into an International standard,
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
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IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates that it

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contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC TS 63297:2021  IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM), or non-intrusive appliance and load monitoring (NIALM),

is a process for providing estimated energy usage, e.g. by type of use (heating, cooling, etc.)

or type of appliance (microwave, etc.) based on load signatures at a single point in the

installation.

NILM systems can be used to survey the specific uses of electrical power in homes, buildings

or industrial areas (see Figure 1).
Figure 1 – Principle of non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM)

At the moment, NILM systems are essentially used in AC distribution networks, but DC networks

are not excluded.
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– 6 – IEC TS 63297:2021  IEC 2021
SENSING DEVICES FOR NON-INTRUSIVE
LOAD MONITORING (NILM) SYSTEMS
1 Scope

This Technical Specification is an attempt to provide classification of NILM sensing devices for

use in NILM systems, according to the state of the art of NILM technologies.

The classification of NILM analytics and NILM systems, as well as performance indicators for

NILM systems, can be considered in the future.
NILM systems produce estimated disaggregation into energy usages. When accurate

measurement and analysis of energy consumption and/or other electrical parameters is needed

(e.g. for monitoring the electrical installation), systems based on standardized measuring

devices (e.g. PMD, PQI or meters) are used.

NOTE Standardized measuring devices have guaranteed accuracy over a specified range and have limited

deviations in presence of influence quantities (temperature, frequency deviations, etc.) in addition to safety and

constructional requirements. See Annex C for more information.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
electrical parameter
electrical quantity to be measured or estimated

EXAMPLE RMS value of current, RMS value of voltage, active power, reactive power, harmonics, power quality

related parameters, etc.
3.2
estimated value

value of an electrical parameter (e.g. current, power, energy related to a specific usage)

produced by a NILM sensing device or a NILM system

Note 1 to entry: Estimated values are typically less accurate than values measured with standardized measuring

devices (e.g. PMD, PQI, meters).
3.3
measured value

value of an electrical parameter (e.g. current, power, energy related to a specific usage)

produced by a measuring device complying with an electrical measurement standard
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC TS 63297:2021  IEC 2021 – 7 –

Note 1 to entry: Examples of measuring devices complying with an electrical measurement standard include PMD,

PQI and meters.
3.4
load signature

pattern in the data produced by a NILM sensing device that can be attributed to a specific type

of load or energy usage
3.5
non-intrusive load monitoring
NILM

process for providing estimated categorization of energy usage based on load signatures

obtained at a single point in the installation
3.6
NILM analytics

process for analysing data produced by a NILM sensing device and providing information about

energy usage

Note 1 to entry: NILM analytics can be performed within the NILM sensing device and/or in the cloud.

3.7
NILM sensing device
NSD

device connected to the electrical installation and producing data to be used by NILM analytics

3.8
NILM system
combination of a NILM sensing device and NILM analytics
3.9
power metering and monitoring device
PMD

combination in one or more devices of several functional modules dedicated to metering and

monitoring electrical parameters in energy distribution systems or electrical installations, used

for applications such as energy efficiency, power monitoring and network performance

Note 1 to entry: Under the generic term “monitoring” are also included functions of recording, alarm management,

etc.

Note 2 to entry: PMDs have a known measurement uncertainty over a specified measurement range and are robust

to influence quantities and industrial environments

[SOURCE: IEC 61557-12:2018, 3.1.1, modified – Note 2 to entry has been modified and Note

3 to entry has been deleted]
3.10
power quality instrument
PQI

instrument complying with IEC 62586-1 whose main function is to measure, record and possibly

monitor power quality parameters in power supply systems, and whose measuring methods

(class A or class S) are defined in IEC 61000-4-30

Note 1 to entry: PQIs have a known measurement uncertainty over a specified measurement range and are robust

to influence quantities and industrial environments. They often also have transient event detection and waveform

capture capabilities.

[SOURCE: IEC 62586-1:2017, 3.1.1, modified – A reference to IEC 62586-1 and Note 1 to entry

have been added]
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– 8 – IEC TS 63297:2021  IEC 2021
3.11
gapless measurement

measurement technique where the measurement is performed continuously without gap, that

is, using contiguous measurement windows

Note 1 to entry: For digital techniques and for a given sampling rate, no sample shall be missing in the measurement

processing.

Note 2 to entry: When gapless measurement techniques are used, no assumption is made regarding the stability of

the signal, as opposed to non-gapless measurement techniques, where the signal is considered to be stable during

the time where no measurement is done.
4 Elements of a NILM system
4.1 General
A NILM system comprises (see Figure 2):

– a NILM sensing device (NSD) connected to the electrical installation and producing data

relevant for load signature identification;

– NILM analytics using the data output from the NSD and producing information to the users

about their energy usage.
Figure 2 – Elements of a NILM system

The performance of the NILM system depends on the characteristics of the NILM sensing device

(NSD) and on the characteristics of t
...

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